Ranina ranina

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Ranina ranina
Ranina ranina.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Brachyura
Family: Raninidae
Genus: Ranina
Lamarck, 1801
Species: R. ranina
Binomial name
Ranina ranina
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
  • Cancer ranina Linnaeus, 1758
  • Ranina dentata Latreille, 1825
  • Ranina serrata Lamarck, 1801
  • Ranina cristata Desjardins, 1835
  • Albunea scabra Weber, 1795 (nomen nudum)

Ranina ranina, also known as the frog crab, spanner crab, red frog crab, or kona crab,[1][2] is a species of edible crab,[3] found throughout tropical and subtropical habitats [4] Ranina ranina populations have been surveyed to avoid overfishing and are currently stable. [4] The largest commercial fishery of this crab is found off the eastern coast of Australia where the annual commercial catch an estimated at 3,592 metric tons [5] Although Ranina ranina is a target of commercial fishing operations, little is known about the species' biology, population dynamics and ecology. [6] Ranina Ranina is easily distinguished from other crab species in its habitat due to its red carapace and elongated mid section. [7] Attempts have been made to grow Ranina Ranina in captivity, but have so far been met with little success. [8] As such commercial fisheries of Ranina Ranina are likely to continue being the only supplies of the crab, since captive growing and breeding is not an option. It is the only extant species in its genus.[5]

Description[edit]

It may grow up to 150 millimetres (5.9 in) long, and may weigh up to 900 grams (2.0 lb).[6] The carapace is wider at the front, reddish brown in color, with ten white spots.[4] Ranina ranina is mainly nocturnal, and remains buried in the sand during the day.[7] When waiting for prey Ranina ranina will cover itself with sand, but leave its eye and mouth parts sticking out to help detect its food . [14]

Range[edit]

Spanner crabs inhabit coastal waters along the east coast of Australia, from Yeppoon in Queensland to Nowra on the south coast of New South Wales. There is also a population to the north of Perth in Western Australia. [10] Ranina ranina is abundant in the coastal waters of Southwestern Mindanao, Philippines. These crabs are also found in the eastern coast of Africa, across the Indian Ocean to Indonesia, Japan and Hawaii. [11]

Habitat[edit]

Ranina Ranina inhabit depths of 10–100 m on sandy-smooth substrata in which they bury themselves [12] from where they attack small bottom-dwelling fish. [13] Offshore areas within this range in a subtropical or tropical environment serves as a habitat for Ranina Ranina, but they must have ample sand for the Ranina ranina to flourish, as covering themselves in sand is instrumental in their method of catching prey.

Breeding[edit]

Like most crabs, Ranina ranina produces a large number of offspring. However, offspring mortality rates are always high, even without the interference of predators. In captivity, Ranina ranina offspring mortality rates are high enough to discourage the possibility of cultivating them. [15]

Value[edit]

In Japan, Ranina ranina is an important resource for local fisheries due to its good taste. [16] In Zamboanga City, in the southern Philippines is a delicacy as well as a favorite of Tourists. [17] The popularity of the crab has caused the price to skyrocket in the Philippines, and currently sits at about 300 PhP per kilogram in local markets (6.74 USD) [18]. Ranina ranina is fished commercially to a limited extent in Japan and the Philippines, but the largest commercial fisher of this crab is Australia. [19].

Fishery[edit]

The species is commercially exploited over much of its range, and in Queensland, Australia, only adults above 100 mm (3.9 in) carapace length may be landed.[8] In the Philippines in 2008, prices for Ranina ranina were around 200–300 pesos per kilogram.[4]

References[edit]

4.^McGilvray, J., Brown, I., Jebreen, E., and Smallwood, D. (2006). Fisheries Long Term Monitoring Program Summary of spanner crab (Ranina ranina) survey results: 2000-2005. Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland, QI06095, Brisbane, Australia.

5.^Queensland Fisheries (2010) “Stock Status of Queensland's Fisheries Resources 2009-10” Queensland Australia: Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation. 65

6.^Kirkwood, J. M.,Brown, I. W.,Gaddes, S. W., Hoyle, S. (2005). “Juvenile length-at-age data reveal that spanner crabs (Ranina ranina) grow slowly.” Marine Biology, 147: 331–339

7.^NSW Government Department of Primary Indurstries, “Spanner Crab, Ranina ranina” accessed 2/21/2014, http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/

8.^Phyu Phyu Than, Taizo Sakata, Kazuhisa Hamada & Keinosuke Imaizumi (1999). “Characteristics of dominant microflora in aquaculture tanks of juvenile red frog crab, Ranina Ranina” Mem. Fac. Fish Kagoshima University, 特別1-6

9.^Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world"(PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology17: 1–286.

10.^NSW Government Department of Primary Indurstries, “Spanner Crab, Ranina ranina” accessed 2/21/2014, http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/

11.^Juliana C. Baylon, Oliver D. Tito (2012) “Natural Diet and Feeding Habits of the Red Frog Crab (Ranina ranina) from Southwestern Mindanao, Philippines” Philip. Agric. Scientist Vol. 95 No. 4, 391–8

12.^Sydney Fish Market, “Species information: Spanner Crab” (2013) www.sydneyfishmarket.com

13.^Sydney Fish Market, “Species information: Spanner Crab” (2013) www.sydneyfishmarket.com

14.^Phyu Phyu Than, Taizo Sakata, Kazuhisa Hamada & Keinosuke Imaizumi (1999). “Characteristics of dominant microflora in aquaculture tanks of juvenile red frog crab, Ranina Ranina” Mem. Fac. Fish Kagoshima University, 特別1-6

15.^Phyu Phyu Than, Taizo Sakata, Kazuhisa Hamada & Keinosuke Imaizumi (1999). “Characteristics of dominant microflora in aquaculture tanks of juvenile red frog crab, Ranina Ranina” Mem. Fac. Fish Kagoshima University, 特別1-6

16.^Phyu Phyu Than, Taizo Sakata, Kazuhisa Hamada & Keinosuke Imaizumi (1999). “Characteristics of dominant microflora in aquaculture tanks of juvenile red frog crab, Ranina Ranina” Mem. Fac. Fish Kagoshima University, 特別1-6

17.^Oliver D. Tito, & Jonalyn P. Alanano (2008) “Some Aspects of Fisheries and Biology of Spanner Crab, (Ranina ranina, Linneaus) in Maluso, Basilan Province, Pholippines.” Mem. Fac. Fish Kagoshima University, 特別号: 40-48

18.^Oliver D. Tito, & Jonalyn P. Alanano (2008) “Some Aspects of Fisheries and Biology of Spanner Crab, (Ranina ranina, Linneaus) in Maluso, Basilan Province, Pholippines.” Mem. Fac. Fish Kagoshima University, 特別号: 40-48

19.^Oliver D. Tito, & Jonalyn P. Alanano (2008) “Some Aspects of Fisheries and Biology of Spanner Crab, (Ranina ranina, Linneaus) in Maluso, Basilan Province, Pholippines.” Mem. Fac. Fish Kagoshima University, 特別号: 40-48

  1. ^ "Species information: Spanner Crab". Sidney fish market. 2013. 
  2. ^ Phyu Phyu Than, Taizo Sakata, Kazuhisa Hamada & Keinosuke Imaizumi (1999). "Characteristics of dominant microflora in aquaculture tanks of juvenile red frog crab, "Ranina Ranina" (L)". Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries: 1–6. 
  3. ^ S. L. Slattery, A. L. Ford & S. M. Nottingham (1992). "Cooking methods for spanner crabs Ranina ranina (L) and their effect on cadmium residues". Food Australia 44 (5): 206–210. 
  4. ^ a b c Oliver D. Tito & Jonalyn P. Alanano (2008). "Some aspects of fisheries and biology of spanner crab (Ranina ranina, Linnaeus) in Maluso, Basilan Province, Philippines". Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries: 40–48. 
  5. ^ Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 17: 1–286. 
  6. ^ "Spanner crab Ranina ranina". Fishing and Aquaculture. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. 2005. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  7. ^ Phyu Phyu Than, Taizo Sakata, Kazuhisa Hamada & Keinosuke Imaizumi (1999). "'Characteristics of dominant microflora in aquaculture tanks of juvenile red frog crab, Ranina ranina". Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries: 1–6. 
  8. ^ J. M. Kirkwood, I. W. Brown, S. W. Gaddes & S. Hoyle (2005). "Juvenile length-at-age data reveal that spanner crabs (Ranina ranina) grow slowly". Marine Biology 147 (2): 331–339. doi:10.1007/s00227-005-1574-0.