Statistics on rape and other sexual assaults are commonly available in advanced countries and are becoming more common throughout the world. Inconsistent definitions of rape, different rates of reporting, recording, prosecution and conviction for rape create controversial statistical disparities, and lead to accusations that many rape statistics are unreliable or misleading. According to USA Today reporter Kevin Johnson "no other major category of crime – not murder, assault or robbery – has generated a more serious challenge of the credibility of national crime statistics" than rape.
A United Nations statistical report compiled from government sources showed that more than 250,000 cases of rape or attempted rape were recorded by police annually. The reported data covered 65 countries. In some jurisdictions, male-female rape is the only form of rape counted in the statistics. The attitude of the police in many countries often discourages victims from reporting rape: one study in Turkey found that 33% of police officers agreed with the assertion that "some women deserve rape" and 66% agreed that "the physical appearance and behaviors of women tempt men to rape."
In many parts of the world, rape is very rarely reported, due to the extreme social stigma cast on women who have been raped, or the fear of being disowned by their families, or subjected to violence, including honor killings. Furthermore, in countries where adultery and/or premarital sex are illegal, victims of rape can face prosecution under these laws, if there is not sufficient evidence to prove a rape in the court. Even if they can prove their rape case, evidence during investigation may surface showing that they were not virgins at the time of the rape, which, if they are unmarried, opens the door for prosecution.
Countries may or may not criminalize marital rape. However, even in many countries which do criminalize it, prosecutions for it are exceptionally rare, due to prevailing social views; in many parts of the world, the concept is very poorly understood, because sexual activity in marriage is considered an absolute right of the husband, that can be taken with or without the consent of his wife. The very act of a woman refusing to have sex with her husband is considered unthinkable: in one survey 74% of women in Mali said that a husband is justified to beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him.
- 1 Under-reporting
- 2 Afghanistan
- 3 Australia
- 4 Bangladesh
- 5 Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 6 Botswana
- 7 Burundi
- 8 Cambodia
- 9 Canada
- 10 China
- 11 Colombia
- 12 Democratic Republic of the Congo
- 13 Denmark
- 14 East Timor
- 15 Egypt
- 16 Ethiopia
- 17 Finland
- 18 Germany
- 19 Ghana
- 20 Iceland
- 21 India
- 22 Indonesia
- 23 Italy
- 24 Lesotho
- 25 Mexico
- 26 Netherlands
- 27 Nigeria
- 28 Norway
- 29 Pakistan
- 30 Papua New Guinea
- 31 Rwanda
- 32 South Africa
- 33 South Sudan
- 34 Sri Lanka
- 35 Sweden
- 36 Tanzania
- 37 Turkey
- 38 United Kingdom
- 39 United States
- 40 Yemen
- 41 Other
- 42 Rape statistics by country
- 43 References
- 44 Further reading
- 45 External links
The most common reasons given by victims for not reporting rapes are the belief that it is a personal or private matter, and that they fear reprisal from the assailant. A 2007 British government report says "Estimates from research suggest that between 75 and 95 percent of rape crimes are never reported to the police."
Rape in Afghanistan is a crime which can be legally prosecuted, but in practice it is very rarely reported, because of the immense risks that women face if they report it. Rape victims in the country face a double risk of being subjected to violence: on one hand they can become victims of honor killings perpetrated by their families, and on the other hand they can be victimized by the laws of the country: they can be charged with adultery, a crime that can be punishable by death. Furthermore, they can be forced by their families to marry their rapist. In 2011, Afghanistan made international news in regard to the story of a woman who was raped by a man, jailed for adultery, gave birth to a child in jail, and was then subsequently pardoned by president Hamid Karzai, and in the end married the man who raped her. In 2012, Afghanistan recorded 240 cases of honor killings and 160 cases of rape, but the number for both honor killings and rapes is estimated to be much higher. In 2013, in eastern Ghazni, a man attacked a woman and attempted to rape her, and as a result the relatives of the woman killed both the woman and the man in an honor killing. In Afghanistan, crimes such as adultery, rape and trafficking are often conflated with each other, and it is generally not acceptable for a woman and a man to be alone together (unless married or related), and if this happens the response can be very violent: an Afghan medical doctor and his female patient were attacked by an angry mob who threw stones at them after the two were discovered in his private examining room without a chaperon. Recently, the security forces have been also alleged to rape children in the country.
Non-consensual sexual penetration is termed "Rape" in Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and Tasmania; "Sexual Assault" in New South Wales; "Sexual intercourse without consent" in the ACT and the Northern Territory; "Sexual penetration without consent" in Western Australia. All these offenses are gender neutral and applicable in marriage. The laws in Australia have evolved from the English common law offense of rape, but have gradually changed, especially in the late 20th century.
The Australian Women's Safety Survey conducted by the Bureau of Statistics in 1996 involved a random sample 6,300 women aged 18 and over. It produced incidence finding of 1.9 per cent for sexual assault in the previous 12 months. Known men accounted for over two-thirds of assailants (68%). Only 15% of the assaulted women in the sample reported to the police.
Bangladesh has received criticism for its employment of the "two-finger test" in rape investigations. This test consists in a physical examination of women who report rape during which a doctor inserts two fingers in the woman's vagina to determine whether the woman is "habituated to sex". This examination has its origin in the country's British colonial-era laws dating back to 1872. This deters many women from reporting rape. More than 100 experts, including doctors, lawyers, police, and women's rights activists had signed a joint statement in 2013 asking for the test, which they called "demeaning", to be abolished, as it "does not provide any evidence that is relevant to proving the offence." This test is also performed in several other countries in the region, including India. 
The United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence asked men in rural and urban Bangladesh if they had forced a woman to have sex at any point in their lives. 14.1% of men in rural Bangladesh and 9.5% of men in urban Bangladesh said yes (10% averaged). 2.7% of men in rural Bangladesh and 0.5% (6/1252) in urban Bangladesh had raped in the past year. In rural Bangladesh 47.4% of rapists perpetrated more than once, 3.7% had four or more victims, and 40% first raped as a teenager. 82% of rural Bangladeshi and 79% of urban Bangladeshi men cited entitlement as their reason for rape. 61.2% of urban Bangladeshi men who had raped did not feel guilty or worried afterwards, and 95.1% experienced no legal consequences. 3.7% of men in rural Bangladesh had raped another man. 89.2% of urban Bangladeshi men answered 'agree' or 'strongly agree' to the statement 'if a woman doesn't physically fight back, it's not rape.' 
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In a 2009 study, 4.9% of 1244 women of 13–24 years reported having been raped in their lifetimes. 10.3% of 654 women reported that they had been raped in their lifetimes in a 2011 study. 4.6% had been raped in the past year. 3.9% of 613 men had been raped in their lifetimes and 4.2% had raped in the past year.
Rape is illegal. Marital rape was criminalized in 2009, albeit with a rather symbolic sentence of only 8 days imprisonment and a fine of 10.000 to 50.000 Fbu. The new 2009 Criminal Code also criminalized homosexuality which was legal before; but it also abolished the capital punishment in the country, therefore the new Code received mixed reactions from human rights organizations.
In Cambodia, rape is estimated by local and international NGOs to be common, but only a very small minority of these assaults are ever reported to authorities, due to the social stigma associated to being the victim of a sexual crime, and, in particular, to losing virginity before marriage (regardless of how this happened). From November 2008 to November 2009, police had recorded 468 cases of rape, attempted rape and sexual harassment, a 2.4 percent increase over the previous year. Breaking the Silence – Sexual Violence in Cambodia is a report produced by Amnesty International, and released in 2010, which examined the situation of sexual violence in Cambodia. The report found that, in the small minority of rapes which are reported, a very common response is for law-enforcement officials, including police and court staff, to arrange extralegal out-of-court 'agreements' between the victim and the perpetrator (or their families), in which the rapist pays a sum of money which is shared between the authorities and the victim (and her family), after which the victim has to withdraw any criminal complaint against the perpetrator, and public prosecutors close the case. When a rape is investigated, a complainant is generally expected to pay an extralegal sum of money to the authorities, to ensure that the court investigates the case, otherwise progress is slow, and it may take over two years for anything to happen. During the pre-trial period, there is always a risk that the perpetrator’s family will pay a bribe to secure his acquittal or reduced charge.
The UN reported results in 2013 from a study that they did in six Asia-Pacific countries about violence against women. 20.4% of Cambodian men said that they had raped a woman in their lifetime and 11.3% had raped in the past year. 3.3% had raped another man at some point and 23% had participated in gang rape, the largest percentage out of the nine areas surveyed. Cambodia was the only area where gang rape was the most commonly reported form of non-partner rape. 45% answered that sexual entitlement was their motive for raping a woman and 42% said they raped to punish a woman. 11.7% of rapists had raped 4 or more women. 52% first perpetrated rape as teenagers and 15.8% first did so under the age of 15. 44.5% of rapists experienced no legal consequences.
In Canadian colonies, rape was an offense at common law. The conceptualization of rape was based on English common law understanding of this offense. English legal precedent was very important. Canada got its first statutory definition of rape in 1892, under the 1892 Criminal Code, which read: "Rape is the act of a man having carnal knowledge of a woman who is not his wife without her consent, or with consent which has been extorted by threats or fear of bodily harm, or obtained by personating the woman’s husband, or by false and fraudulent representations as to the nature and quality of the act." A boy under 14 could not be convicted of rape. The rape law has remained virtually unchanged until 1983, when the criminal offense of "rape" was abolished and replaced by three sexual assault offenses. Unlike the previous rape offense, the sexual assault offenses are applicable in marriage and are gender neutral. These three offenses are:
- Sexual assault
- Sexual assault with a weapon, threats to a third party or causing bodily harm
- Aggravated sexual assault.
The most frequently cited research on sexual violence was conducted by Statistics Canada in 1992, which involved a national random sample of 12,300 women (Johnson and Sacco, 1995). The research found that over one in three women had experienced a sexual assault and that only 6% of sexual assaults were reported to the police. According to Justice Institute of British Columbia, one out of every 17 women is raped, 62% of rape victims were physically injured, 9% were beaten or disfigured.
The United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence asked men in urban and rural areas of China if they had ever forced a female to have sex. 22.2% said yes. 9.3% had done so in the past year. 55% of the men who had raped had done so more than once and 9% had raped four or more women. 86% cited sexual entitlement as their motive (the highest percentage in the study) and 57% answered that they raped out of boredom. 72.4% experienced no legal consequences. 1.7% had raped another man. 2.2% had participated in gang rape. 25% who had raped reported first doing so as a teenager, the lowest percentage in the study. 53.7% of men and 53.5% of women agreed or strongly agreed with the statement 'if a woman doesn't physically fight back, it's not rape.' 
The armed conflict in Colombia has resulted in increased sexual violence against women; and Colombian authorities have been accused of failing to investigate rape complaints and failing to control sexual attacks in the country. Marital rape was criminalized in 1996. Rape is very common among internally displaced women: it is reported that 1 in 5 of these women were raped.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
In eastern Congo, the prevalence and intensity of rape and other sexual violence is described as the worst in the world. It is estimated that there are as many as 200,000 surviving rape victims living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo today. A new study says more than 400,000 women are raped in the Democratic Republic of Congo annually. War rape in the Democratic Republic of Congo has frequently been described as a "weapon of war" by commentators. Louise Nzigire, a local social worker, states that “this violence was designed to exterminate the population.” Nzigire observes that rape has been a "cheap, simple weapon for all parties in the war, more easily obtainable than bullets or bombs." In an analysis of 2565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri, Bunia, between 2005 and 2006, 73% (95.2% of male victims) reported being raped by armed men. 74.5% experienced gang rape (89.3% of male and 73.9% of female victims), with attack by between 2 to 4 perpetrators being the most common scenario (58.9%) for both sexes. 48.6% of victims were attacked while doing daily domestic activities outside their homes.
In 2008, Amnesty International produced the report Case Closed - Rape and human rights in the Nordic countries. While this report criticized all countries (Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark), it expressed serious concerns in regard to Denmark, and, the organization has since engaged in a dialogue with the country in an attempt to convince it to change its laws. The Danish criminal provisions regarding sexual crimes, which have remained nearly unchanged during the last 30 years (unlike in other Western countries where sex legislation has changed dramatically during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s) have led Amnesty International to declare that "Danish legislation on rape and sexual violence conflicts with human rights principles concerning the need to protect an individual’s sexual and physical integrity and right to self-determination''". Danish laws on sexual crimes fall under a chapter called "Vice Crimes", unlike in most Western countries, where modern definitions such as "Crimes against sexual freedom", or "Crimes against sexual self-determination" or simply "Sexual offenses" have replaced archaic wordings which send the message that rape violates public morality or public order, rather than the rights of an individual to bodily integrity. The definition of rape is very narrow focusing on violence and excludes many situations dealing with other forms of abuse, which, according to the report, are considered rape in most other Western countries. However, the most severe problem with the Danish legislation is, according to Amnesty International, the fact that Denmark is one of few developed countries to maintain several marital exemptions in its legislation: while rape within marriage can be prosecuted (in fact Denmark was one of the first countries to allow for its prosecution), the definition of rape is very narrow and abusive sexual intercourse that falls outside the boundaries of rape is dealt under several other statues which explicitly state that the person commits a crime if he engages in "extra-marital sexual intercourse" with the victim, therefore excluding married victims. Furthermore, the law states that if the perpetrator enters into or continues a marriage or registered partnership with the victim after the rape, it gives grounds for reducing or remitting punishment. Amnesty International has called these provisions "disturbing". In 2011, Amnesty has stated that "Amnesty International has repeatedly urged the government [of Denmark] to bring legislation on rape in line with international law. It is very disappointing that Denmark has rejected related recommendations made in the review, referring to an expert review that has been pending for two years."
Rape is illegal in East Timor. Marital rape was made illegal in 2010, under the Law on Domestic Violence, Law No. 7/2010 which states that "Sexual violence is understood as any conduct that induces the person to witness, to maintain or participate in unwanted sexual relations, even within a marriage, through intimidation, threats, coercion or use of force, or which limits or nullifies the exercise of sexual and reproductive rights".
The UN claimed that thousands of East Timorese women were raped during the Indonesian occupation of East Timor and that rape was used by the Indonesian military as a weapon of war. The UN commission stated that: "Rape, sexual slavery and sexual violence were tools used as part of the campaign designed to inflict a deep experience of terror, powerlessness and hopelessness upon pro-independence supporters." 
Rape is illegal in Egypt; but marital rape is not a criminal offense. Unlike many other countries in the Middle East, Egypt has, in 1999, abolished the law which stipulated that a man could escape a rape conviction if he married his victim after the fact.
Women are generally fearful when it comes to reporting rape. Engy Ghozlan of Egyptian Centre for Women's Rights and others suggest that the number of rape cases is over 200,000 every year. Ghozlan further adds that rapes are not decreasing because young men lack adequate income and employment, so their marriages are delayed.
During the current Egyptian protests, rape has been carried out publicly, on 3 July 2013, it was reported that about 91 women were raped and sexually abused in Tahrir Square in 4 days. By some estimates, the figure was about 169.
Rape is a very serious problem in Ethiopia, and the country is infamous for the practice of marriage by abduction, with the prevalence of this practice in Ethiopia being one of the highest in the world. In many parts of Ethiopia, it is common for a man, working in co-ordination with his friends, to kidnap a girl or woman, sometimes using a horse to ease the escape. The abductor will then hide his intended bride and rape her until she becomes pregnant. As the father of the woman's child, the man can claim her as his wife. Subsequently, the kidnapper may try to negotiate a bride price with the village elders to legitimize the marriage. Girls as young as eleven years old are reported to have been kidnapped for the purpose of marriage.
Ethiopia is estimated to have one of the highest rates of violence against women in the world. A report by the UN found that women in Ethiopia are the most likely to suffer domestic violence at the hands of their partners, and that nearly 60% of Ethiopian women were subjected to sexual violence. The 2004 Criminal Code of Ethiopia creates the offense of rape, by Article 620, which states that: "Whoever compels a woman to submit to sexual intercourse outside wedlock, whether by the use of violence or grave intimidation, or after having rendered her unconscious or incapable of resistance, is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to fifteen years". There are also certain aggravated circumstances which lead to an increased punishment for rape. Apart from the criminal offense of rape, there are also other sexual offenses in the Criminal Code. The age of consent is 18. As can be seen above, a woman cannot charge her husband with rape. However, despite its shortcomings, the 2004 Criminal Code brings major improvements for women's rights in the country, by criminalizing several forms of violence against women, such as female genital mutilation, violence against pregnant women, marriage by abduction, child marriage, trafficking and sexual harassment, though Chapter III - Crimes Committed against life, person and health through harmful traditional practices (Articles 561 - to 570) and other provisions (Articles 587, 597, 625, 635, 637, 648). Article 564 - Violence Against a Marriage Partner or a Person Cohabiting in an Irregular Union is a major step forward.
The Ethiopian military has been accused of committing systematic rapes against civilians. Human Rights Watch has repeatedly claimed that the army has attacked, beaten, raped and killed civilians, something which the Ethiopian authorities have denied. However, US scientists said that satellite images confirmed reports that the Ethiopian military had burnt towns and villages in Ethiopia's Somali region.
According to Amnesty International, in Finland, fewer than 10% of rapes are estimated to be reported to the police. Like Germany (see below) Finland has been very slow to criminalize marital rape - it did so in 1994, after years of debate, being one of the last countries in the European Union to do. The issue of violence against women in Finland has been of major international interest and the situation has been described as a paradox, because otherwise the country has offered women high professional and social opportunities. According to Turku University law professor Kevät Nousiainen, women in Finland do not have as much support for domestic violence as in other European countries because women in Finland are expected to be independent and self-reliant; women in Finland tend to blame themselves after becoming victims of domestic violence, not because they believe they "provoked" their husband/partner, as in other cultures, but because they feel they had made a bad relational choice (in choosing that man for a relation). In Finland, convicted rapists receive very short penalties compared to other countries, although this may be due to the fact that Finland has one of the lowest incarceration rates in the world. During 2001-2003, the average sentence for rape was two years’ imprisonment, and only 63% of offenders served their sentences in prison, as 37% of sentences were conditional. The average sentence for aggravated rape was four years’ imprisonment. For the offense of coercion into sexual intercourse, sentences were most often one year conditional imprisonment, but only 4% of offenders went to prison.
Rape is illegal in Germany. A person commits rape if he/she employs either of these three types of coercion: 1. force; or 2. threat of imminent danger to life or limb; or 3. exploitation of a situation in which the victim is unprotected and at the mercy of the offender. Germany has been one of the last Western countries to criminalize marital rape, it did so only in 1997, after a lengthy political battle which started in the 1970s. The criminalization of marital rape has been delayed by political disagreement: even when there was consensus that it should be criminalized, there was disagreement between those who wanted it punished and prosecuted in the same way as non-marital rape and those who opposed this. These disagreements have delayed the criminalization until 1997, when rape in marriage was made illegal being treated in the same way as non-marital rape. In Germany the age of consent is 14, although some limitations do exist up to the age of 18 (regarding the exploitation of the lack of capacity for sexual self-determination of 14-15 y/o; and engaging in sexual activity with a person under 18 "by taking advantage of an exploitative situation"; or paying for sex with a minor under 18 - Section 182 of the Criminal Code). Chapter 13 of the Criminal Code is called "Offences against sexual self-determination" and consists of Sections 174 to 184 which define sexual crimes. In Germany, consensual incest between adults is illegal, and this law has gained international attention in the case of Patrick Stübing and his sister Susan, a case which reached the European Court of Human Rights, which ruled that Germany is entitled to ban incest.
Rape in Iceland is defined by Article 194 of the Penal Code which states: "Any person who has sexual intercourse or other sexual relations with a person by means of using violence, threats or other unlawful coercion shall be guilty of rape and shall be imprisoned for a minimum of 1 year and a maximum of 16 years. ‘Violence’ here refers to the deprivation of independence by means of confinement, drugs or other comparable means. Exploiting a person’s psychiatric disorder or other mental handicap, or the fact that, for other reasons, he or she is not in a condition to be able to resist the action or to understand its significance, in order to have sexual intercourse or other sexual relations with him or her, shall also be considered as rape, and shall result in the same punishment as specified in the first paragraph of this article."
Although a Nordic country, known for a high level of gender equality, Iceland has, until recently, maintained outdated provisions in its sexual offenses laws. Before 2007, the law in regard to rape and certain other sexual offenses stated that, if after the assault the victim and the perpetrator got married or entered into an informal cohabitation, then the punishment could be waived; if the assault took place between married or cohabiting partners, and following the act, the victim continued to live together with the perpetrator, then the punishment could also be waived. These provisions were repealed by Act No. 61/2007. Other legal changes which were made included the broadening of the definition of rape and other sexual offenses, and the raising of the age of consent to 15, from 14.
In 2008, the incidence of rapes recorded by the police was 21.6 per 100,000 people, according to data by UNODC. A 2010 study found that 6% of Icelandic women had suffered sexual violence in an intimate relationship during their lifetime.
Rape in India is one of India's most common crimes against women. Marital rape that occurs when spouses are living together can only be dealt under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 which only provides civil remedies to victims (it is a form of non-criminal domestic violence). Marital rape is not a criminal offense, except when spouses are separated. Rape cases in India have doubled between 1990 and 2008 Penile and non-penile penetration in bodily orifices of a woman by a man, without the consent of the woman, constitutes the offense of rape under the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013.
Sexual violence within marriage is common, with 20% of men admitting to forcing their wives or partners to have sex, in a survey by the Centre of Research on Women, US, and Instituto Promundon in Brazil. According to the National Crime Records Bureau, 24,206 rape cases were registered in India in 2011. A new case is reported every 20 minutes, Although the latest estimate suggest a new case every 22 minutes.
The United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence studied three different sites of Indonesia (Jakarta, rural Java, and Jayapura). In the rural area, the lifetime prevalence of perpetration of rape towards a female/females was 19.5% and gang rape 7%. When rapists were asked why they perpetrated their last non-partner rape, 76.5% of the men in the three areas averaged cited sexual entitlement, 55.2% entertainment-seeking, and 29.7% anger/punishment.
In Italy, traditional attitudes towards rape have been slow to change, although in recent years there have been many advances. During the first half of the 20th century, in Italy, like in many other places, rape victims were often expected and forced to marry their rapist. In 1965, Franca Viola, a 17-year-old girl from Sicily, created a sensation when she refused to marry the man who kidnapped and raped her. In refusing this "rehabilitating marriage" to the perpetrator, she went against the traditional social norms of the time which dictated such a "solution". The Criminal Code of Italy also supported this practice, by exonerating the rapist who married his victim. The article of law whereby a rapist could extinguish his crime by marrying his victim was abolished in 1981. The Franca Viola incident was made into a movie called La moglie più bella.
In 1999, in an infamous case that gained international attention, the Court of Cassation of Italy declared a man not guilty of the rape of a woman who was wearing tight jeans, claiming that it was impossible to forcibly remove tight jeans "without the collaboration of the person wearing them" if she resists. The court also equated the removal of the jeans with consent to sexual penetration. Following this ruling, there was outrage, both in Italy and abroad. In Italy, female politicians wore jeans to parliament in protest. It was only in 2008, in a new case, that the Court of Cassation overturned this ruling, admitting that women who wear tight jeans can indeed be raped.
In another case that sparked outrage, in 2006, the Court of Cassation ruled that a 41-year old man who raped his 14-year-old stepdaughter can seek to have his sentence reduced on mitigating circumstances, due to the fact that the girl had been already sexually active and "since the age of 13 had had many sexual relations with men of every age and it's right to assume that at the time of the encounter with the suspect her personality, from a sexual point of view, was much more developed than what one might normally expect from a girl of her age". UNICEF in Italy stated that the decision "seriously violates human rights and the dignity of a minor."
In a survey by United Nations, 14% of Italian women had experienced attempted rape and 9.6% had experienced rape in their lifetimes.
Rape is one of the Lesotho's main social issues. According to UNODC, the incidence of rapes recorded in 2008 by the police in Lesotho was the highest incidence of any country. In a study of 1,049 women, 33% said they had been raped by the age of 18. In 66% of cases the rapist was a boyfriend. In the 2009 DHS survey 15.7% of men said that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she refuses to have sex with him, while 16% said a husband is justified to use force to have sex. HIV/AIDS in Lesotho is a very serious problem, with 23.1% of adults aged 15 to 49 living with it. In a study, researches have concluded that "Given the high prevalence of HIV in Lesotho, programs should address women's right to control their sexuality."
Mexico has a federal law, as well as state laws. Mexican laws have been modernized significantly from the 1990s onwards. Rape laws used to include stipulations that the penalty was to be reduced if the victim had "provoked" the attacker. In 2005, the Supreme Court of Mexico ruled that forced sex in marriage is rape. In doing so, it overturned its prior verdict from 1994 when it had ruled that the laws on rape were inapplicable in marriage. In Mexico, the rape laws did not include a statutory exemption for marriage, but were, as elsewhere, generally understood as inapplicable in this context. This has started to be challenged in the late 20th century. Following the Court's decision in 1994, women's organizations worked to pass state laws against marital rape in order to overturn this precedent. The new 2005 verdict has been interpreted as evidence of the improvement of the position of women in the country. Mexico has recently been plagued by scandals of child sexual abuse in Catholic institutions. A 2013 violent gang rape of six Spanish tourist women in Acapulco has raised questions about how safe Mexico is for tourists.
The law on rape in the Netherlands states that: "A person who by an act of violence or another act or by threat of violence or threat of another act compels a person to submit to acts comprising or including sexual penetration of the body is guilty of rape and liable to a term of imprisonment of not more than twelve years or a fine of the fifth category."
Apart from the offense of 'rape', there are also other sexual offenses. Marital rape was made illegal in 1991 - before that date, rape was defined as a man forcing, by violence or threat of thereof, a woman to engage in sexual intercourse outside of marriage.
Marital rape is not illegal in Nigeria.
Out of a sample of 295 female students from Ebonyi State University Abakaliki in Southeast Nigeria, 36.7% had experienced sexual harassment/victimization at least once on campus. Of this, 32.4% had been raped (10.8% of the sample).
A study comparing the sexual practises of 12-19 year old students with and without mild/moderate intellectual disabilities from schools across Oyo State, Nigeria found that 68.3% of the sexually experienced intellectually disabled females reported a history of rape victimization compared to 2.9% of the sexually experienced non-disabled females.
In a 2013 poll of 585 randomly selected adults from six Nigerian geopolitical zones by NOI Polls, 34% answered 'What do you think is the most prevalent cause of rape in the society?' with 'indecent dressing'. 29% said they personally knew a victim of rape.
Rape in Pakistan has been notable, and continues to be a tool for suppressing women in the country. One of the notable cases, in which Uzma Ayub, a 16 year old girl, was abducted by a soldier and policeman, she was repeatedly raped by several persons which included an army official and a policemen. Her brother was murdered. In one case, a teenage girl was burnt alive, as she resisted the rape.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea has a very high rate of sexual violence. This has been attributed to the interaction between a very male dominated culture and a culture which is also very accepting of violence in day to day life. Marital rape was criminalized in 2003.
The United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence found that 62% of men from Bougainville Island had raped a woman and 7.6% had raped a man. 14% had participated in gang rape. 7% said they had been raped by another man. Non-partner rape was more commonly perpetrated than partner rape. 69.3% had raped more than once. 15.5% had four or more victims. 71% reported their motivation behind rape being sexual entitlement, 63% said they raped for entertainment, and 50% said they raped out of anger or to punish a woman. 69.3% of the men who reported rape had raped more than once, and 15.5% had raped 4 or more women or girls. 52.2% had been jailed for their crime. Out of the nine areas surveyed, this was the highest rate of imprisonment.
The UN estimates that in Rwanda between 100,000 and 250,000 women were raped during the genocide in 1994. Rape was used as a weapon of war, and there are numerous children who were born from these rapes. Many of the women who were raped were also infected with HIV/AIDS.
In 2009 Rwanda adopted a law (Law on prevention and punishment of Gender Based Violence) which recognizes, for the first time in the country's history, marital rape as a crime.
The Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007 is the relevant legislation in South Africa. Despite the fact that this act provides modern and progressive laws, that ban rape and other forms of sexual abuse, including sexual violence within marriage, South Africa remains a country where sexual attacks are common. The country has some of the highest incidences of child and baby rape in the world with more than 67,000 cases of rape and sexual assaults against children reported in 2000, with welfare groups believing that unreported incidents could be up to 10 times higher. In 2001, a 9-month-old was raped and likely lost consciousness as the pain was too much to bear. Another 9-month-old baby was raped by six men, aged between 24 and 66, after the infant had been left unattended by her teenage mother. A 4-year-old girl died after being raped by her father. A 14-month-old girl was raped by her two uncles. In February 2002, an 8-month-old infant was reportedly gang raped by four men. One has been charged. The infant has required extensive reconstructive surgery. The 8-month-old infant's injuries were so extensive, increased attention on prosecution has occurred. A significant contributing factor for the escalation in child abuse is the widespread myth in HIV-ravaged South Africa that having sex with a virgin will cure a man of AIDS. According to official figures, circa 11% of South Africans are infected with the virus. Edith Kriel, a social worker who helps child victims in the Eastern Cape, said: "Child abusers are often relatives of their victims – even their fathers and providers."
One in three of the 4,000 women questioned by the Community of Information, Empowerment and Transparency said they had been raped in the past year. More than 25% of South African men questioned in a survey admitted to raping someone; of those, nearly half said they had raped more than one person, according to a new study conducted by the Medical Research Council (MRC). A 2010 study led by the government-funded Medical Research Foundation says that in Gauteng province, more than 37 percent of men said they had raped a woman. Nearly 7 percent of the 487 men surveyed said they had participated in a gang rape. Among children, a survey found 11% of boys and 4% of girls admitted to forcing someone else to have sex with them while in another survey among 1,500 schoolchildren in the Soweto township, a quarter of all the boys interviewed said that 'jackrolling', a term for gang rape, was fun.
In 2013 a study of 1991 grade nine boys at 46 secondary schools in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth found that 17.2% had raped.
South Africa has some of the highest incidences of child and baby rape in the world. More than 25% of a sample of 1,738 South African men from the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces admitted when anonymously questioned to raping someone; of those, nearly half said they had raped more than one person, according to a non-peer reviewed policy brief issued by the Medical Research Council (MRC). 4.95% had raped or attempted rape in the past year at the time of the survey. Several news publications extrapolated these results to the rest of the South African population. The humanitarian news organization IRIN claims that an estimated 500,000 rapes are committed annually in South Africa.
According to University of Durban-Westville anthropology lecturer and researcher Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala, the myth that sex with a virgin is a cure for AIDS is not confined to South Africa. "Fellow AIDS researchers in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Nigeria have told me that the myth also exists in these countries and that it is being blamed for the high rate of sexual abuse against young children."
"In South Africa, rape is so common it barely makes the news. The rapes of elderly women and babies are outlined in four-line stories on the inside pages of local newspapers, but most sexual assaults get no public attention."
"The country has one of the highest rates of rape in the world, with some 65,000 rapes and other sexual assaults reported for the year ending in March 2012, or 127.6 per 100,000 people in the country."
Rape is illegal in South Sudan; marital rape is not criminalized; the law on rape excludes it from its definition by stating that "Sexual intercourse by a married couple is not rape, within the meaning of this section". (Art 247). Child marriage is common in the country, and this often leads to child sexual abuse; while the law on rape sets an age of consent of 18, this does not apply inside marriage. The Criminal Code criminalizes, among other behaviors, adultery and homosexuality. Amnesty International has stated that the security forces in South Sudan have shot and raped civilians while carrying out a civilian disarmament campaign in Jonglei State.
In Sri Lanka there have been recent allegations that rape and torture by the Sri Lankan security forces have continued four years after the civil war ended. An average rape case in Sri Lanka takes 6 to 12 years to be resolved.
The UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence found that 14.5% of the sample of Sri Lankan men had perpetrated rape at some point in their lives. 4.9% had raped in the past year. 2.7% had raped another man. 1.6% had took part in a gang rape. 96.5% of the men who had raped experienced no legal consequences. 65.8% didn't feel worried or guilty afterwards. 64.9% of rapists had raped more than once, and 11.1% had raped four or more girls or women.
Sweden has the highest incidence of reported rapes in Europe and one of the highest in the world. According to a 2009 study, there were 46 incidents of rape per 100,000 residents. This figure is twice that of the UK which reports 23 cases, and four times that of the other Nordic countries, Germany and France. The figure is up to 20 times the figure for certain countries in southern and eastern Europe.
By 2010, The Swedish police recorded the highest number of offences - about 63 per 100,000 inhabitants - of any force in Europe, in 2010. The second-highest in the world. This is primarily due to how Sweden counts rape and in no way is a sign of a higher crime rate.
The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention claims that it is not "possible to evaluate and compare the actual levels of violent crimes... between countries", but that in any case the high numbers are explained by a broader legal definition of rape than in other countries, and an effort to register all suspected and repeated rapes. It asserts that comparisons based on victim surveys place Sweden at an average level among European nations.
In a survey of 1004 women (defined as 12 or older), 20% reported being raped in their lifetimes. 10% reported the event to police. In 92.4% of the events the perpetrator was known to the victim. There was no statistically significant difference between the rate of rape for women living in urban or suburban areas. 7% of the sample reported a rape occurring in the past two years. The socially closer the perpetrator, the lesser was the frequency of disclosure to either legal organs or other people, and vice versa.
In Turkey, according to a study, some commonly-expressed views on rape were given to individuals from various professions, who were asked to agree or disagree; results recorded that 33% of the police officers agreed that "some women deserve rape", 66% of police officers, as well as nearly 50% of other professional groups except the psychologists about 18% and 27% of psychiatrists, suggested that "the physical appearance and behaviors of women tempt men to rape."
Unlike other jurisdictions, such as Australia, much of the US, and many Western countries, 'rape' in the UK is not a gender neutral offense: it is an offense that can only be committed by a male against a person (female or male). Also the UK has not to date followed the trend in many Western countries of classifying acts other than penetration with a penis (penetration with an object, finger) as rape. These must be prosecuted under other statutes (e.g. Sexual assault, Assault by penetration).
According to a news report on BBC One presented in 12 November 2007, there were 85,000 women raped in the UK in the previous year, equating to about 230 cases every day. The 2006-07 British Crime Survey reports that 1 in every 200 women suffered from rape in that period. It also showed that only 800 people were convicted of rape crimes that same year, meaning that less than 1 in every 100 reports of rape led to a conviction. According to a study in 2009 by the NSPCC on young people aged between 13-18, a third of girls and 16% of boys have experienced sexual violence and that as many as 250,000 teenage girls are suffering from abuse at any one time. 12% of boys and 3% of girls reported committing sexual violence against their partners.
60% of 1000 women asked in a Rape Crisis survey thought that rape is not rape if the woman does not say 'no'. 16% reported having been raped. A third said that they believed there are varying degrees of rape. Another survey by Mumsnet in 2012 found that out of 1609 women, 10% had been raped.
A survey done by a third party research group on behalf of rape crisis centre The Havens found that almost half of UK men between the age of 18 and 25 do not consider it rape to force a woman who has changed her mind to continue sex. Almost 1 in 4 men claimed that it wasn't rape even if a woman had said "no" at the start. A further 1 in 4 would try to have sex with someone they knew was unwilling. 5% would attempt to have sex if the woman was asleep and 6% if she were drunk.
A 1997 report by the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, which defines rape as forced penetration by the offender, found that 91% of rape victims are female and 9% are male, and that nearly 99% of rapists are male. Data on the prevalence of rape vary greatly depending on what definition of rape is used. According to the National Violence Against Women Survey, 1 in 6 U.S. women and 1 in 33 U.S. men has experienced an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime. A 2007 study by the National Institute of Justice found that 19.0% of college women and 6.1% of college men experienced rape or attempted rape since entering college. However, some have criticized these statistics for using definitions of rape that they consider to be overly broad, specifically for counting sex under the influence of alcohol as rape. According to the psychologist Steven Pinker,
Junk statistics from advocacy groups are slung around and become common knowledge, such as the incredible factoid that one in four university students has been raped. (The claim was based on a commodious definition of rape that the alleged victims themselves never accepted; it included, for example, any incident in which a woman consented to sex after having had too much to drink and regretted it afterward.)
The National Crime Victimization Survey, which uses a narrower definition of rape, found that only 0.5% of women and 0.06% of men, age 12 or older, were raped in 1995. By 2010, these numbers had decreased to 0.2% of women and 0.01% of men.
Some types of rape are excluded from official reports altogether (the FBI's definition, for example, used to exclude all rapes except forcible rapes of females), because a significant number of rapes go unreported even when they are included as reportable rapes, and also because a significant number of rapes reported to the police do not advance to prosecution. As well as the large number of rapes that go unreported, only 25% of reported rapes result in arrest. Many rape kits are not tested. Only 16% of rapes and sexual assaults are reported to the police (Rape in America: A Report to the Nation. 1992 and United Nations Populations Fund, 2000a). Factoring in unreported rapes, about 5% of rapists will ever spend a day in jail.
Contrary to widespread belief, rape outdoors is rare. Over two thirds of all rapes occur in someone's home. 31% occur in the perpetrators' homes, 27% in the victims' homes and 10% in homes shared by the victim and perpetrator. 7% occur at parties, 7% in vehicles, 4% outdoors and 2% in bars. From 2000 to 2005, 59% of rapes were not reported to law enforcement. One factor relating to this is the misconception that most rapes are committed by strangers. In reality, studies indicate the following varying numbers:
|Source:||Current or former intimate partner||Another relative||Friend or acquaintance||Stranger|
|US Bureau of Justice statistics||26%||7%||38%||26%|
|Australian government statistics||56%||10%||27%||8%|
|UK Home Office (for comparison)||45.4%||13.9%||29.6%||11%|
In a 2012 news story, The New York Times reported, " ... according to a survey by the Alaska Federation of Natives, the rate of sexual violence in rural villages like Emmonak is as much as 12 times the national rate. And interviews with Native American women here and across the nation’s tribal reservations suggest an even grimmer reality: They say few, if any, female relatives or close friends have escaped sexual violence."
The U.S. Department of Justice compiles statistics on crime by race, but only between and among people categorized as black or white. The Uniform Crime Reports classifies most Hispanics into the "white" category. There were 194,270 white and 17,920 black victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2006. However, the report does give a note that for the percentages of white-on-black or black-on-white rape, and the estimate of total number of black victims, the statistic is based on 10 or fewer sample cases. According to Anthony Walsh, "Gary LaFree's rape data for the 45-year period revealed that blacks were arrested for rape an average of 6.52 times more often than whites."
Drug use, especially alcohol, is frequently involved in rape. A study (only of rape victims that were female and reachable by phone) reported detailed findings related to tactics. In 47% of such rapes, both the victim and the perpetrator had been drinking. In 17%, only the perpetrator had been. 7% of the time, only the victim had been drinking. Rapes where neither the victim nor the perpetrator had been drinking were 29% of all rapes.
Koss, Gidycz and Wi published a study in 1987 where they interviewed approximately 6,000 college students on 32 college campuses nationwide. They asked several questions covering a wide range of behaviors. From this study, 15% of college women answered “yes” to questions about whether they experienced something that met the definition of rape. 12% of women answered “yes” to questions about whether they experienced something that met the definition of attempted rape. The study only considered female victims and male perpetrators; it did not consider rape of men or rape in LGBT relationships.
In 1995, the CDC replicated part of this study with 8,810 students on 138 college campuses. They examined rape only, and did not look at attempted rape. They found that 20% of women and 4% of men experienced rape during the course of their lifetime.[clarification needed lifetime or college time?]
In 2000, the National Institute of Justice and the Bureau of Justice statistics published a study called The Sexual Victimization of College Women based on a 1996–1997 survey. At page 11, it can be seen that 3.1% of undergraduate women reported experiencing rape or attempted rape during a 6–7-month academic year. Exhibit 7, page 18 of the report suggests that 10.1% of college women reported experiencing rape prior to entering college. 10.9% reported attempted rape prior to college.
In a different section of the report, the authors speculate about whether statistics during an academic year generalize to an entire college experience. For a full discussion, read more on page 10 of the report, stating that "... the percentage of completed or attempted rape victimization among women in higher educational institutions might climb to between one-fifth and one-quarter" and further acknowledging in the corresponding footnote, #18, that "These projections are suggestive. To assess accurately the victimization risk for women throughout a college career, longitudinal research following a cohort of female students across time is needed."
Other studies of the annual incidence of rape find it to be closer to 5% (compared to the 3% in the DOJ study). For example, Mohler-Kuo, Dowdall, Koss & Weschler (2004) found in a study of approximately 25,000 college women nationwide that 4.7% experienced rape or attempted rape during a single academic year. This study did not measure lifetime incidence of rape or attempted rape. Similarly, Kilpatrick, Resnick, Ruggiero, Conoscenti, and McCauley (2007) found in a study of 2,000 college women nationwide that 5.2% experienced rape every year.
80,000 American children are sexually abused each year. But unreported cases are higher, due to the fear among children.
According to United States Department of Justice document Criminal Victimization in the United States, there were overall 191,670 victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2005. According to the National Violence Against Women Survey, 1 in 6 U.S. women and 1 in 33 U.S. men have experienced an attempted or completed rape.
Denov (2004) states that societal responses to the issue of female perpetrators of sexual assault "point to a widespread denial of women as potential sexual aggressors that could work to obscure the true dimensions of the problem."
According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, the adjusted per-capita victimization rate of rape has declined from about 2.4 per 1000 people (age 12 and above) in 1980 to about 0.4 per 1000 people, a decline of about 85%. But other government surveys, such as the Sexual Victimization of College Women study, critique the NCVS on the basis it includes only those acts perceived as crimes by the victim, and report a higher victimization rate. Despite a decline of 60% since 1993, the US still has a relatively high rate of rape when compared to other developed countries.
RAINN asserts that from 2000 to 2005, 59% of rapes were not reported to law enforcement. For college students, the figure was 95% in 2000. One factor relating to this is the misconception that most rapes are committed by strangers. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 38% of victims were raped by a friend or acquaintance, 28% by "an intimate" and 7% by another relative, and 26% were committed by a stranger to the victim. About four out of ten sexual assaults take place at the victim's own home.
Yemen law does not recognize marital rape and does not provide a minimum age for marriage. The issues of child marriage and child rape inside marriage have made international news and have led to calls for legislative changes. There have been several reports of deaths of young girls due to violent rape by adult husbands, as well as young girls dying during childbirth. Human rights watch stated that "Child marriages and forced marriages remain widespread, exposing young girls to domestic violence and maternal mortality and truncating their education."
Most rape research and reporting to date has been limited to male-female forms of rape. Research on male-male and female-male is beginning to be done. However, almost no research has been done on female-female rape, though women can be charged with rape. A few books, such as Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships by Dr. Claire M. Renzetti, No More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian Relationships by Janice Ristock, and Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape? by Lori B. Girshick also cover the topic of rape of women by other women.
Rape statistics by country
This list indicates the number of, and per capita cases of recorded rape. It does not include cases of rape which go unreported, or which are not recorded. Nor does it specify whether recorded means reported, brought to trial, or convicted. Nor does it take the different definition of rape around the world into account. The list doesn't include the estimated rape stats of the countries, per year, such as South Africa having 500,000 rapes per year, China having 31,833 rapes a year, Egypt having more than 200,000 rapes a year. And United Kingdom at 85,000 rapes a year.
|Total count||Rate per 100,000 population|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||16||15||30.9||28.6|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||66||87||50||60||36||54||28||60.8||80.0||45.9||55.0||33.0||49.4||25.6|
|Trinidad and Tobago||305||334||259||317||236||247||23.3||25.4||19.6||23.9||17.7||18.5|
|Bolivia (Plurinational State of)||1137||1137||1437||1596||1989||2587||12.4||12.2||15.2||16.6||20.4||26.1|
|United States of America||93883||95089||94347||94472||92999||90750||89241||84767||32.2||32.3||31.8||31.5||30.6||29.8||29.0||27.3|
|Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China||70||92||99||96||107||105||136||112||1.0||1.4||1.5||1.4||1.6||1.5||1.9||1.6|
|Republic of Korea||5899||6321||12.7||13.5|
|Occupied Palestinian Territory||85||98||105||2.5||2.8||3.0|
|Syrian Arab Republic||131||97||135||112||125||156||0.7||0.5||0.7||0.6||0.6||0.8|
|United Arab Emirates||44||52||62||72||1.3||1.4||1.5||1.5|
|Republic of Moldova||272||297||280||268||281||306||264||368||7.0||7.8||7.4||7.2||7.7||8.4||7.3||10.3|
|United Kingdom (England and Wales)||13272||14013||14443||13774||12673||13096||15084||15934||25.1||26.4||27.0||25.6||23.4||24.0||27.5||28.8|
|United Kingdom (Northern Ireland)||364||360||345||447||389||368||422||498||21.4||21.0||20.0||25.7||22.1||20.7||23.6||27.7|
|United Kingdom (Scotland)||794||900||975||922||908||821||884||15.7||17.7||19.1||18.0||17.7||15.9||17.0|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||39||40||44||35||29||46||1.0||1.1||1.2||0.9||0.8||1.2|
|Republic of Macedonia||93||103||4.6||5.0|
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-  The former Article 205, repealed by Act No. 61/2007, stated that "Penalty under Art. 194 – 199, 202 and 204 may be dropped if a man and a woman between whom the sexual intimacy has occurred have later entered into wedlock or embarked upon informal co-habitation or if they were married at the time or in informal co-habitation, having thereafter embarked upon continued co-habitation."- the text of the Penal Code as it was in the year 2003 can be found here:
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