Rapid transit in India
Rapid transit in India consists of bus, metro, monorail and light rail systems. The first rapid transit system in India was the Kolkata Metro, which started operations in 1984. The Delhi Metro was India's first modern metro and the third rapid transit system in India overall, after the Kolkata Metro and Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System (Chennai MRTS), beginning operations in 2002. Rapid Metro Rail Gurgaon, which started operations in November 2013, is India's first privately owned and operated metro. The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 7 February 2014 is the first monorail in India, since the closing of the Patiala State Monorail Trainways in 1927.
In 2009, it was decided to invest 2000 billion (US$31.4 billion) on metro rail projects in the following ten years. It is planned that all Indian cities having population more that 2 million will have metro rail system. Currently, rapid transit systems operate in 15 cities and more are under construction or in planning in several cities of India.
Bus Rapid Transit System
Green background for the systems that are under construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning.
|System||City||Start of Operations||System Lines||System Length (KM)||Stations|
|Ahmedabad BRTS||Ahmedabad||14 October 2009||12||75||126|
|Jaipur BRTS||Jaipur||July 2010||2|
|Pune BRTS||Pune||December 2006||2||16.5|
|Rajkot BRTS||Rajkot||1 October 2012||1||63||19|
|Surat BRTS||Surat||26 January 2014||2||29.9||50|
|Hubli-Dharwad BRTS||Hubli, Dharwad||2014||2||70||33|
Metro rail lines in India are composed of both standard gauge and broad gauge. Projects like the Delhi Metro used broad gauge for their earliest lines but most new projects in India are on standard gauge as rolling stock imported from Europe is on Standard Gauge. One exception is the Ahmedabad Metro, which will use Broad gauge, as there is more space available inside the coach. In the long term, using Broad gauge may also allow for freight movement of containers from the Indian Railway network on the Metro train network and increased capacity within the train cars.Although Metro supposed to be mass rapid transit system, Indian metro trains are slower than their counterparts in other parts of the world, as they are mostly overground and have sharp curves. For example, Bangalore metro has a maximum speed of 40.5 km/h on curves with average speed of 30 km/h and Hyderabad Metro will have average speed of 25 km/h.
White background for the systems that are completely or partially operational (may or may not have UC and Planned sections). Green background for the systems that are under construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning, Red background for other proposed systems.
|City||System||Start of operations||System Length||No of Lines||Voltage||Notes|
|Kolkata||Kolkata Metro||24 October 1984||28.4 km||90 km||1||14||5||750VDC
|First mass rapid transit system in India
and the 17th zone of the Indian Railways.
|Chennai||Chennai MRTS||1 November 1995||19.34 km||1||25kV AC||It is planned for the MRTS to be taken over by the
Chennai Metro Rail Limited once the Chennai Metro
|Delhi||Delhi Metro||24 December 2002||192.7 km||440||349.27||6||2||25kV AC||India's first modern rapid transit system.|
|Bangalore||Namma Metro||20 October 2011||16.6 km||114.39||42.3 km||2||2||750VDC
|First metro in India to introduce Wi-Fi onboard trains.|
|Gurgaon||Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon||14 November 2013||5.1 km||1||1||N/A||India's first fully privately financed metro,
and the first metro system in the country to
auction naming rights for its stations.
|Mumbai||Mumbai Metro||8 June 2014||11.40 km||105.5 km ||1||3||25kV AC||The largest number of underground stations (86 spanning 3 planned lines) in any metro system in India.|
|Jaipur||Jaipur Metro||March 2015 ||32.5 km||2||1||N/A|
|Chennai||Chennai Metro||March 2015||45.1 km||2||25kV AC|
|Hyderabad||Hyderabad Metro||March 2015||71.6 km||3||N/A|
|Navi Mumbai||Navi Mumbai Metro||2016||106.4 km ||4||1||N/A|
|Kochi||Kochi Metro||2016||25.6 km||1||N/A||Kochi is the first Tier-II city in India to be
granted a metro under the Central Government's plan to
allow cities having population more than 20 lakhs
to have a metro rail system.
|Lucknow||Lucknow Metro||2017||36 km||N/A|
|Ahmedabad & Gandhinagar||MetroLink Express
|Nagpur||Nagpur Metro||2018||38.2 km||2||N/A||Construction will start in 2015.,|
|Bhopal||Bhopal Metro||3||25kV AC|
|Bhubaneswar & Cuttack||Bhubaneswar Metro||30 km||N/A|
|Chandigarh||Chandigarh Metro||2018||37.5 km||7||N/A|
|Indore||Indore Metro||2020||30 km||3||25kV AC|
|Kanpur||Kanpur Metro||2018||84 km||8||N/A|
|Nasik||Greater Nasik Metro||N/A||Proposed Metro line which will connect
Igatpuri, Deolali, Nasik Road, Nasik Central and
|Patna||Patna Metro||2016||60 km||2||N/A|
|Pune||Pune Metro||2018||82 km||4||N/A|
|Vijayawada||Vijayawada Metro||2018||26 km||2||...|
|Visakhapatnam||Vizag Metro||2018||30 km||...|
|Mumbai||Western railway elevated corridor||2020||63.27 km||1||N/A|
|Guwahati||Guwahati Metro||44.2 km||2||N/A|
|National Capital Region||National Capital Region Metro||2021||381 km ||3||25kV AC|
|Ludhiana||Ludhiana Metro||2017–18||2||25kVAC||Instead of Ludhiana Metro Government of Punjab, India proposed BRTS, so Ludhiana will have ultra modern and economical Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in place of Ludhiana Metro Rail project.,,|
|Varanasi||Varanasi Metro||Akhilesh Yadav, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh proposed a rapid transit system in Agra, Meerut & Varanasi, constituency of Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi.|
|Agra||Agra Metro||Akhilesh Yadav, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh proposed a rapid transit system in Agra, Meerut and Varanasi, constituency of Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi.|
|Meerut||Meerut Metro||Akhilesh Yadav, Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh proposed a rapid transit system in Agra, Meerut and Varanasi, constituency of Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi.|
1In operation Number of lines currently operating. Line is considered to be operating if services are running on at least one section.
2Planned Lines that are planned to be built but construction has not yet started
3Under construction Number of lines currently under construction. Does not include lines that are "In operation". 4N/A = information Not Available. http://www.news18.com/news/uttar-pradesh/agra-metro-rail-project-may-become-a-reality-soon-569095.html
The first monorail in India was the Kundala Valley Railway in Kundala Valley, near Munnar, Kerala. It was a privately owned monorail system, that operated from 1902 to 1908. That year the system was converted to a narrow gauge railway, which operated till 1924, when it was destroyed completely by floods. The Patiala State Monorail Trainways which opened in February 1907 and closed in 1927 was the second monorail system in India.
The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 2 February 2014 is the first operational monorail in India, since the closing of the Patiala State Monorail Trainways in 1927. Many other Indian cities have monorail projects, as a feeder system to the metro, in different phases of planning.
Pink background for the systems that are terminated.Green background for the systems that are under-construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning, Red background for other proposed systems.
|City||System||Operations began||System length (km)||Lines||Stations||Notes|
|Munnar||Kundala Valley Railway||1902–1908||5 km||1|
|Patiala||Patiala State Monorail Trainways||1907–1927||80 km||1|
|Mumbai||Mumbai Monorail||2 February 2014||8.26 km||1||7|
|Chennai||Chennai Monorail||2018||57 km||3||37||Centre approved Chennai monorail project to be implemented under DBFOT model.|
|Allahabad||Allahabad Monorail||70.4 km||2|
|Bangalore||Bangalore Monorail||60 km|
|Delhi||Delhi Monorail||90 km||6|
|Kanpur||Kanpur Monorail||63 km||3|
|Kolkata||Kolkata Monorail||72 km||2|
|Navi Mumbai||Navi Mumbai Monorail||36.82 km||2|
|Patna||Patna Monorail||32 km||4|
|Pune||Pune Monorail||52 km||2|
|Ahmedabad||Ahmedabad Monorail||30 km||4|
Green background for the systems that are currently under construction. Blue background for the systems that are currently in planning.
|System||City||Opening Year||System length (km)||No. of lines|
|Delhi Light Rail Transit||Delhi||45||3|
|Kozhikode Light Metro||Kozhikode||2016||14.5 km||1|
|Thiruvananthapuram Light Metro||Thiruvananthapuram||2016||41.8 km||1|
Initially, state governments attempted to implement metro rail projects through various Tramways Act. However, the Commissioner of Railways Safety (CRS), who operates under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, is tasked with providing safety certification for metro rail projects. The CRS refused safety certification unless the projects were implemented under a Metro Act enacted by the state government and published in The Gazette of India. Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), another railway entity, also refuses certification to projects not implemented under the criteria. Subsequently, several state governments have enacted their own Metro Acts.
Construction of metros in India are governed by the centrally enacted "The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978" which defines itself as an act to provide for the construction of works relating to metro railways in the metropolitan cities and for matters connected therewith. Operation and maintenance of metros is governed by "The Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002". Both laws were amended in 2009 with the passing of "The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009". The amendment expanded the coverage of both the acts to all metropolitan areas of India.
According to Ministry of Urban Development (India) Kamal Nath, ""Since the Metro rail is a central subject, it has been decided that all such projects in the country, whether within one municipal area or beyond, shall be taken up under the Central Metro Acts."
Metro coach factories in India
BEML manufactures Rolling Stock for Delhi Metro and Namma Metro in a consortium with Hyundai Rotem BEML has supplied more than 200 coaches to DMRC and has an order of 150 coaches from Bangalore Metro. Jaipur Metro has also ordered to manufacture, supply, test and commission 10 train sets of four-car each, totalling 40 cars to Jaipur Metro Project. BEML is one of the leading manufacturer of Rail and Metro coaches. Metro Systems using/will be using BEML Rolling Stocks are:
- Delhi Metro – 200 coaches
- Namma Metro – 150 coaches
- Jaipur Metro – 40 coaches
- Hyderabad Metro – 171 coaches
In 2013, Alstom built a factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh after it won a €243 million contract to supply 168 cars to the Chennai Metro. The 156-acre plant will be used to supply trains to cities in India and abroad.
- List of rapid transit systems
- List of monorail systems
- List of tram and light-rail transit systems
- Skybus Metro
- High-speed rail in India
- Rapid Metro work in last leg, to start by September
- "India to invest Rs 200,000 crore in Metro rail in 10 years". The Times of India. 11 September 2009.
- "'Indian cities can't do without a Metro' – The Times of India". The Times of India.
- "Ahmedabad Metro to be driverless, gets a nod for broad gauge". The Times Of India. 26 July 2013.
- "'Hyderabad Metro Rail to be slowest in India' – The Times of India". The Times Of India.
Gurgaon metro link to be completed in 30 months The Times of India, 16 July 2009.
- "Pune took the lead, but lost steam in Metro race – Times Of India". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2013-09-28.
- "Private firm to survey Nashik for metro rail – The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/metro-rail-for-andhra-within-four-years-sreedharan-appointed-advisor/. Missing or empty
- http://www.deccanchronicle.com/140921/nation-current-affairs/article/metro-rail-vijayawada-2018. Missing or empty
- http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/states/sridharan-tours-vijayawada-for-metro-rail-feasibility/article6429944.ece. Missing or empty
- "Vizag on track for metro rail project? - The Times of India". The Times Of India.
- "Coming soon: Rapid travel in Delhi, NCR". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 4 August 2013.
- "Mumbai-made monorail ran 100 years ago – Analysis – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- "A mono-tramway opened in February, 1907 connects Basi with railway at Sirhind". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- Unusual railways by Mr. J. R. Day and Mr. B. G. Wilson
- "Mumbai monorail to run in two years". The Times of India. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2009.
- B V Shiv Shankar, TNN 1 Mar 2012, 02.06AM IST (1 March 2012). "Metro rail may need to get its act together". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- "The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978". Indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- "Gujarat state in the fast lane of Indian economy". BBC News. 26 February 2012.