Rapier, first half of the 17th century.
|Place of origin||Europe|
|Weight||avg. 1 kg (2.2 lb)|
|Blade length||avg. 100 cm (39 in)|
|Width||avg. 2.5 cm (0.98 in) to sharp point|
|Blade type||single or double edged, straight blade|
|Hilt type||complex, protective hilt|
The word "rapier" generally refers to a relatively long-bladed sword characterized by a complex hilt which is constructed to provide protection for the hand wielding it. While the blade might be broad enough to cut to some degree (but nowhere near that of the wider swords in use around the Middle Ages), the long thin blade lends itself to thrusting. The blade might be sharpened along its entire length, sharpened only from the centre to the tip (as described by Capoferro) or completely without a cutting edge as called "estoc" by Pallavicini, a rapier master who, in 1670, strongly advocated using a weapon with two cutting edges. A typical example would weigh 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) and have a relatively long and slender blade of 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) or less in width, 1 metre (39 in) or more in length and ending in a sharply pointed tip.
The term rapier generally refers to a thrusting sword with a blade longer and thinner than that of the so-called side-sword but heavier than the small sword, a lighter weapon that would follow in the 18th century and later, but the exact form of the blade and hilt often depends on who is writing and when. It can refer to earlier spada da lato (much like the espada ropera) through the high rapier period of the 17th century through the small sword and duelling swords, thus context is important in understanding what is meant by the word. (The term side-sword, used among some modern historical martial arts reconstructionists, is a translation from the Italian spada da lato—a term coined long after the fact by Italian museum curators—and does not refer to the slender, long rapier, but only to the early 16th-century Italian sword with a broader and shorter blade that is considered both its ancestor and contemporary.)
It is important to remember that the word "rapier" is a German word to describe what was considered to be a foreign weapon. The word rapier was not used by Italian, Spanish, and French masters during the apogee of this weapon, the terms spada, espada and épée (or espée) being instead the norm (generic word for "sword"). Because of this, as well as the great variation of late-16th and 17th century swords, some like Tom Leoni[who?] simply describe the rapier as a straight-bladed, two-edged, single-handed sword of that period which is self-sufficient in terms of both offence and defence, not requiring a companion weapon. In order to avoid the confusion of lumping all swords together, some categorize such swords by their function and use. For example, John Clements[who?] categorizes thrusting swords with poor cutting abilities as rapiers and categorizes swords with both good thrusting and cutting abilities as cut and thrust swords. Some however see the rapier in its entire time-line and see that it never truly fits into any single definition. Largely all over Europe the weapon changed based on culture and the fighting style that was prescribed; be it Italian, Spanish, or some other instruction on the weapon's use, so that lengths, widths, hilt designs and even the lack or placement of an edge or edges differed at the same time. One might wear a rapier with a swept hilt and edges on the same day as another might wear one with a cup hilt and an edgeless blade.
Parts of the sword 
Rapiers often had complex, sweeping hilts designed to protect the hand wielding the sword. Rings extended forward from the crosspiece. Later these rings were covered with metal plates, eventually evolving into the cup hilts of many later rapiers. Many hilts included a knuckle bow extending down from the crosspiece protecting the hilt, which was usually wood wrapped with cord, leather or wire. A fat pommel (often decorated) secured the hilt to the weapon and provided a balance to the long blade.
Various rapier masters divided the blade into two, three, four, five or even nine parts. The forte, strong, is that part of the blade closest to the hilt; in cases where a master divides the blade into an even number of parts, this is the first half of the blade. The debole, weak, is the part of the blade which includes the point and is the second half of the blade when the sword is divided into an even number of parts. However, some rapier masters divided the blade into three parts (or even a multiple of three), in which case the central third of the blade, between the forte and the debole, was often called the medio, mezzo or the terzo. Others used four divisions (Fabris) or even 12 (Thibault).
The Ricasso is that portion of the blade, usually unsharpened, which extends forward from the crosspiece or quillons and which is protected by the complex hilt.
Overall length 
While there is room for debate as to how long a rapier should be, a common recommendation is to choose one such that the quillions (cross bars) are level with the navel (belly button) when standing naturally with the point resting on the ground.
Off-Hand Weapons 
With early fencing technique, it became necessary to use additional measures to protect the fencer, since the advent of the firearm had done away with Medieval armor. The idea of 'off-hand' weaponry or defense began in 1536 with Achillio Marozzo's Opera Nova, a book on rapier technique that also explained defensive positions. Included among these was the use of the 'off-hand' device, usually a buckler, to help deflect the attack of one's opponent. In 1604 this technique was expounded upon with the main gauche, a dagger, becoming the primary defense for oncoming attacks. The necessity for this was due to the fact that the concept of parrying had not yet been fully developed. A fencer would attack with the rapier and defend with the dagger, being unable to deflect, parry or guard with the sword itself. The off-hand weapon was abandoned when Angelo Viggiani developed the lunge, a side stance that led with the right foot thereby reducing the overall target area.
The rapier began to develop around 1500 as the Spanish espada ropera, or "dress sword". The espada ropera was a cut-and-thrust civilian weapon for self-defense and the duel, while earlier weapons were equally at home on the battlefield. Its development began at a time period when the need for a lighter and faster sword became mandatory thanks to the introduction of firearm use in warfare . Throughout the 16th century, a variety of new, single-handed civilian weapons were being developed, including the German Rapier, another cut-and-thrust weapon used for sportive fencing, as described in Joachim Meyer's Fechtbuch of 1570.[dubious ] 1570 is also the year in which the Italian swordmaster Signior Rocco Bonetti first settled in England advocating the use of the rapier for thrusting as opposed to cutting or slashing when engaged in a duel. Nevertheless, the English word "rapier" generally refers to a primarily thrusting weapon, developed by the year 1600 as a result of the geometrical theories of such masters as Camillo Agrippa, Ridolfo Capoferro and Vincentio Saviolo.
The rapier became extremely fashionable throughout Europe with the wealthier classes, but was not without its detractors. Some people, such as George Silver, disapproved of its technical potential and the dueling use to which it was put.
The etymology of the word rapier is uncertain. Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange, in his Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis, cites a form Rapperia in from a Latin text from 1511. He mentions an etymology deriving the word from the Greek ραπίζειν "to strike." However, Walter William Skeat suggested that "rapiér" may derive from raspiére, a poker, and that this may be a contemptuous term developed by older cut-and-thrust fencers for the new weapon. The most probable root of this term, however, appear to be from the Spanish ropera that comes from ropa, or elegant dress, thus a "dress sword".
Allowing for fast reactions, and with a long reach, the rapier was well suited to civilian combat in the 16th–17th centuries. As military-style cutting and thrusting swords continued to evolve to meet needs on the battlefield, so did the rapier continue to evolve to meet the needs of civilian combat and decorum, eventually becoming lighter, shorter and less cumbersome to wear. This is when the rapier began to give way to the small sword.
By the year 1715, the rapier had been largely replaced by the lighter small sword throughout most of Europe, although the former continued to be used, as evidenced by the treatises of Donald McBane (1728), P. J. F. Girard (1736) and Domenico Angelo (1787). The rapier is still used today by officers of the swiss guard of the pope.
Historical schools of rapier fencing 
- Antonio Manciolino, Opera Nova per Imparare a Combattere, & Schermire d'ogni sorte Armi – 1531
- Achille Marozzo, Opera Nova Chiamata Duello, O Vero Fiore dell'Armi de Singulari Abattimenti Offensivi, & Diffensivi – 1536
- Anonimo Bolognese, L'Arte della Spada (M-345/M-346 Manuscripts) – (early or mid 16th century date it to "about 1550"
- Camillo Agrippa, Trattato di Scientia d'Arme con un Dialogo di Filosofia – 1553
- Giacomo di Grassi, Ragion di Adoprar Sicuramente l'Arme si da Offesa, come da Difesa – 1570
- Giovanni dall'Agocchie, Dell'Arte di Scrimia – 1572
- Angelo Viggiani dal Montone, Trattato dello Schermo – 1575
- Marco Docciolini, Trattato in Materia di Scherma – 1601
- Salvator Fabris, De lo Schermo ovvero Scienza d'Armi – 1606
- Nicoletto Giganti, Scola overo Teatro – 1606
- Ridolfo Capo Ferro, Gran Simulacro dell'Arte e dell'Uso della Scherma – 1610
- Francesco Alfieri, La Scherma di Francesco Alfieri – 1640
- Giuseppe Morsicato Pallavicini, La Scherma Illustrata – 1670
- Francesco Antonio Marcelli, Regole della Scherma – 1686
- Bondi di Mazo, La Spada Maestra – 1696
- Jerónimo Sánchez de Carranza, De la Philosofia de las Armas (1569)
- Luis Pacheco de Narváez, Libro de las Grandezas de la Espada (1599)
- Girard Thibault, Academie de l'Espee, ou se demonstrant par Reigles mathematiques, sur le fondement Cercle Mysterieux (1630)
- Vincentio Saviolo, His Practise 1595
- Joseph Swetnam, The Schoole of the Noble and Worthy Science of Defence (1617)
- The Pallas Armata (1639)
Main articles: German school of swordsmanship
- Paulus Hector Mair, Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athletica (1542)
- Joachim Meyer, Thorough Descriptions of the free Knightly and Noble Art of Fencing (1570)
- Jacob Sutor, Künstliches Fechtbuch (1612)
- Johannes Georgius Bruchius (1671)
The classical fencing tradition 
Classical fencing schools claim to have inherited aspects of rapier forms in their systems. In 1885, fencing scholar Egerton Castle wrote "there is little doubt that the French system of fencing can be traced, at its origin, to the ancient Italian swordsmanship; the modern Italian school being of course derived in an uninterrupted manner from the same source." Castle went on to note that "the Italians have preserved the rapier form, with cup, pas d'ane, and quillons, but with a slender quadrangular blade."
Popular culture and entertainment 
- Despite the rapier's common usage in the 16th–17th centuries, many films set in these periods (many starring Errol Flynn) have the swordsmen using épées or foils. Actual rapier combat was hardly the lightning thrust and parry depicted. Director Richard Lester and fight choreographer William Hobbs attempted to more closely match traditional rapier technique in Three Musketeers and The Four Musketeers. Since then, many newer movies, like The Princess Bride and La Reine Margot have used rapiers rather than later weapons, although the fight choreography has not always accurately portrayed historical fencing techniques. Rapiers are also often featured in various video games, in particular Role-playing games set in the medieval and Renaissance periods.
- The television series Queen of Swords features the use of the rapier in the mysterious circle, Destreza style favoured by the first swordmaster of the series Anthony De Longis who studied the Spanish sword fighting technique and wanted a unique style for the heroine. He had previously used it in the episode, "Duende", of the Highlander TV series.
- In the children's series Keys to the Kingdom, the main character Arthur learns to fight with a rapier.
- In the Koei game Dynasty Warriors 7, one can use the rapier as a weapon. Sima Shi, Liu Shan, and Yuan Shao use rapiers as their EX weapon.
- The rapier is the preferred weapon of Richie Ryan, an Immortal and central character of Highlander: The Series.
- Irina Spalko from Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull is an expert fencer and carries a rapier, her signature weapon. She uses it to fence with Mutt Williams during the chase scene in the Amazon rainforest.
- The Spanish hero Zorro is a master swordsman who utilizes his favored weapon, a rapier.
- In the Namco game series of Soul Calibur, Raphael Sorel, who has appeared since Soulcalibur II, wields a Rapier.
- In the Capcom game Breath of Fire, Nina uses different styles of rapiers for her main weapon.
- In the novel Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Rapier is the code name of Fred Weasley on the secret radio program Potterwatch. Interestingly enough, Fred's wand resembled a rapier, with an intricate hilt and slender form.
- In The Wolfman (2010 film), the silver wolf's head cane owned by Lawrence Talbot was redesigned to have a short, hidden rapier concealed inside the cane. Lawrence is shown receiving the sword-cane from an elderly man in the extended cut of the film, and later tries to use it against Sir John in the final battle.
- In the online game, League of Legends, the playable champion Fiora uses a rapier as her weapon.
- In the Action RPG game Final Fantasy Versus XIII, the non-playable character Stella Nox Fleuret wields a rapier.
- In the real-time strategy game The Settlers: Heritage of Kings, the ruler of Kaliox, Mary De Mortfichet, wields a rapier in battle.
- In the Fire Emblem video games, rapier is the weapon used by several lords (Marth, Eliwood, Eirika, Chrom).
- In "Sword Art Online", Asuna wields a rapier made by Lizbeth called Lambent Light.
- In "Highlander", MacLeod's first victim wields a very expensive rapier made in Toledo, Spain as his weapon of choice, the sword is later in the show revealed to be a Toledo Sale-Manga, worth about a million dollars.
- In Defense of the Ancients and Dota 2, Divine Rapier is a purchasable item that is one of the most powerful items in-game.
See also 
- Espada ropera, a dueling sword from Spain
- European dueling sword for a more detailed explanation of the primary use of the rapier for dueling
- Historical European Martial Arts
- Clements, John (1997). Renaissance Swordsmanship: The Illustrated Book Of Rapiers And Cut And Thrust Swords And Their Use. Paladin Press. ISBN 978-0-87364-919-3.
- Kirby, Jared (2004). Italian Rapier Combat: Ridolfo Capo Ferro. Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-580-5.
- Leoni, Tom. The Art of Dueling: 17th Century Rapier as Taught by Salvatore Fabris. Highland Village, TX: The Chivalry Bookshelf, 2005. ISBN 978-1-891448-23-2
- Leoni, Tom (2010). Venetian Rapier: The School, or Salle. Nicoletto Giganti's 1606 Rapier Fencing Curriculum.. Freelance Academy Press. ISBN 978-0-9825911-2-3.
- Wilson, William E (2002). Arte of Defence: An Introduction to the Use of the Rapier. Highland Village, TX: The Chivalry Bookshelf. ISBN 978-1-891448-18-8.
- Windsor, Guy (2006). Duellists Companion: A Training Manual for 17th Century Italian Rapier. Highland Village, TX: The Chivalry Bookshelf. ISBN 978-1-891448-32-4.
- Meyers, Joachim (1570). A Thorough Description of the Free Knightly and Noble Art of Combat with All Customary Weapons.
- Clements, John (1997). Renaissance Swordsmanship: The Illustrated Book Of Rapiers And Cut And Thrust Swords And Their Use. Paladin Press. ISBN 978-0-87364-919-3.
- Thibault, Girard (1630). Academie de l'Espée.
- "Weaponry: The Rapier". Historynet.com. 2006-06-12. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- Du Cange, Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis, s.v.:
- RAPER, Gladius longior et vilioris pretii, Gallice Raper. Monstræ Factæ apud Chassagniam: Claudius Jornandi habet unam bonam Rapperiam et unam dagam. Ducit Borellus a Græco ῥαπίζειν, Cædere.
- Raper adjective sumitur, in Lit. remiss. ann. 1474, ex Reg. 195. Chartoph. reg. ch. 1155: Icellui Pierre donna au suppliant de ladite espée Raper sur la teste, etc.
- [dead link]
- Rubboli and Cesari (2005) date this work to 1500-1525. Leoni and Reich of the Order of the Seven Hearts
- "Salvatorfabris.com". Salvatorfabris.com. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- 2006 class handout[dead link]
- Chicagoswordplayguild.com[dead link]
- Castle, Egerton (1885). Schools and Masters of Fence: From the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century.. London: George Bell & Sons. pp. iv, 257.
- The Three Musketeers (1973)
- Behind the scenes Destiny page 1
- Cover of first ever story File:Capistrano2.jpg
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rapiers|
- "An Introduction to the Rapier Techniques of Salvator Fabris" by Phil Marshall
- "Call to Arms: The Italian Rapier" by Bill Grandy
- "Questions and Answers About the Rapier" by John Clements
- "Replication of Rapier Fencing Today" by John Clements
- "Italian Rapier – The Weapon"[dead link] by Tom Leoni
- "The Rapier of Gustav Vasa, King of Sweden" by Björn Hellqvist
- YouTube – Rapier vs longsword A Sparring bout between Nick Thomas and Michael Thomas of the Academy of Historical Fencing
- "The Sword becoming the Rapier. Part 2." Description and photos.