Statistics on rape and sexual assault are commonly available in advanced countries and are becoming more common throughout the world. Inconsistent definitions of rape, different rates of reporting, recording, prosecution and conviction for rape create controversial statistical disparities, and lead to accusations that many rape statistics are unreliable or misleading. According to USA Today reporter Kevin Johnson "no other major category of crime – not murder, assault or robbery – has generated a more serious challenge of the credibility of national crime statistics" than rape.
A United Nations statistical report compiled from government sources showed that more than 250,000 cases of male-female rape or attempted rape were recorded by police annually. The reported data covered 65 countries.
In some jurisdictions, male-female rape is the only form of rape counted in the statistics.
The most common reasons given by victims for not reporting rapes are the belief that it is a personal or private matter, and that they fear reprisal from the assailant. A 2007 government report in England says "Estimates from research suggest that between 75 and 95 percent of rape crimes are never reported to the police."
UN Sexual Violence against Children & Rape Statistics 
This list indicates the number of, and per capita cases of recorded rape. It does not include cases of rape which go unreported, or which are not recorded. Nor does it specify whether recorded means reported, brought to trial, or convicted. Nor does it take the different definition of rape around the world into account.
|Total count||Rate per 100,000 population|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||16||15||30.9||28.6|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||66||87||50||60||36||54||28||60.8||80.0||45.9||55.0||33.0||49.4||25.6|
|Trinidad and Tobago||305||334||259||317||236||247||23.3||25.4||19.6||23.9||17.7||18.5|
|Bolivia (Plurinational State of)||1137||1137||1437||1596||1989||2587||12.4||12.2||15.2||16.6||20.4||26.1|
|United States of America||93883||95089||94347||94472||92610||90750||89241||84767||32.2||32.3||31.8||31.5||30.6||29.8||29.0||27.3|
|Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China||70||92||99||96||107||105||136||112||1.0||1.4||1.5||1.4||1.6||1.5||1.9||1.6|
|Republic of Korea||5899||6321||12.7||13.5|
|Occupied Palestinian Territory||85||98||105||2.5||2.8||3.0|
|Syrian Arab Republic||131||97||135||112||125||156||0.7||0.5||0.7||0.6||0.6||0.8|
|United Arab Emirates||44||52||62||72||1.3||1.4||1.5||1.5|
|Republic of Moldova||272||297||280||268||281||306||264||368||7.0||7.8||7.4||7.2||7.7||8.4||7.3||10.3|
|United Kingdom (England and Wales)||13272||14013||14443||13774||12673||13096||15084||15934||25.1||26.4||27.0||25.6||23.4||24.0||27.5||28.8|
|United Kingdom (Northern Ireland)||364||360||345||447||389||368||422||498||21.4||21.0||20.0||25.7||22.1||20.7||23.6||27.7|
|United Kingdom (Scotland)||794||900||975||922||908||821||884||15.7||17.7||19.1||18.0||17.7||15.9||17.0|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||39||40||44||35||29||46||1.0||1.1||1.2||0.9||0.8||1.2|
|Republic of Macedonia||93||103||4.6||5.0|
United States 
Koss, Gidycz & Wi published a study in 1987 where they interviewed approximately 6,000 college students on 32 college campuses nationwide. They asked several questions covering a wide range of behaviors. From this study 15% of college women answered “yes” to questions about whether they experienced something that met the definition of rape. 12% of women answered “yes” to questions about whether they experienced something that met the definition of attempted rape
In 1995 the CDC replicated part of this study. They examined rape only, and did not look at attempted rape. They found that 20% of approximately 5,000 women on 138 college campuses experienced rape during the course of their lifetime.[clarification needed lifetime or college time?]
In 2000, the National Institute of Justice and the Bureau of Justice statistics published a study called The Sexual Victimization of College Women based on a 1996 - 1997 survey.  At page 11, it can be seen that 3.1% of undergraduate women reported experiencing rape or attempted rape during a 6-7 month academic year. Exhibit 7, page 18 of the report suggests that 10.1% of college women reported experiencing rape prior to entering college. 10.9% reported attempted rape prior to college.
In a different section of the report, the authors speculate about whether statistics during an academic year generalize to an entire college experience. For a full discussion, read more on page 10 of the report, stating that "... the percentage of completed or attempted rape victimization among women in higher educational institutions might climb to between one-fifth and one-quarter" and further acknowledging in the corresponding footnote, #18, that "These projections are suggestive. To assess accurately the victimization risk for women throughout a college career, longitudinal research following a cohort of female students across time is needed."
Other studies of the annual incidence of rape find it to be closer to 5% (compared to the 3% in the DOJ study). For example, Mohler-Kuo, Dowdall, Koss & Weschler (2004) found in a study of approximately 25,000 college women nationwide that 4.7% experienced rape or attempted rape during a single academic year. This study did not measure lifetime incidence of rape or attempted rape. Similarly, Kilpatrick, Resnick, Ruggiero, Conoscenti, & McCauley (2007) found in a study of 2,000 college women nationwide that 5.2% experienced rape every year.
Other research has found that about 80,000 American children are sexually abused each year. It has been estimated that one in six American women has been or will be sexually assaulted during her life. Largely because of child and prison rape, approximately ten percent of reported rape victims are male.
According to United States Department of Justice document Criminal Victimization in the United States, there were overall 191,670 victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2005. 1 of 6 U.S. women and 1 of 33 U.S. men have experienced an attempted or completed rape. (according to Colorado Coalition Against Sexual Assault)[broken link] The U.S. Department of Justice compiles statistics on crime by race, but only between and among people categorized as black or white. The statistics for whites include Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites combined. There were 194,270 white and 17,920 black victims of rape or sexual assault reported in 2006.
However, the report does give a note that for the percentages of white-on-black or black-on-white rape, and the estimate of total number of black victims, the statistic is based on 10 or fewer sample cases. Some types of rape are excluded from official reports altogether; the FBI's definition for example excludes all rapes except forcible rapes of females, a significant number of rapes go unreported even when they are included as reportable rapes, and a significant number of rapes reported to the police do not advance to prosecution.
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics states that 91% of rape victims are female and 9% are male, and 99% of rapists are male. Denov (2004) states that societal responses to the issue of female perpetrators of sexual assault "point to a widespread denial of women as potential sexual aggressors that could work to obscure the true dimensions of the problem."
According to the National Crime Victimization Survey, the adjusted per-capita victimization rate of rape has declined from about 2.4 per 1000 people (age 12 and above) in 1980 to about 0.4 per 1000 people, a decline of about 85%. But other government surveys, such as the Sexual Victimization of College Women study, critique the NCVS on the basis it includes only those acts perceived as crimes by the victim, and report a higher victimization rate.
RAINN asserts that from 2000–2005, 59% of rapes were not reported to law enforcement. For college students, the figure was 95% in 2000. One factor relating to this is the misconception that most rapes are committed by strangers. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 38% of victims were raped by a friend or acquaintance, 28% by "an intimate" and 7% by another relative, and 26% were committed by a stranger to the victim. About four out of ten sexual assaults take place at the victim's own home.
Drug use, especially alcohol, is frequently involved in rape. In 47% of rapes, both the victim and the perpetrator had been drinking. In 17%, only the perpetrator had been. 7% of the time, only the victim had been drinking. Rapes where neither the victim nor the perpetrator had been drinking were 29% of all rapes.
Contrary to widespread belief, rape outdoors is uncommon. Over two thirds of all rapes occur in someone's home. 30.9% occur in the perpetrators' homes, 26.6% in the victims' homes and 10.1% in homes shared by the victim and perpetrator. 7.2% occur at parties, 7.2% in vehicles, 3.6% outdoors and 2.2% in bars.
Despite a decline of 60% since 1993, the US still has a relatively high rate of rape when compared to other developed countries.
As well as the large number of rapes that go unreported, only 25% of reported rapes result in arrest. Many rape kits are not tested.
Sweden has the highest incidence of reported rapes in Europe and one of the highest in the world. According to a 2009 study, there were 46 incidents of rape per 100,000 residents. This figure is twice that of the UK which reports 23 cases, and four times that of the other Nordic countries, Germany and France. The figure is up to 20 times the figure for certain countries in southern and eastern Europe.
The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention claims that it is not "possible to evaluate and compare the actual levels of violent crimes... between countries", but that in any case the high numbers are explained by a broader legal definition of rape than in other countries, and an effort to register all suspected and repeated rapes. It asserts that comparisons based on victim surveys place Sweden at an average level among European nations.
United Kingdom 
According to a news report on BBC One presented in 12 November 2007, there were 85,000 women raped in the UK in the previous year, equating to about 230 cases every day. The 2006-07 British Crime Survey reports that 1 in every 200 women suffered from rape in that period. It also showed that only 800 people were convicted of rape crimes that same year, meaning that less than 1 in every 100 rape survivors were able to convict their attacker. According to a study in 2009 by the NSPCC on young people aged between 13-18, a third of girls and 16% of boys have experienced sexual violence and that as many as 250,000 teenage girls are suffering from abuse at any one time. 12% of boys and 3% of girls reported committing sexual violence against their partners.
Democratic Republic of the Congo 
In eastern Congo, the prevalence and intensity of rape and other sexual violence is described as the worst in the world. It is estimated that there are as many as 200,000 surviving rape victims living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo today. Rape in the Democratic Republic of Congo has frequently been described as a "weapon of war" by commentators. Louise Nzigire, a local social worker, states that “this violence was designed to exterminate the population.” Nzigire observes that rape has been a "cheap, simple weapon for all parties in the war, more easily obtainable than bullets or bombs."
South Africa 
One in three of the 4,000 women questioned by the Community of Information, Empowerment and Transparency said they had been raped in the past year.
South Africa has some of the highest incidences of child and baby rape in the world. In a related survey conducted among 1,500 schoolchildren in the Soweto township, a quarter of all the boys interviewed said that 'jackrolling', a term for gang rape, was fun. More than 25% of a sample of 1,738 South African men from the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces admitted when anonymously questioned to raping someone; of those, nearly half said they had raped more than one person, according to a non-peer reviewed policy brief issued by the Medical Research Council (MRC). Several news publications extrapolated these results to the rest of the South African population. The humanitarian news organization IRIN claims that an estimated 500,000 rapes are committed annually in South Africa.
More than 67,000 cases of rape and sexual assaults against children were reported in 2000 in South Africa. Child welfare groups believe that the number of reported incidents represents merely a fraction of the actual number of incidents.
A belief common to South Africa holds that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure a man of HIV or AIDS. South Africa has the highest number of HIV-positive citizens in the world. According to official figures, circa 11% of South Africans are infected with the virus. Edith Kriel, a social worker who helps child victims in the Eastern Cape, said: "Child abusers are often relatives of their victims – even their fathers and providers."
According to University of Durban-Westville anthropology lecturer and researcher Suzanne Leclerc-Madlala, the myth that sex with a virgin is a cure for AIDS is not confined to South Africa. "Fellow AIDS researchers in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Nigeria have told me that the myth also exists in these countries and that it is being blamed for the high rate of sexual abuse against young children."
"In South Africa, rape is so common it barely makes the news. The rapes of elderly women and babies are outlined in four-line stories on the inside pages of local newspapers, but most sexual assaults get no public attention."
"The country has one of the highest rates of rape in the world, with some 65,000 rapes and other sexual assaults reported for the year ending in March 2012, or 127.6 per 100,000 people in the country."
Most rape research and reporting to date has been limited to male-female forms of rape. Research on male-male and female-male is beginning to be done. However, almost no research has been done on female-female rape, though women can be charged with rape.
See also 
- "Rape statistics not crystal clear" by Kevin Johnson, USA Today, November 19, 1998
- The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001–2002) – Table 02.08 Total recorded rapes
- Tim, By. (2004-08-08) Statistics can be misleading 08/08/04. Cjonline.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- American Medical Association (1995) Sexual Assault in America. AMA.
- Kelly, L., Lovett, J., Regan, L. (February 2005). "A gap or a chasm? Attrition in reported rape cases" (PDF). Home Office, Home Office Research Study 293. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
- "Without consent: A report on the joint review of the investigation and prosecution of rape offences". Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate. January 2007. p. 8. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
-  (XLS file)
- Koss, M. P.; Gidycz, C. A. & Wisniewski, N. (1987). "The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students.". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55: 162–170.
- Douglas, K. A.; et al. (1997). "Results from the 1995 national college health risk behavior survey.". Journal of American College Health 46: 55–66.
- Fisher, Bonnie. "The Sexual Victimization of College Women". The U.S. Department of Justice.
- Mohler-Kuo, M.; Dowdall, G., Koss, M., Weschler, H (2004). "Correlates of Rape while Intoxicated in a National Sample of College Women". Journal of Studies on Alcohol 65: 37–45.
- Kilpatrick, Dean. "Drug Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape: A National Study".
- "Table 26 Number of incidents and victimizations and ratio of victimizations to incidents, by type of crime". Criminal Victimization in the United States - Statistical Tables. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 8 December 2006. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Colorado Coalition Against Sexual Assault: Statistics
- United States Department of Justice document, (table 42). (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- United States Department of Justice document, (table 42). (PDF). Table 30 footnote.
- Dick Haws, "The Elusive Numbers on False Rape," Columbian Journalism Review (November/December 1997).
- http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/SOO.PDF page 5, page 8
- Myriam S. Denov, Perspectives on Female Sex Offending: A Culture of Denial (Ashgate Publishing 2004) – ISBN.
- Anthony D'Amato. Porn Up, Rape Down. Northwestern Public Law Research Paper No.
- Fisher, Bonnie S.; Cullen, Francis T.; Turner, Michael G. (December 2000). "Sexual Victimization of College Women". National Institute of Justice. p. 24. Retrieved April 2913.
- "Statistics". Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network. Retrieved 2008-01-01.
- Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Extent, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington (DC): Department of Justice (US); 2000. Publication No.: NCJ 181867. Available from: URL: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/ 181867.htm.
- Alberto R. Gonzales et al. Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Rape Victimization: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. January 2006
- Bureau of Justice Statistics Home page. Ojp.usdoj.gov. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Abbey, A., BeShears, R., Clinton-Sherrod, A. M., & McAuslan, P. (2004). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 323–332."Similarities and differences in women's sexual assault experiences based on tactics used by the perpetrator". Accessed 9 July 2008.
- How often does sexual assault occur? | RAINN | Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network. RAINN. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Rape in America: Justice Denied
- Sweden tops European rape league – The Local. Thelocal.se. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- "How common is rape in Sweden compared to other European countries?". The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention. 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2012-07-04.
- Easton, Mark (2008-07-09). "Rape: A complex crime". BBC. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
- "Homicides, Firearm Offences and Intimate Violence – 2006/07 Supplementary Volume 2 to Crime in England and Wales 2006/07" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-12-31.
- "Teen rape tackled in Home Office advertising campaign" BBC News. 5 March 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- Christine Barter, Melanie McCarry, David Berridge and Kathy Evans (2009). Partner exploitation and violence in teenage intimate relationships NSPCC, pp. 65 (or more)
- Christine Barter, Melanie McCarry, David Berridge and Kathy Evans (2009). Partner exploitation and violence in teenage intimate relationships NSPCC, pp. 81 (or more)
- Prevalence of Rape in E.Congo Described as Worst in World. Washingtonpost.com (2007-09-09). Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Kira Cochrane talks to filmmaker Lisa F Jackson on her documentary about rape in the Congo. Film.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- A Conversation with Eve Ensler: Femicide in the Congo. Pbs.org. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- "South Africa's rape shock". BBC News. January 19, 1999. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Alex Perry (2007-11-05). "Oprah scandal rocks South Africa". Time.com. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Jewkes, Rachel; Yandisa Sikweyiya1, Robert Morrell, Kristin Dunkle (2009). Understanding Men's Health and Use of Violence: Interface of Rape and HIV in South Africa (Report). South African Medical Research Council. http://www.mrc.ac.za/gender/violence_hiv.pdf. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
- "South African rape survey shock". BBC News. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- David Smith (17 June 2009). "Quarter of men in South Africa admit rape, survey finds". Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- IRIN Africa. 18 June 2009 http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=84909
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Jane Flanagan (11 Nov 2001). "South African men rape babies as 'cure' for Aids". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "South Africa HIV & AIDS Statistics". AVERT.org. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Prega Govender (April 4, 1999). "Child rape: A taboo within the AIDS taboo". Aegis.com/The Sunday Times. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- Conway-Smith, Erin (11 February 2013). "South Africa gang rape a symbol of nation’s problem". GlobalPost (Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd). Retrieved 12 March 2013.
Further reading 
- Macdonalds, J. (2007). Rape. In The World Book Encyclopedia. United States of America: World Book Inc.
- Rape (2007). In The New Encyclopædia Britannica (Vol. 9). Chicago, Il.: Britannica.
- Howard, Angela & Kavenik Francis. (2000). Handbook of American Women's History. CA: Sage Publications Inc.
- AMSOSA UK Rape Stats
- FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (non-uniform sources and discriminates against male rape victims)
- Probability statistics compiled by NCPA from US Department of Justice statistics October 1999
- Statistics from RAINN
- National Center for Victims of Crime: Sexual Assault
- National Center for Victims of Crime: Acquaintance Rape
- National Center for Victims of Crime: Male Rape