Ras superfamily

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Hras surface colored by conservation.png
H-Ras structure PDB 121p, surface colored by conservation in Pfam seed alignment: gold, most conserved; dark cyan, least conserved.
Identifiers
Symbol Ras
Pfam PF00071
InterPro IPR013753
PROSITE PDOC00017
SCOP 5p21
SUPERFAMILY 5p21
OPM protein 1uad
CDD cd00882

The Ras superfamily is a protein superfamily of small GTPases, which are all related, to a degree, to the Ras protein subfamily (the key human members of which are KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS).

There are more than a hundred proteins in the Ras superfamily.[1] Based on structure, sequence and function, the Ras superfamily is divided into nine main families, each of which further divided into subfamilies: Ras, Rad, Rab, Rap, Ran, Rho, Rheb, Rit, and Arf. Miro is a recent contributor to the superfamily.

Each subfamily shares the common core G domain, which provides essential GTPase and nucleotide exchange activity.

The surrounding sequence helps determine the functional specificity of the small GTPase, for example the 'Insert Loop', common to the Rho subfamily, specifically contributes to binding to effector proteins such as IQGAP and WASP.

In general, the Ras family is responsible for cell proliferation: Rho for cell morphology, Ran for nuclear transport, and Rab and Arf for vesicle transport.[2]

Subfamilies and members[edit]

The following is a list of human proteins belonging to the Ras superfamily:[1]

Overview
Subfamily Function Members
Ras cell proliferation [2] DIRAS1; DIRAS2; DIRAS3; ERAS; GEM; HRAS; KRAS; MRAS; NKIRAS1; NKIRAS2; NRAS; RALA; RALB; RAP1A; RAP1B; RAP2A; RAP2B; RAP2C; RASD1; RASD2; RASL10A; RASL10B; RASL11A; RASL11B; RASL12; REM1; REM2; RERG; RERGL; RRAD; RRAS; RRAS2
Rho cytoskeletal dynamics/morphology[2] RHOA; RHOB; RHOBTB1; RHOBTB2; RHOBTB3; RHOC; RHOD; RHOF; RHOG; RHOH; RHOJ; RHOQ; RHOU; RHOV; RND1; RND2; RND3; RAC1; RAC2; RAC3; CDC42
Rab membrane trafficking RAB1A; RAB1B; RAB2; RAB3A; RAB3B; RAB3C; RAB3D; RAB4A; RAB4B; RAB5A; RAB5B; RAB5C; RAB6A; RAB6B; RAB6C; RAB7A; RAB7B; RAB7L1; RAB8A; RAB8B; RAB9; RAB9B; RABL2A; RABL2B; RABL4; RAB10; RAB11A; RAB11B; RAB12; RAB13; RAB14; RAB15; RAB17; RAB18; RAB19; RAB20; RAB21; RAB22A; RAB23; RAB24; RAB25; RAB26; RAB27A; RAB27B; RAB28; RAB2B; RAB30; RAB31; RAB32; RAB33A; RAB33B; RAB34; RAB35; RAB36; RAB37; RAB38; RAB39; RAB39B; RAB40A; RAB40AL; RAB40B; RAB40C; RAB41; RAB42; RAB43
Rap cellular adhesion RAP1A; RAP1B; RAP2A; RAP2B; RAP2C
Arf vesicular transport[2] ARF1; ARF3; ARF4; ARF5; ARF6; ARL1; ARL2; ARL3; ARL4; ARL5; ARL5C; ARL6; ARL7; ARL8; ARL9; ARL10A; ARL10B; ARL10C; ARL11; ARL13A; ARL13B; ARL14; ARL15; ARL16; ARL17; TRIM23, ARL4D; ARFRP1; ARL13B
Ran nuclear transport RAN
Rheb mTOR pathway RHEB; RHEBL1
RGK RRAD; GEM; REM; REM2
Rit RIT1; RIT2
Miro mitochondrial transport RHOT1; RHOT2

Unclassified:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wennerberg K, Rossman KL, Der CJ (March 2005). "The Ras superfamily at a glance". J. Cell. Sci. 118 (Pt 5): 843–6. doi:10.1242/jcs.01660. PMID 15731001. 
  2. ^ a b c d Munemitsu S, Innis M, Clark R, McCormick F, Ullrich A, Polakis P. (1990). "Molecular cloning and experssion of a G25K cDNA, the human homolog of the yeast cell cycle gene CDC42". Mol Cell Biol 10 (11): 5977–82. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 361395. PMID 2122236.