|First appearance||Tangled (2010)|
|Last appearance||Tangled Ever After (2012)|
|Created by||Glen Keane
The Brothers Grimm (original story)
|Voiced by||Mandy Moore
Delaney Rose Stein (as a child)
|Family||The King (father)
The Queen (mother)
Mother Gothel (foster mother, deceased)
|Spouse(s)||Eugene "Flynn Rider" Fitzherbert|
|Children||Anxelin (daughter; in Descendants only)|
Rapunzel is a fictional character who appears in Walt Disney Animation Studios' 50th animated feature film Tangled (2010) and its sequel Tangled Ever After (2012). In both appearances, Rapunzel is voiced by American recording artist and actress Mandy Moore. During the beginning of Tangled, a young Rapunzel is voiced by child actress Delaney Rose Stein.
Created and animated by supervising animator Glen Keane, Rapunzel is loosely based on the main character of the German fairy tale by The Brothers Grimm. In the Disney adaptation, for which the character was adapted into a less passive and more proactive rendition of herself, Rapunzel, a princess born with long, magical golden hair, is abducted as an infant and raised by a vain woman named Mother Gothel, who exploits her hair's unique healing abilities in order to remain youthful for several years. Locked by Gothel in a secluded tower for eighteen years, where she is kept unaware of her true identity, Rapunzel enlists the help of a thief named Flynn Rider to see the floating lanterns in time for her birthday.
Critical reception of Rapunzel has been generally positive, with critics complimenting her spirited, lively personality and independence. Chronologically the tenth Disney Princess, Rapunzel was officially inducted into the line-up on October 2 2011, becoming the franchise's first computer-animated member. Her physical appearance and personality have drawn much comparison between her and preceding Disney Princess Ariel from The Little Mermaid (1989), by whom she was inspired.
- 1 Development
- 2 Appearances (Disney)
- 3 Appearances in other media
- 4 Reception
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Veteran Disney animator Glen Keane decided to adapt the well-known German fairy tale "Rapunzel" by The Brothers Grimm into an animated feature film in 1996. He was interested in the idea of an animated film based on "Rapunzel" because he was attracted by the concept of a "person that was born with this gift inside of her and it had to come out", drawing similarities between this and his experience working at Walt Disney Animation Studios. During production, Keane suffered a heart attack in 2008, consequently resigning from his position as director and appointing Nathan Greno and Byron Howard as his replacements. However, Keane remained creatively involved with the project nonetheless, serving as both the film's executive producer and Rapunzel's supervising animator.
|"The development of a character for me is a very personal journey. For me the joy of creating a character that I believe is real is at the heart of creating a memorable character. I use people I know as inspiration. It’s a very intimate personal process and I will do hundreds, sometimes thousands, of drawings in finding that design. There is a great “aha” moment when I finally recognize the character on my paper as someone I know."|
|— Keane, on the process of creating Rapunzel.|
Walt Disney first attempted to adapt "Rapunzel" into an animated film soon after the studio released Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937, but the project was ultimately abandoned when the story turned out to be "a really hard nut to crack". According to Keane, this was mainly due to the fact that the majority of the fairy tale takes place within a tower. To overcome this, Tangled's writers were forced to develop a way of "bringing Rapunzel out of the tower". Originally, the film was conceived under the title Rapunzel Unbraided, which Keane described as "a Shrek-like version of the film" that revolved around an entirely different concept. Keane said of the original plot, "It was a fun, wonderful, witty version and we had a couple of great writers. But in my heart of hearts I believed there was something much more sincere and genuine to get out of the story, so we set it aside and went back to the roots of the original fairy tale."
As directors, Greno and Howard felt it essential that Rapunzel resemble a less "passive" heroine than the way she is depicted in the original fairy tale. "We knew we were making this movie for a contemporary audience and we wanted Rapunzel to be a real role model in a way. We wanted all this girl power and to really drive this story, so she doesn't wait around for anything ... she's a smart girl, she has these hopes and dreams and she's going to get what she wants out of life."
Originally, Broadway actress Kristin Chenoweth was cast as the voice of Rapunzel. At one point, though briefly, the directors had cast actress Reese Witherspoon in the role, who was also to serve as the film's executive producer. However, Witherspoon eventually departed from the project, citing creative differences with the filmmakers. Broadway performer Idina Menzel had also auditioned for the role, but didn't get the part. After hundreds of auditions, the directors ultimately decided to cast recording artist and actress Mandy Moore in the role because, according to co-director Byron Howard, she "has this great soul to her voice" as well as "this down-to-earth, girl-next-door quality that makes her everything you could hope for in a Disney heroine." Child actress Delaney Rose Stein was cast as a young version Rapunzel.
Moore "grew up loving Disney films", describing the opportunity to be featured in one as "the ultimate fantasy". Initially, she had little intention of auditioning for Tangled because she was aware that there would be much competition, and feared that a failed audition would simply result in disappointment. Once she made up her mind to audition, Moore reportedly "chased after" the role of Rapunzel, auditioning for it twice. Because the film is a musical requiring its cast to provide both their characters' speaking and singing voices, it was mandatory for all auditioning to perform one song of their choice. Following the given instructions to sing a song that was in the style of a singer-songwriter, Moore, a professional singer, performed singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell's "Help Me", a song that she herself had covered on her fourth studio album, Coverage (2003).
The filmmakers fought against hiring top-billed celebrities to voice the film's characters. When she joined the cast of Tangled, Moore was initially unaware that the film would become Walt Disney Animation Studios' 50th animated feature film. Since that time, she has received her ignorance with gratitude, explaining, "I feel lucky because I would've probably felt a bit more pressure had I known going into the recording process." Moore was also surprised to learn that the majority of her dialogue would not be recorded in the presence of co-stars Zachary Levi and Donna Murphy, who provided the voices of Flynn Rider and Mother Gothel respectively. She claims to have only met with Levi once to record the song "I See the Light", a duet between her character Rapunzel and Levi's character, Flynn. Moore described the recording process as challenging because she was provided with little visual aid, explaining, "All I had to work off were a few sketches ... but it was also fun because it allows you to go into the depths of your imagination." She also revealed that creating Rapunzel's voice was simply a process of "let[ting] go". Moore was often required to re-record a single line a total of four times before the directors finally heard a version with which they were satisfied. After watching the completed film for the first time, Moore was disappointed with her own performance because she felt that her voice sounded "shrill".
Design and characteristics
|"With Rapunzel I did an enormous amount of drawings and I wanted to keep a sense of asymmetry in her. I read a book about feminine beauty and it said the key to beauty is strangeness in a woman's face. There needs to be something slightly off, some element; it might be her nose, her lip, her tooth, or one eye higher than the other, but something. Even in Rapunzel's teeth, the way she talks, there's something a little bit wonky in the placement of her teeth, and things like that were designed so that she was more real, true and appealing."|
|— Keane, on designing Rapunzel and the concept of "feminine beauty".|
Longtime Disney animator Glen Keane served as Rapunzel's supervising animator. He designed the character under the personal mentorship of veteran Disney animator Ollie Johnston, one of the original members of Disney's Nine Old Men. After showing one of his early pencil tests of Rapunzel to Johnston, Keane was advised to try and capture in her movements what she is thinking as opposed to simply animating what she is doing. Johnston told him, "what I was wondering is: What is she thinking about?" Keane likened being given this advice to receiving a "slap that I never forgot, so when I was drawing over people's work, I really tried to get into the head of the thinking of the character".
For Rapunzel, co-director Byron Howard was personally inspired by the appearance of Ariel from The Little Mermaid (1989), a character who was also animated by Keane. Howard elaborated, "Ariel was the first character that I ever thought there was a soul behind her eyes ... We hoped to do that with Rapunzel to find some sort of soul and depth that people could relate to". Meanwhile, Keane, who aimed to "[bring] the hand drawn into computer", also noted similarities between Ariel and Rapunzel, explaining that both characters are heroines who are "being kept from living their dreams by a barrier ... They both share this irrepressible spirit." While designing Rapunzel, Keane was inspired by a book that instructs readers on the idea of "feminine beauty". The book explains that "the key to beauty is strangeness in a woman's face." Taking this into consideration, Keane kept a sense of asymmetry in mind while drawing Rapunzel, incorporating into her design several subtle imperfections, most notably in her teeth that are bucked and "not quite perfect". She was also drawn with an assortment of freckles. Keane designed Rapunzel with large eyes in order to convey her "irrepressible quality". He discovered a similar trait in Mandy Moore's voice, allowing Keane to also use her as inspiration. The animators created nine different versions of Rapunzel before finally settling on a design with which they were satisfied.
Executive producer and Disney CEO John Lasseter explained to The New York Times, "The challenge is that you want to make Rapunzel feel like a smart, clever, educated, healthy, fun human being -- who has never left a tower in 18 years". In order to avoid creating a heroine who would appear "princessy and aloof", the writers loosely based Rapunzel's personality and demeanor on those of real-life female celebrities. Specifically, actresses Reese Witherspoon and Natalie Portman served as inspiration for the character, as well as comedian and Saturday Night Live star Amy Poehler. The result was a variety of "unexpected, quirky qualities" meant to "shake up expectations of what a princess should be." The New York Times has regarded Rapunzel's personality as a significant departure from those of preceding Disney heroines. Writing for the newspaper, Brooks Barnes described Rapunzel as "tough", elaborating, "she smacks Flynn silly with a frying pan when he climbs into her tower and uses her hair like a whip." According to Mandy Moore, Rapunzel is "not the ... typical Disney princess" because "she's very independent" and "she can take care of herself."
Keane is known for basing the characters he animates on various members of his family. While Ariel's appearance was based on that of his wife, Rapunzel's passion for art and painting was inspired by his daughter, Claire. In the film, several of Claire's original drawings and paintings decorate the interior Rapunzel's tower. While Keane was working on Tangled, Claire gave birth to his first grandchild, Matisse, whose appearance he used as inspiration for the infant Rapunzel who appears at the beginning of the film.
|"The hair ... proved to be one of the film's biggest challenges. Because Rapunzel's mane is her ticket (it heals wounds, serves as transportation and makes the girl a prize to her captor), it had to look real on screen. To create it, the director says, animators created a series of tubes that looked like spaghetti. 'It's about 1,000 tubes or 100,000 actual hairs. The artists were able to get a general movement from those tubes.'"|
|— The Sioux City Journal, interviewing Howard and Greno.|
Rapunzel was the first blonde-haired Disney animated heroine since Aurora in Sleeping Beauty (1959). Animating Rapunzel's hair using computer-generated imagery has been regarded as the most challenging aspect in the development process of Tangled. According to the Los Angeles Times, supervising animator Glen Keane has become well known for animating some of Walt Disney Animation Studios' "greatest hair hits" since 1989, including Ariel from The Little Mermaid, the Beast from Beauty and the Beast (1991) and Pocahontas from Pocahontas (1995). Both Keane and Howard have expressed similar opinions on Rapunzel's hair, with Keane describing it as "this constant reminder that she has this gift", and Howard describing it as its own character. As directors, Howard and Greno provided the animators with much live-action material and reference to use as inspiration for the appearance of Rapunzel's hair, such as attaching long strands of string to a baseball cap that they would take turns wearing in the studio and moving around it. Additionally, they recruited women who had not cut their hair in several years to serve as live models.
Senior Software Engineer Dr. Kelly Ward, a hair simulation major and graduate from the University of North Carolina, was placed in charge of developing special software meant to assist the animators in animating 70 feet of hair. Ward revealed that, in real life, the character's hair would weigh roughly 60 pounds, "more weight than a real person would be able to move around as effortlessly as we allow Rapunzel to do in the movie." For simplicity sake, the animators reduced the realistic total of 100,000 individual strands of hair found on a typical human head to a more manageable 100 for Rapunzel. Acquiring the unique but realistic shade of golden blonde for Rapunzel's hair also proved challenging animators.
In order to remain young and beautiful, a vain old woman named Mother Gothel hoards the healing properties of a magical golden flower. When the pregnant Queen falls ill, the flower is harvested and fed to her as medicine, thus preventing Gothel's from using it. Once healthy, the Queen gives birth to Rapunzel, whose long golden hair has inherited the flower's powerful healing magic. Hoping to regain full control over the flower, Gothel kidnaps the princess and incarcerates her in an isolated tower simply for the purpose of exploiting her magic hair in order to remain youthful. Every year on Rapunzel's birthday, the kingdom of Corona releases thousands of floating lanterns into the sky in her memory.
Eighteen years later, Rapunzel, ignorant to the fact that she is a princess, is growing eager to leave the tower and see the "floating lights," which she believes bear some significance to her. However, she is forbidden by Gothel, by whom she has been led to believe is her mother. When a wanted thief named Flynn Rider, in search of a place to hide, stumbles upon Rapunzel's tower, Rapunzel, who has tricked Gothel into leaving her unattended, blackmails Flynn into taking her to see the lanterns in return for the crown that he has stolen from the palace. Accompanied by Rapunzel's chameleon friend Pascal, they embark, but Gothel is soon in close pursuit.
Rapunzel and Flynn eventually arrive at the kingdom in time for the lantern ceremony. Soon afterwards, Flynn is ambushed and vengefully turned into the police by his former partners-in-crime the Stabbington Brothers, who he abandoned in an attempt to outrun the King's soldiers, and sentenced to death. However, before the Brothers can harm Rapunzel, Gothel knocks them unconscious and takes a heartbroken Rapunzel back to the tower.
Back in her bedroom, Rapunzel is suddenly flooded by memories from her past. Realizing Gothel is a fraud, she finally finds the courage to rebel against her. However, Gothel, unwilling to lose Rapunzel, chains her up and gags her with a white handkerchief. When Flynn, having managed to escape from the castle, arrives at the tower, Gothel stabs him. Desperate to save him, Rapunzel promises to do whatever Gothel pleases in return. Gothel complies, but just as Rapunzel is about to heal him, Eugene cuts her hair short, causing it to turn brown and lose all of its magical powers and might never be long again, resulting in Gothel's death. Flynn dies in Rapunzel's arms and she cries bitterly. However, the flower's magic manifests itself through Rapunzel's tears and returns Eugene to life. Flynn returns Rapunzel to the palace, where she is finally reunited with her parents.
Tangled Ever After
At the end of Tangled, Flynn Rider finally accepts his birth name, Eugene Fitzherbert, and reveals that he has proposed to Rapunzel, implying that a wedding is soon to take place. In Tangled Ever After, the entire kingdom is preparing for Rapunzel's marriage to Eugene. Several guests are in attendance, including Rapunzel's parents the King and Queen, the pub thugs and the Stabbington Brothers, while their animal friends Pascal, a chameleon, and Maximus, a horse, serve as flower and ring bearer respectively. Just as a brown-haired Rapunzel, accompanied by her father, completes her journey down the aisle to unite with Eugene, Maximus, who is carrying the rings on a pillow in his mouth, has a reaction to one of Pascal's flower petals and sneezes, expelling the rings down the aisle and out onto the city streets.
Desperate to retrieve them, Pascal and Maximus sneak out of the chapel while Rapunzel and Eugene say their vows. After pursuing the rings on tumultuous chase around the kingdom and encountering several obstacles along the way, they finally manage to recover them from a flock of flying doves, crashing into a tar factory in the process. Pascal and Maximus return to the chapel just as the bishop asks for the rings. Though shocked by their tar-covered appearance, Rapunzel and Flynn exchange rings nonetheless and share a kiss. Exhausted from their previous endeavors, Maximus sits down, nudging the wedding cake in the process and causing it, which has been positioned on wheels, to roll down the aisle.
Rapunzel and Eugene make a cameo appearance in Frozen, towards the end of "For the First Time in Forever", where they are among the guests filing into the castle for Elsa's coronation while Anna wanders out to explore the town of Arendelle.
Sofia the First
Appearances in other media
|"Rapunzel spends most of her life in a tower with her chameleon friend, Pascal, imagining the world outside. When she meets Flynn Rider, the two of them go on an adventure so she can finally live her dream."|
|— Blurb extracted from Rapunzel section of official Disney Princess website, summarizing her role in Tangled.|
Rapunzel is the tenth member of the Disney Princess line-up, a marketing franchise aimed primarily at young girls that manufactures and releases products such as toys, video and audio recordings, clothing, and video games. The Walt Disney Company introduces characters into its Disney Princess line-up through coronation. Rapunzel's was held on October 2, 2011, at the Kensington Palace in London, England; the character became the franchise's first princess to have been computer-animated. However, the franchise uses a traditionally animated rendering of Rapunzel in most of its merchandise. Following her coronation, Rapunzel was recognized with her own page on the official Disney Princess website.
Disney Consumer Products has released several merchandise based on Tangled that features Rapunzel. Rapunzel appears as a playable character in an interactive adventure-themed video game based on the film, entitled Tangled: The Video Game. The game was released by Disney Interactive Studios on November 23, 2010, one day before the film's November 24 theatrical release, specifically for the Nintendo video game platforms Wii and DS, and follows the plot of the original film. Voice actress Mandy Moore reprises her role as Rapunzel in the video game. The character's likeness has also been adapted into a variety of doll products. Rapunzel was the first character created and released as part of the Disney Animator's Collection, a series of dolls depicting each of the eleven Disney Princesses as toddler. She was designed Glen Keane, who served as her supervising animator on the original film.
Rapunzel currently makes regular appearances at various Walt Disney Parks and Resorts sites, locations and attractions. In anticipation of the film's theatrical release, several Tangled-based attractions were constructed at various Disney Parks locations in both California and Florida, USA. These include a life-sized replica of Rapunzel's tower, located in Fantasyland.
As part of photographer Annie Leibovitz's Disney Dream Portrait Series that she has been commissioning for Walt Disney Parks and Resorts since 2007, The Walt Disney Company hired American country singer-songwriter Taylor Swift to be featured as the model for Rapunzel. In a detailed description of the piece, Us Weekly wrote, "The stunning image — captioned 'Where a world of adventure awaits' — shows the 23-year-old Grammy winner perched on the window ledge of a moss-covered stone tower. A pink petticoat peeks out from under her purple gown as she stares wistfully into the distance, her long golden tresses flowing regally in the wind." Swift told On The Red Carpet that she was honored to have been selected for the piece.
Critics were generally positive in their opinions of Rapunzel. The St. Paul Pioneer Press' Chris Hewitt described the character as "no damsel in distress", while Sara Vizcarrondo of Boxoffice described the character as "a spunky heroine who could infiltrate the heavily guarded princess canon." Stephen Whitty of The Star-Ledger dubbed Rapunzel "a fairly capable young woman". Bruce Diones of The New Yorker wrote that Rapunzel has "a sharp wit and intelligent concerns", while Claudia Puig of USA Today opined, "Rapunzel is ... believable in her teenage histrionics". Calling the character a "delight", The Austin Chronicle's Marjorie Baumgarten wrote, "Rapunzel is a spunky gal, capable of defending herself". Sandie Angulo Chen of Common Sense Media wrote that Rapunzel is a "guileless, strong, and beautiful" character who is "so breathtakingly good that you can't help but weep with her when she thinks all hope is lost." The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel's Cathy Jakicic described Rapunzel as a "scrappy, self-reliant" heroine who "can rescue herself". The Scotsman commented, "the film doesn't ... turn [Rapunzel] into a simpering damsel in distress." Describing the character as "innocent but (inevitably) feisty", Empire's Helen O'Hara enjoyed the fact that both Rapunzel and Flynn are given "decent character development" while "bas[ing[ their growing love story on more than a single longing glance." Similarly, the Mountain Xpress praised Rapunzel and Flynn's relationship, writing, "what works best is the interplay between the two leads ... these animated characters are frankly more believable and charismatic than the human ones in ... Love and Other Drugs." Todd Hertz of Christianity Today called Rapunzel "fun, dynamic, and wondrous".
Jim Schembri of The Age gave the character a very detailed, positive review, writing:
And, of course, the heart of the story is Rapunzel, a freshly minted heroine who morphs from prisoner to strong-willed seeker of her own destiny. Blondes have not had a good rap of late, thanks chiefly to the stream of formulaic rom-coms that have played them up as the ditzes and airheads of cliche. Rapunzel's no-nonsense attitude and proactive air, however, reminds us that the blondes of yore were not to be trifled with. As reimagined in Tangled, Rapunzel defies authority, shuts down male ego and charts her own course. She's not only a great role model for kids, she's the type of gutsy, independently minded, value-added blonde Mae West would have been proud of.
The character was not void of criticism. Although Richard Corliss of Time thoroughly enjoyed the film, he felt that too much emphasis was placed on Flynn Rider and not enough on Rapunzel. Corliss questioned the future of Disney's animated heroines, writing, "For 60 years ... girls were the focal characters who could be expected to come of age, triumph over adversity and, in general, man up," and accused various film studios of "abolish[ing] female-centered stories." Variety's Justin Chang described Rapunzel as a "bland, plastic" heroine, likening her to a Barbie doll. Similarly, Tom Huddleston of Time Out described Rapunzel as "bland". James Berardinelli of ReelViews was fairly mixed in his review, writing, "although likeable and energetic, [Rapunzel] is not as memorable as Snow White, Ariel, or Belle." Keith Uhlich of Time Out described the character as "synthetic". He wrote, "you never feel like you're watching a girl on the empowering cusp of adulthood so much as a selection of attitudes compiled through demographic study." The Independent's Anthony Quinn panned the character, describing her as "bland and Valley Girlish". Joe Williams of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch opined, "when the big-eyed heroine tries to tug at our heartstrings and Flynn turns into Prince Charming, the too-familiar hero-and-damsel motif feels like a fashion faux-pas." Similarly, the SouthtownStar's Jake Coyle wrote, "Both Rapunzel and Flynn too much resemble Barbie and Ken, lacking both superficial and emotional individuality." Jen Yamato of Movies.com criticized Disney for "failing to give Rapunzel a backbone and retreading ground so familiar you can fall asleep for ten minutes and still know exactly what happened".
Disney Princesses comparisons
As the tenth Disney Princess, several critics have drawn comparisons between Rapunzel and preceding Disney Princesses and animated heroines, the most frequent and prominent of whom remains Ariel from The Little Mermaid (1989). The Daily News' Joe Neumaier likened Rapunzel's independence to that of Belle from Beauty and the Beast (1991), writing, "thoroughly modern Rapunzel does most of the saving". Jonathan Crocker of Total Film noted similarities between Rapunzel and Ariel, describing Rapunzel as "A strong-willed heroine longing to see outside." Mike Scott of The Times-Picayune commented on Rapunzel's innocence, describing it as "reminiscent of Amy Adams' flighty Giselle from ... Enchanted." LoveFilm's Tom Charity commented on the character's independence, likening Rapunzel's spirited personality to those of both Ariel from The Little Mermaid (1989) and Mulan from Mulan (1998). Charity also labeled Rapunzel "another addition to the more recent Disney tradition of emancipated heroines".
Accolades and recognition
CNN's Stephanie Goldberg included Rapunzel in her article "Brave's Merida and other animated heroines", a list that recognized some of Disney's most heroic and independent heroines who have appeared in animated films. Goldberg jokingly wrote, "So what if ... Rapunzel defends herself with a frying pan and holds prisoners captive with her long, magical hair?" Sonia Saraiya of Nerve ranked Rapunzel fourth in her article "Ranked: Disney Princesses From Least To Most Feminist". Comparing the character's spirited personality to that of preceding Disney Princesses Ariel and Jasmine from Aladdin (1992), Saraiya described Rapunzel as "badass," despite the fact that "her naivete sometimes gets in the way of her progressivism." Saraiya continued, "[Rapunzel] also recognizes the unfairness of her plight and finds a way out of it, outwitting her 'mother,' who is in fact her kidnapper, to venture to the outside world." Tala Dayrit of Female Network included Rapunzel in her article "30 Fierce and Fun Female Cartoon Characters", writing that, unlike her original fairy tale counterpart, "She’s not the helpless damsel locked in a tower awaiting an unknown fate, but a strong woman capable of defending herself in a fight."
In the film, Rapunzel performs the song "I See the Light" as a duet with Flynn Rider. The song received an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Song at the 83rd Academy Awards in 2011. Voice actress Mandy Moore performed the song live at the ceremony with co-star Zachary Levi, who provided the voice Flynn in the film. The song did, however, garner the Grammy Award for Best Song Written for Visual Media at the 54th ceremony in 2012.
- "Tangled - Glen Keane interview". IndieLondon. IndieLondon.co.uk. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Arludik, Galerie (November 10, 2010). "Glen Keane interview at the Arludik gallery in Paris". CloneWeb. CloneWeb. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- Concannon, Philip (January 27, 2011). ""Don't animate what the character is doing, animate what the character is thinking" - An interview with Glen Keane". Phil on Film. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Connelly, Brendon (January 28, 2011). "Disney’s Glen Keane On Tangled, Reboot Ralph And Bringing Old-School Technique To CG Animation". BleedingCool.com. BleedingCool.com. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Brew, Simon (November 25, 2010). "Disney legend Glen Keane interview: Tangled, computer animation, his heart attack, and Ollie Johnston". Den of Geek. Dennis Publishing Limited. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Minow, Nell. "Interview: Glen Keane of ‘Tangled’". Beliefnet. Beliefnet, Inc. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "Glen Keane – Legendary Animator Glen Keane – Legendary Animator". CTN animation Expo. The Creative Talent Network, INC. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Liu, Ed (April 8, 2011). "A Virtual Roundtable with "Tangled" Animation Supervisor Glen Keane". Toon Zone News. Genesis Framework. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- Nusair, David. "Top 5 Disney Animated Adaptations". About.com. About.com. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Paluso, Marianne (March 29, 2011). "Once Upon a Time". Christian Today. Christianity Today. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- Molina, Melissa (2010). "Exclusive Interview with 'Tangled' Directors Byron Howard and Nathan Greno". About.com. About.com. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "Kristin Chenoweth Talks On 'Rapunzel Unbraided'". Killermovies.com. KillerMovies.com. December 28, 2004. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- Peter, Thomas (February 16, 2010). "Disney's "Rapunzel" Title Turns Up "Tangled"". Playbill.com. Playbill, Inc. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Berkshire, Geoff (November 22, 2010). "'Tangled' review". Metromix. Metromix.com. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Jacobs, Evan (March 2, 2010). "First Look at Disney's Tangled Trailer". Movieweb.com. MovieWeb™, Inc. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Fischer, Martha (November 4, 2005). "More problems for Disney - is Rapunzel Unbraided already in trouble?". Moviefone.com. Aol Inc. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- "Tangled - Secret Phone Recording Helped Idina Menzel Land New Disney Role". Contact Music. November 1, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- Cerasaro, Pat (November 18, 2010). "BWW EXCLUSIVE: TANGLED Directors Nathan Greno & Byron Howard". Broadway World.com. Wisdom Digital Media. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
- "Interview: ‘Tangled’ Directors Talk About Creating Disney’s 50th Animated Feature". Geeks of Doom. Geeks of Doom. March 27, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Nusair, David. "Behind the Scenes of 'Tangled'". About.com. About.com. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Smith, Thomas (December 9, 2010). "Young Voice in ‘Tangled’ Meets Rapunzel in the ‘Best! Day! Ever!’". Disney Parks Blog. Disney. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Chitwood, Scott (2010). "Tangled". ComingSoon.net. CraveOnline Media, LLC. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Philbrick, Jami (November 19, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: Mandy Moore Talks Tangled". MovieWeb. MovieWeb, Inc. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- "Mandy Moore On Tangled: 'I Screamed As Soon As I Found Out' (INTERVIEW)". The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. October 19, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- "Mandy Moore Interview, TANGLED". Movies Online. MoviesOnline. February 9, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
- Malkin, Marc (November 26, 2010). "Mandy Moore & Hubby: "We Work Well Together"". E!. E! Entertainment Television, LLC. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Reynolds, Simon (January 26, 2011). "Mandy Moore ('Tangled')". Digital Spy. Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
- "Coverage". Allmusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
- "Mandy Moore Goes Under 'Covers'". Billboard. Billboard. 2003. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Nusair, David (2010). "'Tangled' Movie Review". About.com. About.com. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- O'Connor, Alaina (2010). "Tangled: Review". TV Guide. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- "Tangled star Mandy Moore: I'd like to think I look like Rapunzel". Now. IPC Media Fashion & Beauty Network. October 18, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Murray, Rebecca (2010). "Exclusive Interview with Mandy Moore and Zachary Levi from 'Tangled'". About.com. About.com. Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- Solomon, Charles (April 16, 2008). "Last of Disney's 'Nine Old Men' dies". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "Brad Bird on Ollie Johnston". Cartoon Brew. Cartoon Brew, LLC. April 15, 2008. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- Desowitz, Bill (October 28, 2010). "Glen Keane Talks Tangled". Animation World Network. AWN, Inc. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- McCabe, Katie (January 30, 2011). "THN talks TANGLED with star Mandy Moore and Disney’s directorial golden boys". The Hollywood News. The Hollywood News 2013. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Bonanno, Luke (April 5, 2011). "Interview: Tangled Executive Producer and Animation Supervisor Glen Keane". DVDizzy. DVDizzy.com. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- "Discuss Disney’s Tangled with Byron Howard and Nathan Greno". ToonBarn. ToonBarn. July 22, 2011. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- McKechnie, Brian (April 19, 2011). "Interview: Animator Glen Keane talks ‘Tangled’". Criticize This!. Criticize This!. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Das, Lina (January 28, 2011). "After a decade of bad hair days, Disney has finally made Tangled, a film about Rapunzel!". Daily Mail. Associated Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Barnes, Brooks (November 19, 2010). "Disney Ties Lots of Hopes to Lots of Hair". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Warner, Kara (August 30, 2010). "Mandy Moore's 'Tangled' Heroine Not 'Typical Disney Princess'". MTV. Viacom International Inc. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Wagons, Henry (February 8, 2011). "Henry's Disney dreams come true". ABC. ABC. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Gallagher, Brian (March 28, 2011). "Glen Keane Talks Tangled". MovieWeb. MovieWeb, Inc. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- "About the Film - Fun Facts". Disney.com. Disney. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Liu, Ed (April 8, 2011). "A Virtual Roundtable with "Tangled" Animation Supervisor Glen Keane". Toon Zone News. Genesis Framework. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- Hill, Jim (November 30, 2010). "Three Keanes help make Disney's "Tangled" a pretty keen animated comedy". Jim Hill Media. Jim Hill Media. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Miller, Bruce R. (December 5, 2010). "'Tangled' directors unravel film's secrets". Sioux City Journal. Sioux City Journal. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Robertson, Lindsay (July 31, 2009). "First Photos From Disney's Rapunzel: Finally, A Blonde Disney Heroine!". Jezebel. Gawker Media. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
- McKechnie, Brian (April 19, 2011). "Interview: Animator Glen Keane talks ‘Tangled’". Criticize This. Criticize This!. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Keegan, Rebecca (November 24, 2010). "The hairy task of creating Rapunzel in 'Tangled'". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Graham, Bill (2008). "Animation Director Glen Keane Exclusive Interview TANGLED". Collider. Collider.com. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- Eisenberg, Eric (November 23, 2010). "Exclusive Interview: Tangled Directors Nathan Greno And Byron Howard". Cinema Blend. Cinema Blend LLC. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- "‘Tangled’ Hair Demo with Kelly Ward". Clustr. Clustr. July 14, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Barker, Lynn (September 17, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: We're "Tangled" with Mandy Moore!". TeenHollywood.com. TeenHollywood.com II Inc. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "UNC Grad Student Untangles CGI Hair". North Carolina Film Office. North Carolina Film Office. November 29, 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Flatow, Ira (April 20, 2012). "Untangling The Hairy Physics Of Rapunzel". National Public Radio. NPR. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Idelson, Karen (January 5, 2011). "Rapunzel's do took years of software development". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Howard, Byron; Greno, Nathan (directors) (November 24, 2010). Tangled (Motion picture). United States of America: Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.
- "Disney Consumer Products Poised For Incremental Retail Sales Growth with New Disney Baby Store & Rich Franchise Investment" (Press release). Disney Consumer Products. June 9, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
- "Spotted: Rapunzel and Flynn at Elsa’s Coronation". Oh My Disney. Disney. December 10, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2014.
- "Rapunzel". Disney Princess. Disney. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Rapunzel to Receive Coronation Ceremony October 2 at Kensington Palace". Stitch Kingdom. June 14, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- Orenstein, Peggy (December 24, 2006). "What’s Wrong With Cinderella?". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Roseboom, Matt (October 5, 2011). "Rapunzel named 10th Disney Princess in ceremony at Kensington Palace in London". Orlando Attractions Magazine. Orlando Attractions Magazine. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Bryson, Carey (September 30, 2011). "Rapunzel Induction Ceremony This Weekend". About.com. About.com. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Wright, Gay (April 29, 2013). "Merida To Officially Be Coronated As Disney Princess, Gets New Look". The Rotoscopers. The Rotoscopers. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Chmielewski, Dawn C. (September 6, 2011). "Head of Disney Consumer Products group steps down". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Tangled". Disney Store.
- "Disney Tangled: The Video Game Released and Screens #2". GamersHell.com. GamersHell.com. November 24, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Disney Tangled: The Video Game". Nintendo. Nintendo. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Forbis, Chris (December 12, 2010). "Disney’s Tangled: The Video Game Review (DS)". Platform Nation. Platform Nation. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Disney Interactive Studios "Tangled" Video Game". Disney Dreaming. August 7, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2013. Tangled Video Game.
- "Disney Interactive Studios Invites Players to Swing into an Exciting, Hair-Raising Adventure with Disney Tangled: The Video Game". GamersHell.com. GamersHell.com. November 24, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Enter to win the Top Toy of the Holiday Season: Disney Animators’ Collection Toddler Doll!". Disney Store. Disney. December 19, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Tyler, Lewis (April 16, 2012). "Creating a princess". ToyNews. Intent Media. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- "Rapunzel and Flynn Rider". Disney Park. Disney. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Charles, Ayesha (February 22, 2013). "Tangled Inspirations at the Disney Parks!". Attraction Tickets Direct. Attraction Tickets Direct. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Fantasyland Update: Rapunzel's Tall Tower (PART 1)". Orlando Theme Park News. Orlando Theme Park News. December 10, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Taylor Swift doubles as Rapunzel: Annie Leibovitz's Disney Dream Portraits". Daily News. NYDailyNews.com. January 23, 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Heller, Corinne (January 23, 2013). "Taylor Swift is Rapunzel in Annie Leibovitz's new Disney Dream Portrait (Photo)". On The Red Carpet. OnTheRedCarpet.com. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Takeda, Allison (January 23, 2013). "Taylor Swift Poses as Rapunzel in New Disney Ad by Annie Leibovitz: Picture". Us Weekly. Us Weekly. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Hewitt, Chris (November 24, 2010). "Review: She's no damsel in distress, but she does need to let her hair down". St. Paul Pioneer Press. St. Paul Pioneer Press. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- Vizcarrondo, Sara (November 9, 2010). "Tangled". Boxoffice. BOXOFFICE Media, LLC. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Whitty, Stephen (November 23, 2010). "'Tangled' review: Disney returns to its magical roots with this golden girl". The Star-Ledger. New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- Diones, Bruce (2010). "Tangled". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Puig, Claudia (November 26, 2010). "'Tangled' gently teases Disney and its animated films". USA Today. Gannett Co. Inc. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Baumgarten, Marjorie (November 26, 2010). "Tangled". The Austin Chronicle. Austin Chronicle Corp. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- Jakicic, Cathy (November 23, 2010). "'Tangled' reconditions Rapunzel story". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Journal Sentinel, Inc. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- "Film reviews: Biutiful | Barney's Version | Tangled | How Do You Know | The Mechanic ". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing Ltd. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- O'Hara, Helen (2010). "Tangled". Empire. Bauer Consumer Media. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Hanke, Ken (November 30, 2013). "Tangled (PG)". Mountain Xpress. Mountain Xpress. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Hertz, Todd (November 24, 2010). "Tangled". Christianity Today. Christianity Today. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
- Schembri, Jim (January 7, 2011). "Tangled". The Age. Fairfax Media. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Corliss, Richard (November 26, 2010). "Tangled: Disney's Ripping Rapunzel". Time (Time Inc). Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- Chang, Justin (November 7, 2010). "Review: "Tangled"". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
- Huddleston, Tom (June 25, 2011). "Tangled (PG)". Time Out. Time Out. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- Berardinelli, James (November 22, 2010). "Tangled". ReelViews. James Berardinelli. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Uhlich, Keith (November 23, 2010). "Tangled". Time Out. Time Out. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Quinn, Anthony (January 28, 2011). "Tangled (PG)". The Independent. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- Williams, Joe (November 24, 2010). "Limp humor, weak songs mar Disney's 'Tangled'". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. stltoday.com. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- Coyle, Jake (2010). "Disney's 'Tangled' updates 'Rapunzel'". SouthtownStar. Sun-Times Media, LLC. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- Yamato, Jen (2010). "Tangled Review". Movies.com. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- Neumaier, Joe (November 23, 2010). "'Tangled' review: Mandy Moore's Rapunzel is chill Disney retelling of classic hair-raising tale". Daily News. NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Crocker, Jonathan (January 14, 2011). "Tangled Disney has a good hair day…". Total Film. Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- Scott, Mike (November 24, 2010). "'Tangled' is a return to princess-ly roots for Disney Animation". The Times-Picayune. New Orleans Net LLC. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Charity, Tom (January 24, 2011). "Tangled Review". LoveFilm. Amazon.com, Inc. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Goldberg, Stephanie (June 22, 2012). "'Brave's' Merida and other animated heroines". CNN (Cable News Network). Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Saraiya, Sonia (July 11, 2012). "Ranked: Disney Princesses From Least To Most Feminist". Nerve. Nerve.com Inc. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Dayrit, Tala (March 17, 2011). "30 Fierce and Fun Female Cartoon Characters". Female Network. Summit Digital. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "83rd Academy Award Nominations". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. January 25, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Anderson, Kyle (January 25, 2011). "The Oscar Nominations: Handicapping The Best Original Song Category". MTV. Viacom International Inc. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Henderson, Kathy (January 25, 2011). "Alan Menken on His 19th Oscar Nomination: 'I Never Take It for Granted'". Broadway.com. BROADWAY.COM. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Chiu, Alexis (March 14, 2011). "One Star, Two Dresses". People. Time Inc. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- Gans, Andrew (February 13, 2012). "Alan Menken and Glenn Slater Win Grammy Award". Playbill. Playbill, Inc. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- "Alan Menken and Glenn Slater Receive Grammy Award for TANGLED's 'I See the Light'". Broadway World.com. Wisdom Digital Media. February 12, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2013.