|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Bioavailability||35 to 50%|
|Metabolism||Hepatic, CYP extensively involved|
|Excretion||Renal (75%) and fecal (25%)|
|(what is this?)|
Some contraindications for ranolazine are related to its metabolism and are described under Drug Interactions. Additionally, in clinical trials ranolazine slightly increased QT interval in some patients and the FDA label contains a warning for doctors to beware of this effect in their patients. The drug's effect on the QT interval is increased in the setting of liver dysfunction; thus it is contraindicated in persons with mild to severe liver disease.
Ranolazine is metabolized by the CYP3A enzyme. It also inhibits another metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome CYP2D6. For this reason, the doses of ranolazine and drugs that interact with those enzymes need to be adjusted when they are used by the same patient.
Mechanism of action
Ranolazine inhibits the late inward sodium current in heart muscle. Inhibiting that current leads to reductions in elevated intracellular calcium levels. This in turn leads to reduced tension in the heart wall, leading to reduced oxygen requirements for the muscle.
Ranolazine was approved by the FDA in January 2006, for the treatment of patients with chronic angina as a second-line treatment in addition to other drugs. In 2007 the label was updated to make ranolazine a first-line treatment, alone or with other drugs. In April 2008 ranolazine was approved by the European EMEA for use in angina.
In 1996, CV Therapeutics licensed the North American and European rights to ranolazine from Syntex, a subsidiary of Roche, which had discovered the drug and had developed it through Phase II trials in angina. In 2006, CV Therapeutics acquired the remaining worldwide rights to ranolazine from Roche. In 2008 CV Therapeutics exclusively licensed rights for ranolazine in Europe and some other countries to Menarini. In 2009, Gilead acquired CV Therapeutics. In 2013 Gilead expanded the partnership with Menarini to include additional countries, including those in Asia.
- Banon D et al. The usefulness of ranolazine for the treatment of refractory chronic stable angina pectoris as determined from a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Cardiol. 2014 Mar 15;113(6):1075-82. PMID 24462341
- Kloner RA, et al. Efficacy and safety of ranolazine in patients with chronic stable angina. Postgrad Med. 2013 Nov;125(6):43-52. PMID 24200760
- "Prescribing Information (2013)" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- "FDA Approves New Treatment for Chest Pain". FDA News. 2006-01-31. Retrieved 2011-03-02.
- D Noble and P J Noble. Late sodium current in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease: consequences of sodium–calcium overload Heart. Jul 2006; 92(Suppl 4): iv1–iv5. PMID 16775091 PMCID 1861316
- EMEA Ranolazine page at the EMEA
- CV Therapeutics press release. April 1, 1996 CV Therapeutics Licenses Late-Stage Anti-Anginal Drug from Syntex (U.S.A.), an Affiliate of Roche Holding Ltd.
- CV Therapeutics, 22 June 2006 CV Therapeutics Acquires Rights to Ranolazine in Asia
- Thepharmaletter.com 22 September 2008 Italy's Menarini to pay up to $385 million for rights to CV Thera's Ranexa
- Reuters, via the New York Times. 12 March 2009. Gilead, a White Knight, to Buy CV Therapeutics
- Menarini press release. 18 June 2013 Memarii Group announces agreement with Gilead Sciences to commercialize Ranexa® (ranolazine) in 50 new countries