Rape in the United States
Nearly 90,000 people reported being raped in the United States in 2008. There is an arrest rate of 25%. The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics states that 91% of rape victims are female and 9% are male, and 99% of rapists are male, using the definition of rape as penetration by the perpetrator.
There is no nationally accepted definition of rape in the United States, instead each state has their own laws. These definitions can vary considerably, but most of them do not use the term rape any more, instead using, "sexual assault", "criminal sexual conduct", "sexual abuse", "sexual battery", etc. There is, however, one universal definition of rape throughout the United States Military in the United States Uniform Code of Military Justice [Title 10, Subtitle A, Chapter 47X, Section 920, Article 120], which defines rape as:
|“||(a) Rape.— Any person subject to this chapter who commits a sexual act upon another person by —
(1) using unlawful force against that other person;
(2) using force causing or likely to cause death or grievous bodily harm to any person;
(3) threatening or placing that other person in fear that any person will be subjected to death, grievous bodily harm, or kidnapping;
(4) first rendering that other person unconscious; or
(5) administering to that other person by force or threat of force, or without the knowledge or consent of that person, a drug, intoxicant, or other similar substance and thereby substantially impairing the ability of that other person to appraise or control conduct;
is guilty of rape and shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.
According to United States Department of Justice document Criminal Victimization in the United States, there were overall 191,670 victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2005. The U.S. Department of Justice compiles statistics on crime by race, but only between and among people categorized as black or white.
Rape prevalence among women in the U.S. (the percentage of women who experienced rape at least once in their lifetime so far) is in the range of 15%–20%, with different studies agreeing with each other. (National Violence against Women survey, 1995, found 17.6% prevalence rate; a 2007 national study for the Department of Justice on rape found 18% prevalence rate.) According to a March 2013 report from the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics, from 1995 to 2010, the estimated annual rate of female rape or sexual assault declined 58%, from 5.0 victimizations per 1,000 females age 12 or older to 2.1 per 1,000. Assaults on young women aged 12-17 declined from 11.3 per 1,000 in 1994-1998 to 4.1 per 1,000 in 2005-2010; assaults on women aged 18-34 also declined over the same period, from 7.0 per 1,000 to 3.7.
Most rape research and reporting to date has concentrated on male-female forms of rape. Research on male-male and female-male has commenced. However, almost no research has been done on female-female rape.
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics state that 91% of rape victims are female and 9% are male, and 99% of arrestees for rape are male. However, these statistics are based on reports of "forced penetration", female on male attacks are categorized as "made to penetrate" (unless penetration of a male occurs using an object or other means) and are not included in official rape statistics, but are assessed separately under sexual violence. Denov (2004) states that societal responses to the issue of female perpetrators of sexual assault "point to a widespread denial of women as potential sexual aggressors that could work to obscure the true dimensions of the problem."
Rape is usually intraracial. The National Violence Against Women Survey found that 34% of American Indian female respondents had experienced attempted or completed rape in their lifetime. The rapist was more likely to be a non-Native than a Native.
The 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey found that 13.1% of lesbians, 46.1% of bisexual women, and 17.4% of heterosexual women have been raped.
Rate of victimization
According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, the adjusted per-capita victimization rate of rape has declined from about 2.4 per 1000 people (age 12 and above) in 1980 (that is, 2.4 persons from each 1000 people 12 and older were raped during that year) to about 0.4 per 1000 people, a decline of about 85%. There are several possible explanations for this, including stricter laws, education on security for women, and a correlation with the rise in Internet pornography. But other government surveys, such as the Sexual Victimization of College Women study, critique the NCVS on the basis it includes only those acts perceived as crimes by the victim, and report a much higher victimization rate.
Some types of rape are excluded from official reports altogether, because a significant number of rapes go unreported even when they are included as reportable rapes, and also because a significant number of rapes reported to the police do not advance to prosecution. In 2012, the FBI updated its definition of rape to include male rape and non-forcible rape.
Rapes are rarely reported to law enforcement. The 2007 report for the Department of Justice shows only 18% cases of forcible rape reported in the general population sample (even less so for drug-facilitated rape, 10%; numbers for the sample of college women are yet lower, with 16% reporting for forcible rape.) One factor relating to this under reporting may be the misconception that most rapes are committed by strangers. In reality, studies indicate the following, widely variable, numbers:
Relationship of victim to rapist
|Source:||Current or former intimate partner||Another relative||Friend or acquaintance||Stranger|
|US Bureau of Justice statistics||26%||7%||38%||26%|
About four out of ten sexual assaults take place at the victim's own home.
In the United States, the principle of dual sovereignty applies to rape, as to other crimes. If the rape is committed within the borders of a state, that state has jurisdiction. If the victim is a federal official, an ambassador, consul, or other foreign official under the protection of the United States, or if the crime took place on federal property or involved crossing state borders, or in a manner that substantially affects interstate commerce or national security, then the federal government also has jurisdiction.
If a crime is not committed within any state, such as in the District of Columbia or on a naval or U.S.-flagged merchant vessel in international waters, then federal jurisdiction is exclusive. In cases where the rape involves both state and federal jurisdictions, the offender can be tried and punished separately for each crime without raising issues of double jeopardy.
Because the United States comprises 51 jurisdictions, each with its own criminal code, this section treats only the crime of rape in the federal courts and does not deal with state-by-state specifics. Federal law does not use the term "rape". Rape is grouped with all forms of non-consensual sexual acts under chapter 109a of the United States Code (18 U.S.C. §§ 2241–2248).
Under federal law, the punishment for rape can range from a fine to life imprisonment. The severity of the punishment is based on the use of violence, the age of the victim, and whether drugs or intoxicants were used to override consent. If the perpetrator is a repeat offender the law prescribes automatically doubling the maximum sentence.
Kennedy v. Louisiana, 554 U.S. ___ (2008) was a decision by the U.S. Supreme Court that held that the Eighth Amendment's cruel and unusual punishment clause did not permit a state to punish the crime of rape with the death penalty if the victim does not die and death was not intended, therefore if a person is convicted of rape he or she is not eligible for the death penalty according to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Kennedy v. Louisiana 554 U.S. ___ (2008).
|Description||Fine||Imprisonment (years)||Life imprisonment|
|Rape using violence or the threat of violence to override consent||unlimited||0 – unlimited||yes|
|Rape by causing fear in the victim for themselves or for another person to override consent||unlimited||0 – unlimited||yes|
|Rape by giving a drug or intoxicant to a person that renders them unable to give consent||unlimited||0–15||no|
|Statutory rape involving an adult perpetrator||unlimited||0–15||no|
|Statutory rape involving an adult perpetrator with a previous conviction||unlimited||0 – unlimited||yes|
|Statutory rape involving a perpetrator who is a minor||unlimited||0–15||no|
|When a person causes the rape by a third person||unlimited||0–10||no|
|When a person causes the rape of a child under 12 by a third person||unlimited||0 - unlimited||yes|
Medical personnel in the United States of America collect evidence for potential rape cases by using rape kits. In some parts of the United States of America, the rape kits are not always sent off for testing.
The reasons rape kits aren't often used are:
- Rape kits cost up to $1,500 a kit.
- A decision not to prosecute
- Victims who recant or are unwilling to move forward with a case
Treatment of rape victims
Insurance companies have denied coverage for rape victims, claiming a variety of bases for their actions.
In one case, after a victim mentioned she had previously been raped 17 years before, an insurance company refused to pay for her rape exam and also refused to pay for therapy or medication for trauma, because she "had been raped before" – indicating a preexisting condition.
VAWA 2005 requires states to ensure that a victim receives access to a forensic examination free of charge regardless of whether the victim chooses to report a sexual assault (for any reason) to law enforcement or cooperate with the criminal-justice system. All states must comply with the VAWA 2005 requirement regarding forensic examination in order to receive STOP Violence Against Women Formula Grant Program (STOP Program) funds. Under 42 U.S.C. § 3796gg-4, a State is not entitled to funds under the STOP Program unless the State or another governmental entity "incurs the full out-of- pocket cost of forensic medical exams ... for victims of sexual assault."
This means that, if no other governmental entity or insurance carrier pays for the exam, states are required to pay for forensic exams if they wish to receive STOP Program funds. The goal of this provision is to ensure that the victim is not required to pay for the exam. The effect of the VAWA 2005 forensic examination requirement is to allow victims time to decide whether to pursue their case. A sexual assault is a traumatic event. Some victims are unable to decide whether they want to cooperate with law enforcement in the immediate aftermath of a sexual assault. Because forensic evidence can be lost as time progresses, such victims should be encouraged to have the evidence collected as soon as possible without deciding to initiate a report. This provision ensures victims receive timely medical treatment.
|This section requires expansion. (November 2009)|
Feminism politicized and publicized rape as an institution in the late 20th-century. "New York Radical Feminists held a Rape Speak Out, where women discussed rape as an expression of male violence against women, and organized women to establish rape crisis centers and work towards reforming existing rape laws. This was the first attempt to focus political attention on the issue of rape."
- List of anti-sexual assault organizations in the United States
- Combined DNA Index System
- Northern Virginia Sun – newspaper that published the names of rape victims
- Debbie Smith Act
- Extremities, a play (and later film with Farrah Fawcett) in which a would-be rape victim and her roommates, given the complexities of the judicial system, debate reporting the attack
- National Clearinghouse on Marital and Date Rape (defunct)
- Paul Martin Andrews, an American rape victim and an advocate for other rape victims.
- Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN)
- Prison rape in the United States
- Sexual assault in the U.S. military
- Tailhook scandal
- 2003 U.S. Air Force Academy sexual assault scandal
- "Exclusive: Rape in America: Justice Denied". CBS News. 9 November 2009.
- http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/SOO.PDF page 10
- United States Code: Title 10,920. Art. 120. Rape, sexual assault, and other sexual misconduct | LII / Legal Information Institute. Law.cornell.edu (2011-05-18). Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- United States Department of Justice document, (table 26)[dead link]
- Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Drug-facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape: A National Study. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- "Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994-2010". JournalistsResource.org, retrieved March 24, 2012
- Berzofsky, Marcus; Krebs, Christopher; Langton, Lynn; Planty, Michael; Smiley-McDonald, Hope (year-tk). "Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994-2010". Bureau of Justice Statistics.
- Myriam S. Denov, Perspectives on Female Sex Offending: A Culture of Denial (Ashgate Publishing 2004) – ISBN.
- http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/NISVS_SOfindings.pdf. Missing or empty
- http://www.nationallgbtcancernetwork.com/media/pdf/1_in_4_trans_turned_away.pdf. Missing or empty
- D'Amato, Anthony (23 June 2006). "Porn Up, Rape Down". Social Sciences Research Network.
- Bonnie S. Fisher, Francis T. Cullen, Michael G. Turner. Sexual Victimization of College Women
- Dick Haws, "The Elusive Numbers on False Rape," Columbian Journalism Review (November/December 1997).
- Alberto R. Gonzales et al. Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Rape Victimization: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. January 2006
- Bureau of Justice Statistics Home page. Ojp.usdoj.gov. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- United States Code. Caselaw.lp.findlaw.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Harvard University U.S. Rape Law. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Rape Laws by State
- Rape Victim's Choice: Risk AIDS or Health Insurance?. Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Ivory, Danielle (November 2009). "Rape Victim's Choice: Risk AIDS or Health Insurance?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 December 2009. "Other patients and therapists wrote in with allegations that insurers are routinely denying long-term mental health care to women who have been sexually assaulted."
- Fact Sheets. US Department of Justice
- Protess, Ben. (2009-07-30) Despite Promises, Some Rape Victims Stuck Paying Exam Bills | The Huffington Post Investigative Fund. Huffpostfund.org. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Rape Victim Billed For Evidence Costs – Houston News Story – KPRC Houston. Click2houston.com (2009-05-07). Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Klein, Ethel (1984). Gender Politics: from consciousness to mass politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 209. ISBN 0-674-34197-X.
- Brownmiller, Susan (June 1993) . Against our will: men, women and rape. Fawcett Columbine. p. 472. ISBN 0-449-90820-8.
- Rape Abuse Incest Network
- State Rape Statutes (Summary Chart) updated 5/1/03 from NDAA's American Prosecutors Research Institute (APRI)