|Rapeseed (Brassica napus)|
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rappi, rapaseed (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family). The name derives from the Latin for turnip, rāpa or rāpum, and is first recorded in English at the end of the 14th century. Older writers usually distinguished the turnip and rape by the adjectives round and long (-rooted), respectively. See also Brassica napobrassica, which may be considered a variety of Brassica napus. Some botanists include the closely related Brassica campestris within B. napus. (See Triangle of U).
Cultivation and uses 
Rapeseed oil was produced in the 19th century as a source of a lubricant for steam engines. It was less useful as food for animals or humans because it has a bitter taste due to high levels of glucosinolates. Varieties have now, however, been bred to reduce the content of glucosinolates, yielding a more palatable oil. This has had the side effect that the oil contains much less erucic acid.
Rapeseed is grown for the production of animal feed, vegetable oil for human consumption, and biodiesel; leading producers include the European Union, Canada, the United States, Australia, China and India. In India, it is grown on 13% of cropped land. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, rapeseed was the third leading source of vegetable oil in the world in 2000, after soybean and oil palm, and also the world's second leading source of protein meal, although only one-fifth of the production of the leading soybean meal.
World production is growing rapidly, with FAO reporting 36 million tons of rapeseed were produced in the 2003-2004 season, and estimating 58.4 million tons in the 2010-2011 season. In Europe, rapeseed is primarily cultivated for animal feed, owing to its very high lipid and medium protein content.
Natural rapeseed oil contains 50% erucic acid. Wild type seeds also contain high levels of glucosinolates (mustard oil glucosindes), chemical compounds that significantly lowered the nutritional value of rapeseed press cakes for animal feed. In North America, the term "canola", originally a syncopated form of the abbreviation "Can.O., L-A." (Canadian Oilseed, Low-Acid) that was used by the Manitoba government to label the seed during its experimental stages, is widely used to refer to rapeseed, and is now a tradename for "double low" (low erucic acid and low glucosinolate) rapeseed.
The rapeseed is the valuable, harvested component of the crop. The crop is also grown as a winter-cover crop. It provides good coverage of the soil in winter, and limits nitrogen run-off. The plant is ploughed back in the soil or used as bedding. On some organic operations, livestock such as sheep or cattle are allowed to graze on the plants.
Processing of rapeseed for oil production produces rapeseed meal as a byproduct. The byproduct is a high-protein animal feed, competitive with soya. The feed is mostly employed for cattle feeding, but also for pigs and chickens (though less valuable for these). The meal has a very low content of the glucosinolates responsible for metabolism disruption in cattle and pigs. Neither canola nor soy is recommended as feed for organic animal products, as both are predominantly GMO (some estimates are now at 90%), which is prohibited by organic standards.
Rapeseed "oil cake" is also used as a fertilizer in China, and may be used for ornamentals, such as bonsai, as well.
Rapeseed leaves and stems are also edible, similar to those of the related bok choy or kale. Some varieties of rapeseed (called 油菜, yóu cài, lit. "oil vegetable" in Chinese; yau choy in Cantonese; cải dầu in Vietnamese; phak kat kan khao [ผักกาดก้านขาว] in Thai; and nanohana [菜の花]/nabana [菜花] in Japanese) are sold as greens, primarily in Asian groceries, including those in California, where it is known as yao choy or tender greens. They are eaten as sag (spinach) in Indian and Nepalese cuisine, usually stir-fried with salt, garlic and spices.
Rapeseed produces great quantities of nectar, and honeybees produce a light-colored, but peppery honey from it. It must be extracted immediately after processing is finished, as it will quickly granulate in the honeycomb and will be impossible to extract. The honey is usually blended with milder honeys, if used for table use or sold as bakery grade. Rapeseed growers contract with beekeepers for the pollination of the crop.
"Total loss" chain and bar oil for chainsaws have been developed which are typically 70% or more canola/rapeseed oil. These lubricants are claimed to be less harmful to the environment and less hazardous to users than traditional mineral oil products, although they are currently typically two to five times more expensive, leading some to use inexpensive cooking oil instead. Some countries, such as Austria, have banned the use of petroleum-based chainsaw oil. These "biolubricants" are generally reported to be functionally comparable to traditional mineral oil products, with some reports claiming one or other is superior, but with no overall consensus yet evident.
Rapeseed has also been researched as means of containing radionuclides that contaminated the soil after the Chernobyl disaster. It was discovered by researchers at the Belarusian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry that rapeseed has a rate of uptake up to three times more efficient than other grains, and only about 3 to 6% of the radionuclides goes into the parts of the plant that could potentially enter the food chain. As oil repels radionuclides, it could be produced canola oil free from contaminants being concentrated in other parts of the plant – the straw, the roots, the seed pods, etc., which then can be ploughed back into the soil and create a recycling process.
Rapeseed oil is used as diesel fuel, either as biodiesel, straight in heated fuel systems, or blended with petroleum distillates for powering motor vehicles. Biodiesel may be used in pure form in newer engines without engine damage and is frequently combined with fossil-fuel diesel in ratios varying from 2% to 20% biodiesel. Owing to the costs of growing, crushing, and refining rapeseed biodiesel, rapeseed-derived biodiesel from new oil costs more to produce than standard diesel fuel, so diesel fuels are commonly made from the used oil. Rapeseed oil is the preferred oil stock for biodiesel production in most of Europe, accounting for about 80% of the feedstock, partly because rapeseed produces more oil per unit of land area compared to other oil sources, such as soybeans, but primarily because canola oil has a significantly lower gel point than most other vegetable oils. An estimated 66% of total rapeseed oil supply in the European Union is expected to be used for biodiesel production in the 2010-2011 year.
Rapeseed is currently grown with a high level of nitrogen-containing fertilisers, and the manufacture of these generates N2O, a potent greenhouse gas with 296 times the global warming potential of CO2. An estimated 3-5% of nitrogen provided as fertilizer for rapeseed is converted to N2O.
Canola was originally a trademark, but is now a generic term in North America for edible varieties of rapeseed oil. In Canada, an official definition of canola is codified in Canadian law.
A variety of rapeseed developed in 1998 is considered to be the most disease- and drought-resistant canola. This and other recent varieties have been produced by using genetic engineering. In 2009, 90% of the rapeseed crops planted in Canada were GM (genetically modified), herbicide-tolerant canola varieties.
Health effects 
Rapeseed oil is one of the oldest vegetable oils, but historically was used in limited quantities due to high levels of erucic acid, which is damaging to cardiac muscle, and glucosinolates, which made it less nutritious in animal feed. Unmodified rapeseed oil can contain up to 45% erucic acid. Food-grade canola oil derived from rapeseed cultivars, also known as rapeseed 00 oil, low erucic acid rapeseed oil, LEAR oil, and rapeseed canola-equivalent oil, has been generally recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Canola oil is limited by government regulation to a maximum of 2% erucic acid by weight in the USA and 5% in the EU, with special regulations for infant food. These low levels of erucic acid are not believed to cause harm in human neonates.
Rapeseed pollen contains known allergens. Whether rape pollen causes hay fever has not been well established, because rape is an insect-pollinated (entomophilous) crop, whereas hay fever is usually caused by wind-pollinated plants. The inhalation of oilseed rape dust may cause asthma in agricultural workers.
Worldwide production of rapeseed (including canola) has increased sixfold between 1975 and 2007. The production of canola and rapeseed 00 since 1975 has opened up the edible oil market for rapeseed oil. Since 2002, production of biodiesel has been steadily increasing in EU and USA to 6 million metric tons in 2006. Rapeseed oil is positioned to supply a good portion of the vegetable oils needed to produce that fuel. World production is thus expected to trend further upward between 2005 and 2015 as biodiesel content requirements in Europe go into effect. Every ton of rapeseed yields about 400 kg of oil.
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
Pests and diseases 
Animal pests 
- Bertha armyworms (Mamestra configurata)
- Bronzed field beetle (Adelium brevicorne) larvae
- Cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii)
- Diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella)
- Flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.)
- Grasshoppers (order Orthoptera)
- Harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica)
- Lygus bugs (Lygus spp.)
- Pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus)
- Root maggots (Delia spp.)
- Snails and slugs
- Beet western yellows virus (Luteoviridae family)
- Blackleg (caused by the fungus species Leptosphaeria maculans)
- Clubroot (caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae)
- Sclerotinia white stem rot (caused by the fungus genus Sclerotinia)
- White rust disease (caused by the fungus species Albugo candida)
Genome sequencing and genetics 
Bayer Cropscience (in collaboration with BGI-Shenzhen, China, Keygene N.V., the Netherlands and the University of Queensland, Australia) announced it had sequenced the entire genome of Brassica napus and its constituent genomes present in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea in 2009. The "A" genome component of the amphidiploid rapeseed species B. napus is currently being sequenced by the Multinational Brassica Genome Project.[dated info]
GMO (genetically modified organism) controversy 
The Monsanto Company has genetically engineered new cultivars of rapeseed to be resistant to the effects of its herbicide, Roundup. They have sought compensation from farmers found to have the Roundup Ready gene in canola in their fields without paying a license fee. These farmers have claimed the Roundup Ready gene was blown into their fields and crossed with unaltered canola. Other farmers claim that after spraying Roundup in non-canola fields to kill weeds before planting, Roundup Ready volunteers are left behind, causing extra expense to rid their fields of the weeds.
In a closely followed legal battle, the Supreme Court of Canada found in favor of Monsanto's patent infringement claim for unlicensed growing of Roundup Ready in its 2004 ruling on Monsanto Canada Inc. v. Schmeiser. The case garnered international controversy, as a court-sanctioned legitimation for the global patent protection of genetically modified crops. However, Schmeiser was not required to pay damages, as he did not benefit financially from the GMO crop in his field.
See also 
- "Brassica napus information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-27.
- "OED Online". Dictionary.oed.com. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "Oilseeds: World Markets and Trade | USDA FAS". Fas.usda.gov. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
- Canola-quality Brassica juncea, a new oilseed crop for the Canadian prairies. DA Potts, GW Rakow, DR Males — New Horizons for an old crop. Proc 10th Intl Rapeseed Congr, Canberra, Australia, 1999
- Soyatech LLC, http://www.soyatech.com/rapeseed_facts.htm, Soyatech is a company established in 1985 and publisher of the Soya and Oilseeds Blue Book
- Cristina Gauthier. "Homemade Winter Oil for a Chain Saw Bar". eHow.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- "Vegetable Oil For Lubricating Chain Saws". Fs.fed.us. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- Smith, Marilyn (2004-01-29). "Ecological reservation in Belarus fosters new approaches to soil remediation". IAEA. Retrieved 2012-10-2012.
- "Ukraine mulls growing crops in Chernobyl nuke disaster zone". RIA Novosti. 2010-11-12. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- Walker, Shaun (2010-11-18). "Return to the fields of Chernobyl". The Independent. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
- "Mustard Seed Rapeseed Canola, Mustard Seed Oil". Agricommodityprices.com. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- Marlo Lewis (2007-11-12). "Biofuel mandates cause global warming, scientists say". Openmarket.org. Retrieved 2012-04-22.
- Beckie, Hugh et al (Autumn 2011) GM Canola: The Canadian Experience Farm Policy Journal, Volume 8 Number 8, Autumn Quarter 2011, Retrieved 20 August 2012
- O'Brien, R (2008). Fats and Oils Formulating and Processing for Applications, Third Edition: Formulating and Processing for Applications. CRC Press. pp. 37–40. ISBN 1420061666.
- Sahasrabudhe, M. R. (1977). "Crismer values and erucic acid contents of rapeseed oils". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 54 (8): 323–324. doi:10.1007/BF02672436.
- "CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21". Food and Drug Administration. 2010-04-01.
- The Commission of the European Communities (1980). "Commission Directive 80/891/EEC of 25 July 1980 relating to the Community method of analysis for determining the erucic acid content in oils and fats intended to be used as such for human consumption and foodstuffs containing added oils or fats". EurLex Official Journal 254.
- "Spanish toxic oil syndrome" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- Chardin, H.; Mayer, C.; sÉnÉChal, H.; Tepfer, M.; Desvaux, F. -X.; Peltre, G. (2001). "Characterization of High-Molecular-Mass Allergens in Oilseed Rape Pollen". International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 125 (2): 128–134. doi:10.1159/000053806. PMID 11435729.
- Chardin, H.; Mayer, C.; Senechal, H.; Poncet, P.; Clement, G.; Wal, J. M.; Desvaux, F. X.; Peltre, G. (2003). "Polygalacturonase (pectinase), a new oilseed rape allergen". Allergy 58 (5): 407–411. doi:10.1034/j.1398-9995.2003.00094.x. PMID 12752327.
- Suh, C. H.; Park, H. S.; Nahm, D. H.; Kim, H. Y. (1998). "Oilseed rape allergy presented as occupational asthma in the grain industry". Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology 28 (9): 1159–1163. PMID 9761021.
- Canola, Growing Great 2016, The Canola Council of Canada, 2007, page 3, 10
- "The www.brassica.info website for the Multinational Brassica Genome Project".
- Hartley, Matt (2008-03-20). "Grain Farmer Claims Moral Victory in Seed Battle Against Monsanto". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2011-08-30.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Brassica napus|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Cookbook:Yu Choy|
- PROTAbase on Brassica napus
- Canola Council on truth and myths about Canola
- Origins of Canola oil is toxic falsehood.
- Extracting and refining rapeseed oil[dead link]
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (05-Dec-2001).Consensus Document on Key Nutrients and Key Toxicants in Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed (Canola). ENV/JM/MONO(2001)13. Retrieved 2006-11-27
- University of Melbourne (1999) Multilingual multiscript plant name database. Brassica names. General Botanical Index. Retrieved 2006-11-27
- Oilseed rape: Biosafety research funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) - Overview
- BBC Radio 4 Food Programme on rapeseed oil