Ras al-Ayn, al-Hasakah Governorate
Ra's al-'Ayn Main Roundabout
|District||Ra's al-'Ayn District|
|Elevation||360 m (1,180 ft)|
|Population (2004 census)|
Ra's al-'Ayn (Arabic: رأس العين Ra's al 'Ayn, Kurdish: Serêkanîye, Classical Syriac: ܪܝܫ ܥܝܢܐ Rēš 'Aynā, ) is a Syrian city administratively belonging to Al-Hasakah Governorate. Ra's al-'Ayn has an altitude of 360 m (1,180 ft). It has a population of 55,247, a heterogeneous mix of Syriacs, Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, and Chechens. It forms a divided city with Ceylanpınar in Turkey and there is a border crossing.
The ancient Neo-Assyrian city of Sikan is on the southern edge of the mound at Ras el 'Ayn. Its location is near the modern-day Tell el Fakhariya, where a famous Neo-Assyrian statue of Adad-it'i/Hadd-yith'i, the king of Guzana and Sikan was discovered in the 1970s, with a bilingual inscription in the Assyrian dialect of Akkadian and Aramaic, the earliest Aramaic inscription. The statue was inscribed as a votive object to Hadad, whose name the donor bore. It is generally dated to around 850 BC, though an 11th-century BC date has also been proposed.
In antiquities it was known as "Resaina", "Ayn Warda", and "Theodosiopolis" being named after the Byzantine emperor Theodosius I who granted the settlement city rights. The latter name was also shared with the Armenian city of Karin (modern Erzurum) making it difficult to distinguish between them. The Sasanians destroyed the city twice in 578 and 580 before rebuilding it and constructing one of the three Sasanian universities (Ctesiphon, Resaina, Gundeshapur) in it. The city fell to the Arabs in 640 who confiscated parts of the city which were abandoned by their inhabitants. The Byzantines raided the city in 942 and took many prisoners and Crusader Joscelin I managed to hold the city briefly in 1129 killing many of its Arab inhabitants. Ras al-Ayn became contested between the Zengids, Ayyubids, and the Khwarazmians between the 12th and 13th centuries. It was sacked by Timur at the end of the 14th century ending its role as a major city in al-Jazira.
During the Armenian Genocide which began in 1915, Ras al-Ayn was where approximately 80,000 Armenian women and children were massacred. At the time, Syria was occupied by the Ottoman Empire, which forced its indigenous Armenians into the Syrian desert to die in a variety of locations. Also see Ra's al-'Ayn Camps
Ras al-Ayn has been engulfed in the Syrian Civil War (2011- ) It has been fought over between Islamic fundamentalist rebels and Kurdish rebels.
The city is the birthplace of the influential singer Omar Souleyman.
Ra's al-'Ayn springs
Ra's al-'Ayn has more than 100 natural springs. The most famous spring is Nab'a al-Kebreet, a hot spring with a very high mineral content, containing everything from simple calcium to lithium, and even radium.
- A. R. Millard and P. Bordreuil, "A Statue from Syria with Assyrian and Aramaic Inscriptions" The Biblical Archaeologist, vol. 45, 135-141, 1982
- Abu Asaf, Pierre Bordreuil and Alan R. Millard, La statue de Tell Fekherye et son inscription bilingue assyro-arameenne, A.D.P.F, 1982, ISBN 2-86538-036-X
- Douglas M. Gropp and Theodore J. Lewis, Notes on Some Problems in the Aramaic Text of the Hadd-Yith'i, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 259, pp. 45-61, 1985
- Jonas C. Greenfield and Aaron Shaffer, Notes on the Akkadian-Aramaic Bilingual Statue from Tell Fekherya, Iraq, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 109-116, 1983
- J. Naveh, The Date of the Tell Fekherye Inscription, Shnaton 5-6, pp. 130-140, 1978-79
- Gibb 1995, p. 433
- Gibb 1995, p. 434
- Gibb, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen (1995). The Encyclopaedia of Islam: NED-SAM. Brill. Retrieved 14 November 2012.