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إمارة رأس الخيمة
|— Emirate —|
|Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah|
|• Type||Absolute monarchy|
|• Emir||Saud bin Saqr al Qasimi|
|• Crown Prince||Mohammed bin Saud al Qasimi|
|• Total||1,683 km2 (650 sq mi)|
Ras al-Khaimah (alternatively Ra'sal-Khaymah; Arabic: رأس الخيمة Rā's al Ḫaima) is one of the emirates of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), on the east side of the Persian Gulf. Its name means "Top of the Tent". The emirate is in the northern part of the UAE, bordering Oman's exclave of Musandam. It covers an area of 1,700 square km. The capital city and home of most residents is also called Ras al-Khaimah. The city has a population of 263,217 as of 2008. The city has two main sections, Old Ras al-Khaimah and Nakheel, on either side of a creek. It is served by the Ras al-Khaimah International Airport. It consists of a northern part (where the city of Ras al-Khaimah is situated), a large exclave in the south (near Hatta), and a few small islands in the Persian Gulf.
Important towns, settlements and areas include:
- Al Jazirah Al Hamra – an old coastal town with numerous real estate projects and industrial zone
- Ar-Rams – a coastal town; in the past, a typical fishing and pearl-diving village
- Khawr Khuwayr – an industrial zone, with the largest port in Ras al-Khaimah and numerous companies such as a cement factory
- Diqdaqah – a village known for agriculture activities
- Khatt – a village surrounded by the mountains, famous for its thermal springs and palm gardens
- Masafi – a town in the south, on the border with Fujairah; well known for drinking water
- Huwaylat – a central village in the south
Ras al-Khaimah has been the site of human habitation for several millennia and there are many historical and archaeological sites throughout the emirate dating from different time periods, including remnants of the Umm an-Nar Culture (3rd millennium BC). Ancient graves were found in the Emirate in October 2012.
The city was historically known as Julfar. Archaeological evidence has demonstrated that the settlement known as Julfar shifted location over time as harbour channels silted up. Excavations of a sizable tell, which revealed remnants of a Sassanid era fortification, indicate that early Julfar was located in the Shamal area, not far from other sites of historical/archaeological interest such as Sheba's Palace and the largest Umm an-Nar tombs found on the Arabian Peninsula. Sources say that Julfar was inhabited by the Azd (a branch of the Kahlan tribe) during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, and that the houses of the Azd were built of wood.
In the early 18th century, the Qawasim (Al Qasimi) clan established itself in Ras al-Khaimah.
In 1819, a British naval force attacked and occupied Ras al-Khaimah to put a stop to the powerful maritime stranglehold of the Qawasem, who posed a threat to British imperialism, and endangered their ships in the Indian Ocean. The attack resulted in the destruction of the tower in the 16th century Dhayah Fort. The remains of the fort can be visited in Rams in northern Ras Al Khaimah.
After British occupation (18 December 1819 – July 1821), in 1822, Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 with Britain, accepting a protectorate to keep the Ottoman Empire out.[clarification needed] Like Ajman, Dubai, Umm al-Qaiwain and Sharjah, its position on the route to India made it important enough to be recognized as a salute state.
In 1869, Ras al-Khaimah became fully independent from neighbouring Sharjah. However, from September 1900 to 7 July 1921, it was re-incorporated into Sharjah; the last governor became its next independent ruler.
Its rulers were:
- 17??–17??: Sheikh Rahma Al Qasimi
- 17??–174?: Sheikh Matar bin Rahma Al Qasimi
- 174?–1777: Sheikh Rashid bin Matar Al Qasimi
- 1777–1803: Sheikh Saqr bin Rashid Al Qasimi
- 1803–1808: Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi (died 1866) (1st time)
- 1808–1814: Sheikh al-Hassan bin `Ali Al Anezi
- 1814–1820: Sheikh al-Hasan bin Rahma
- 1820–1866: Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi (2nd time)
- 1866 – May 1867: Sheikh Ibrahim bin Sultan Al Qasimi
- May 1867 – 14 April 1868: Sheikh Khalid bin Sultan Al Qasimi (died 1868)
- 14 April 1868 – 1869: Sheikh Salim bin Sultan Al Qasimi (18??–1919)
- 1869 – August 1900: Sheikh Humayd bin Abdullah Al Qasimi (died 1900)
- Sharjah appointed governors:
- September 1900 – 1909: Currently Unknown
- 1909 – August 1919: Sheikh Salim bin Sultan Al Qasimi
- August 1919 – 10 July 1921: Sheikh Sultan bin Salim Al Qasimi (1891–19??), who stayed on as the first of its own rulers:
- 10 July 1921 – Feb 1948: Sheikh Sultan bin Salim Al Qasimi
- 17 July 1948 – 27 October 2010: Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammad al-Qassimi (1918–2010)
- 27 October 2010 – current: Sheikh Saud bin Saqr al Qasimi
Populace overview 
Exact population figures are difficult to come by, but a government census in 2005 calculated that the total population of the UAE was 4.3 million. Many[who?] suspect that the actual figure is closer to 5 million due to the large number of expatriate workers residing in the UAE, some of which may have been unaccounted for in the census. Ras al-Khaimah is estimated to have a total population of 300,000. While UAE citizens officially make up less than 20% of the population in the UAE, this figure is higher in Ras al-Khaimah. Emiratis are thought to make up at least 50% of the emirate’s population. The official language of the UAE is Arabic, although English is widely used in business circles. A significant portion of the expatriate population also speaks Urdu,Sinhala, Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Bengali, Persian and other languages of the subcontinent.
- Bani Bakhit
- Bani Huraymish
- Bani Jum'ah
- Bani Kaab
- Bani Rayyil
- Bani Sa'ad
- Bani Salimi
- Bani Shumayli
- Bani Shutayr
- Bani 'Udayd
- Bani Zaydah
- Al Shihuh
- Al Zaabi
Ras al-Khaimah's desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) is hot and arid with very hot summers and mild winters. The average temperature is 18 to 25 °C (64 to 77 °F) in January and 29 to 43 °C (84 to 109 °F) in July. However, temperatures often reach 45 °C in the summer; the highest recorded temperature is 48.8 °C (119.8 °F). The humidity is usually high in the summer months. Rains and thunderstorms occur rarely, and only in winter. Snow has been reported twice, once in each of December 2004 and January 2009, in the high mountains of Ras al-Khaimah.
|Climate data for Ras al-Khaimah Airport|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.0
|Average high °C (°F)||24.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||18.3
|Average low °C (°F)||11.8
|Record low °C (°F)||4.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||12.8
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||1.7||3.3||4.7||0.9||0.2||0.0||0.1||0.2||0.1||0.1||0.7||2.3||14.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||238.7||218.4||238.7||285.0||344.1||327.0||303.8||310.0||300.0||303.8||279.0||235.6||3,384.1|
Not being a producer of oil, Ras al-Khaimah has focused on developing its industrial sector. Today, the emirate is home to many national institutions, government agencies, and international companies. Ras al-Khaimah's ever-growing business community has been noticed globally, regionally, and nationally. The emirate is rapidly emerging as an investment destination.
Main economic sectors 
- Real Estate – numerous residential areas, offices, commercial buildings are constructed in Ras al-Khaimah.
- Tourism – Ras al-Khaimah is becoming a new destination on tourist maps. Ras al-Khaimah is home to five star hotels and beach resorts including Hilton, Rotana or Banyan Tree. It has a number of 4 and 3 star accommodations. In September 2010, first water park Ice Land was opened to offer leisure opportunity for both residents and visitors and more new tourism projects are under construction.
- Building materials – Ras al-Khaimah opened the UAE's first cement company in the early 1970s and is now the UAE's largest producer of cement. In the 1980s, the emirate formed Ras al-Khaimah Ceramics, which has become the world's largest ceramics producer.
- Manufacturing and High-Tech Industry – In the 1980s, the emirate formed Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries (Julphar), the Persian Gulf region's first pharmaceuticals company. Falcon Technologies International (FTI) represents high-tech industry and produces optical storage media (CDR,DVDR, BDR). In 2012, Innovative Composite Engineering was established in the Industrial Free-zone to manufacture high end composite products (aerospace, construction parts).
- Service sector – recently growing sector with its prominent RAK Bank and RAK Insurance companies.
- Agriculture and Fisheries – in the past, these were the main economy sectors of Ras al-Khaimah. Nowadays they are still significant providing foodstuff not only for the Emirate but for the whole country.
Taxation and companies law 
New legislation and regulations favour international investments. The combination of security and confidentiality is ensured to entrepreneurs. An international company may only have foreign customers and is not liable for paying local taxes. It can open a local bank account, make investments tax-free, and obtain mortgages for investing in UAE assets. Employment visas are available. When approved, this type of company can own property in UAE free-trade zones.
No income, sales, or wealth taxes are payable by individuals. No corporate taxes are charged. In addition, there are no exchange controls, no withholding nor import or export taxes.
The annual Ras al-Khaimah Half Marathon, first held in 2007, has called the attention of the world's sporting media to the region. The organisers invest much in the IAAF-labeled race in order to attract the world's top athletes, resulting in a world record from Samuel Wanjiru in 2007 and the second fastest run of all-time from Patrick Makau Musyoki in 2009.
UAE Awafi Festival – a yearly festival in the Ras al-Khaimah desert, focusing mainly on the Arabic public[clarification needed]. It is a three week event, held in December or January, the main attraction being a dramatic sand dune race by the strongest 4-wheel drivers of the UAE. There is a heritage village with traditional food and dance, as well as shops for food and souvenirs. There is also a petting zoo and lots of games for children. The entry is free of charge, and many families bring picnics to enjoy whilst watching the cars battling it out over the sand dunes.
Within Ras al-Khaimah city, the main mode of transport are metered taxis, with public buses operating on long-haul routes and catering mainly to smaller towns (e.g. Sha`am, Ar-Rams, and Al Jazirah Al Hamra). A cheap local bus service in Ras al-Khaimah city was due to be launched by 15 June 2010 to ease transport for low-income-earners. The first will be between the jumbo intersection in Al Nakheel and Sha’am village. It will have eight stops and buses will take 80 minutes to cover the distance. The second route will start from Al Nakheel and run via Airport Road, Diqdaqah, and Khatt, then turn south to Al Tawain and Adhen on the Fujairah – Ras al-Khaimah border. The third route going to the industrial areas – from the city to Al Jazirah Al Hamra, Ras al-Khaimah Industrial Area, and the Al Ghail Industrial Area – was to begin in July, 2010.[dated info]
Ras al-Khaimah is connected to the other emirates by taxis which often embark from the taxi-stand located south of Al Dhaid[clarification needed] near the new Ras al-Khaimah Police Headquarters.
Three dual-carriageways link Ras al-Khaimah with the other emirates and beyond. One follows the coast with beaches on one side and stretches of desert on the other; the other, a new route, runs out towards the airport in the direction of Khatt, Masafi, Fujairah, Dhaid, and eventually Oman.
The Emirates Road (E311 Highway) traverses the emirates of Umm Al Quwain, Ajman (60 km) and Sharjah (71 km) to finally end up in Dubai (87 km). The highway allows journeys from Ras al-Khaimah to Dubai in under 45 minutes. The highway is being extended further till Saqr Port to allow direct flow of traffic from the southern emirates, the extension is scheduled to be completed by 2014. In spring 2013 work on the 32-kilometre RAK Ring Road which will bypass the city and connect the quarries and factories of the north coast with the 311 motorway was held up by a three month rescue excavation after the discovery of megalithic tombs dating to the Wadi Suq period, from 2000 to 1600BC.
Saqr Port, located in the industrial area of Khawr Khuwayr, is the emirate's main port, providing bulk and container services. It has eight deep-water berths, each 200 m long, is dredged to 12.2 m and has two "ro-ro" ramps plus specialised berths for handling bulk cement and aggregate. Other services include ship-handling, crew changes, and 40,000 m2 of covered storage, together with a vast open storage area. It is also the closest port in the UAE to Bandar Abbas, Iran, but there is no shipping from Saqr port to Bandar Abbas[clarification needed].
Ras al-Khaimah International Airport is currently undergoing an upgrade. It operates cargo and passenger services to a variety of destinations covering the Middle East, North & East Africa, Central Asia, India, and the Far East.
Notable landmarks in Ras al-Khaimah include:
- The National Museum of Ras al-Khaimah: housed in the former palace of the ruling Al Qawasim family, with exhibits on natural history, arts and crafts of previous centuries, and archaeology
- Dhayah Fort: the only surviving hilltop fort in the UAE
- Sheba's Palace: ruins of a medieval palace
- Al Falayah: the former summer residence of the ruling Al Qawasim family
- Al Jazirah Al Hamra: an abandoned "ghost town" showing the preserved architecture of an early 20th century pearling port
- The Old City and Souq: both traditional and modern shops as well as artisan’s workshops
- Bu Shaqq tower 
See also 
- Ras al-Khaimah Free Trade Zone
- Ras al-Khaimah Media Free Zone
- Ras al-Khaimah IT Park
- Al Marjan Island
- Rak Gateway
- UAE Awafi Festival
- United Arab Emirates
- UAE map
- Kourosh Ahmadi, Islands and International Politics in the Persian Gulf: The Abu Musa and Tunbs in Strategic Context (Routledge, 2008) p96
- "Saud is Ras Al Khaimah ruler as UAE mourns Shaikh Saqr". Gulf News. 2010-10-27.
- Fairlie, Greg (2010-02-10). Fast times in store as a field of 10 sub-60 men announced for Ras al-Khaimah Half Marathon. IAAF. Retrieved on 2010-02-11.
- Space Adventures Announces $265 Million Global Spaceport Development Project
- Hawker, Ronald W. 'Tribe, house style, and the town layout of Jazirat al-Hamra, Ras al-Khaimah, UAE' in Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 2006
- Gazeteer of the United Arab Emirates. Washington, D.C. : Defense Mapping Agency, 1987.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ras al-Khaimah|
- Ras al-Khaimah travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Ras al-Khaimah English Information Site
- Ras al-Khaimah e-Government portal
|Al Buraymi||Al Batinah Region|