Ratnagotravibhāga (text)

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The Ratnagotravibhāga (Sanskrit) (abbreviated as RgV) and its vyākhyā commentary (abbreviated RgVV), also known as the Uttara-tantra-shastra, are a compendium of the tathāgatagarbha literature. The text was originally composed in Sanskrit.[1][a]

The text and its commentary are also preserved in Tibetan and Chinese translations.[b]

History[edit]

Authorship[edit]

The text is attributed to a certain Sthiramati or Sāramati in the earlier Chinese tradition, while the Tibetan tradition considers the verse portion to have been composed by Maitreya-nātha and the prose commentary by Asanga. Ruegg suggests that the Chinese and Tibetan traditions may be reconciled by understanding the name given in Chinese sources as an epithet for Maitreya.[c]

The case for the involvement of Maitreya-nātha is also strengthened by the discovery of a Sanskrit fragment of the Ratnagotravibhāga in Saka script which mentions Maitreya-nātha as the author of the 'root' (mūla) verses.[3] The question of authorship may possibly be resolved by an analysis of the structure of this multi-layered text. Takasaki [4] is certain that the author of the embedded commentary is Sāramati through his comparison of the RGV with the Dharmadhātvaviśeṣaśāstra.[5]

Peter Harvey finds the attribution to Asanga less plausible.[6]

Title[edit]

Ratnagotravibhāga[edit]

Nugteren [7] contextualizes the Buddhadharma 'inheritance' of the term 'gotra' (Sanskrit) from the wider tradition, where 'gotra' literally means 'cowshed'.[d] In addition, literally, the term 'go' (Sanskrit) "cow" also means "star", where star clusters are "herds" in the sky.

The cultural tradition of naming 'related groups; lineages' or "Gotra" of people after the founding rishi who are also called 'fathers' (Sanskrit: Pitrs; particularly the "seven fathers") amongst the Saptarishi is also evident in Vedic astrology where the Saptarishi (seven rishis) are the seven stars of the constellation Ursa Major.[9] 'Saptarishi nadi' is an important natal augury tool in Vedic Astrology.[10]

Gotra evolved in Buddhadharma to first different spiritual lineages one of which (rather controversially within the broader tradition) according to their spiritual predisposition and constitution were doomed to cycle endlessly in the wheel of samsara without the intervention of a bodhisattva, that is they would never attain bodhi of their own volition, that doctrine in turn eventually evolved into the doctrine of Jina.[11]

Jina now effectively is a herd of five gotras that upon taking certain initiation of mantra with associated vows and samaya, every practicing Mantrika within the Mantrayana tradition takes upon conferral of their mantra. To return to the point of origin, Shakyamuni was within the gotra of the rishi Gautama Maharishi who was the revealer of mantras and the 'law' aspect of Dharma.

Uttara-tantra-shastra[edit]

A secondary title for this work is Uttara-tantra-shastra (The Ultimate Doctrine), by which name it is known in the Tibetan tradition, and in translations from that tradition's literature and commentaries.

Gyatso [12] conveys that 'tantra' in the Tibetan title to specifically refers to the 'everlasting continuum of the mind', the translation by Berzin [13] of 'mindstream' in English:

Here, since the text indicates primarily the cleansing of the everlasting continuum of the mind when it is tarnished with fleeting stains, and thus since it concerns the everlasting mental continuum, it includes the term tantra, meaning everlasting continuum, in its title. Moreover, the word tantra has the connotation of something that goes on and on with continuity, something that continues over time with connection from prior to later moments. We can undoubtedly understand something from that connotation as well.[14]

Transmission[edit]

Hookham [15] affirms that there are precious few records of the RGV or RGVV (its commentary) in India and that their traditional recorded history commences with their 'rediscovery' by Maitripa.[16]

Mathes [17] relates a version of the traditional textual transmission of the RGV by Maitrīpa (ca. 1007-ca.1085) [e], and as well proffers his critical analysis that Maitrīpa's teachers Jñānaśrīmitra of Vikramaśīla and Ratnākaraśānti must have had access to the RGV, RGVV and/or their extracts:

Tradition has it that the Dharmadharmatāvibhaga and the Ratnagotravibhāga were rediscovered and taught by Maitrīpa, but Maitrīpa's teacher at Vikramaśīla, Jñānaśrīmitra (ca. 980-1040), must have already known these two works when he composed his Sākārasiddhiśāstra and Sākārasamgraha. Ratnākaraśānti, another teacher of Maitrīpa, also quotes the Ratnagotravibhāga in the Sūtrasamuccayabhāṣya. Maitrīpa passed the Dharmadharmatāvibhaga and the Ratnagotravibhāga on to *Ānandakīrti and Sajjana.[18]

Textual versions[edit]

Sanskrit[edit]

The critical edition of the RGV in Sanskrit was first published by Johnston, et al. (1950)[19] This critical edition of Johnston is founded on two manuscripts discovered by Rev. Rāhula Sāñkṛtyāyana (1893–1963) in Tibet.[20][21][22]

Of the complete extant Sanskrit [Johnston, et al. (1950)[19]], Tibetan[23] and Chinese[24] manuscript versions, recension or interpolations of the RGV (according to perspective), Takasaki (1966) considered the Chinese translation of a no longer extant Sanskrit text to be the oldest RGV manuscript in existence, though not necessarily truly representing the original Sanskrit.[25]

Chinese[edit]

According to Takasaki (1966: p. 7), the Chinese Tripiṭaka retains one translation of the RGV, being known as No. 1611, Vol.31 (Taisho Daizokyo Ed.) with the nomenclature chiu-ching yi-ch'eng pao-sing-lun (literally back-translated into Sanskrit: Uttara-ekayāna-ratnagotra-śāstra).[25][26]

Tibetan[edit]

Takasaki (1966: p. 6) holds the Tibetan Tanjur to retain two versions of the RGV:

  • Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla ma'i bstan-bcos (Mahāyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra), Tohaku Catalogue No. 4024;[20]
  • Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-ma'i bstan-bcos rnam-par-bsad-pa (Mahāyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra-vyākhyā), Tohaku Catalogue No. 4025.[20]

Both of these versions were translated by Matiprajna (Sanskrit, 1059–1109) (also known as: Ngok Loden Sherab; Wylie: Blo-ldan-shes-rab) under the guidance of Kashmiri Pandits 'Ratnavajra' (Sanskrit) (Wylie: Rin-chen rdo-rje)[27] and Sajjana, conducted at Srinagar in Kashmir, towards the close of the 11th century CE.[20][28]

English Translations[edit]

Obermiller (1931) pioneered research into the RGV literature in English language through his translation of the Tibetan RgVV under the name of the Uttara-tantra-shastra, (the text's name in the Tibetan tradition), labeling it an example of monism.[29]

The verse portion of the Ratna-gotra-vibhāga has been translated several times into English, including by E. Obermiller (1931) and Rosemary Fuchs (2000).[30] The English translation by Takasaki is the only English translation of the complete work, including the commentary.[31]

Commentary on the Ratnagotravibhanga[edit]

To mitigate any confusion or perhaps to bring uncertainty into awareness, the RGV in certain textual transmissions has an embedded commentary RGVV that has become for the most part integrated with the RGV through the passage of time even though there are distinct editions of the RGV and RGVV. Takasaki (1966) provided a valuable textual analysis of the Sanskrit critical edition edited by Johnston with those versions preserved in certain editions of the Chinese and Tibetan canon. Takasaki (1966) identified a textual core of the RGV with the most ancient verses of this core, dated ..., being extant in the Chinese. The work of Takasaki and Johnston has been critiqued by the extensive reviews of such scholars as deJong (1979)[32] and Lambert Schmithausen (1971).[33]

Contents[edit]

The text consists of about 430 Sanskrit verses with a prose commentary (vyākhyā) that includes substantial quotations from tathāgata-garbha oriented sūtras. As well as a single extant Sanskrit version, translations exist in Chinese and Tibetan, though each of these versions show a degree of recensional variation. Extensive analysis[34] of the critical Sanskrit text edited by Johnston (1950) with the Tibetan and Chinese versions, identified that the verses actually comprise two separate groups: a core set of 27 verses (śloka) and 405 additional or supplementary verses of explication (Skt. kārikā).[35] The work of Johnston, et al. (1950) and Takasaki have been critiqued by the extensive reviews of such scholars as deJong[32] and Schmithausen.[33]

Interpretation[edit]

Doctrinal significance[edit]

Final teaching[edit]

The secondary title for this work, Uttara-tantra-shastra (The Ultimate Doctrine), highlights the text's claim that the tathāgata-garbha teachings represent the final, definitive teachings of the Buddha, in contrast to the earlier teachings on emphasizing intrinsic emptiness, such as contained in the Perfection of Insight Sutras (prajñā-pāramitā) and other Mahāyāna scriptures. In addition to the group of scriptures known as the Tathāgata-garbha sūtras, this work is the cornerstone of the tathāgata-garbha trend of thought in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

Buddha-nature[edit]

The Ratnagotravibhaga is notable for its exploration of the doctrine of the "buddha nature" [f], the view that all sentient beings are already buddhas or have the propensity to attain buddhahood.[36]

The Uttaratantra takes as its key topic the idea of the dhatu of the Buddha which is present in all beings:

The principal subject matter of this treatise is the special theory of Dhatu (fundamental element) of the Absolute (Tathagata-garbha = essence of Buddha)... It is an exposition of the theory of the Essence of Buddhahood (tathagata-garbha), the fundamental element (dhatu) of the Absolute, as existing in all sentient beings. ... This element which had been regarded as an active force (bija) before, is regarded, in this text, as eternal, quiescent and unalterable, as the true essence of every living being and source of all virtuous qualities.'[37]

Completion of sunyata[edit]

Within tathagatagarbha literature a completion of sunyata (emptiness) theory and an emphasising of metaphysics and mysticism can be found:

The Uttaratantra is a Mahayana text with emphasis on Buddhist metaphysics and mysticism [...] Tathagata-garbha thought is complementary to sunyata thought of the Madhyamika and the Yogacara, as it is seen in the Uttaratantra. The Uttaratantra first quotes the Srimala-devi-sutra to the effect that tathagata-garbha is not accessible to those outside of sunya realization and then proceeds to claim that sunyata realization is a necessary precondition to the realization of tathagata-garbha. There is something positive to be realized when one’s vision has been cleared by sunyata. The sunyata teachings of the prajna-paramita are true but incomplete. They require further elucidation, which is found in the Uttaratantra.'[38]

The Uttaratantra constitutes a higher Buddhist doctrine than that of sunyata as found in the prajnaparamita sutras:

The sunyata teachings in the Prajna-paramita are true, but incomplete. They require still further elucidation, which the Uttaratantra provides. Thus it assumes the Prajna-paramita teachings as the purva or prior teachings, and the tathagata-garbha teachings as the uttara, in the sense of both subsequent and superior.'[39]

Positive understanding of sunyata[edit]

Both the Srimala Sutra and the Uttaratantra enunciate the idea that the tathagatagarbha is possessed of four transcendental qualities:

  1. Permanence
  2. Bliss
  3. Self
  4. Purity

The tathagatagarbha is ultimately identifiable as the dharmakaya.[g] These elevated qualities make of the Buddha one to whom devotion and adoration could be given:

Here there is an elevation and adoration of Buddha and his attributes, which could be a significant basis for Mahayana devotionalism.’[40]

Exegetical tradition[edit]

Notable exegetes of the Ratnagotravibhaga have been Dolpopa, Go Lotsawa, Gyaltsap Darma Rinchen, and Ju Mipham, amongst others.

The Nyingma commentary of Ju Mipham from a Dzogchen view, has been rendered into English by Duckworth (2008).[41] Khenchen Namdrol Rinpoche (2008/2009) commenced the Rigpa Shedra teachings on Mipham's view of Buddha Nature[42] which has been followed by Khenpo Dawa Paljor (2009) of Rigpa Shedra's oral word by word commentary of Ju Mipham's exegesis of RGV[43] in Tibetan with English translation.

Dzogchen view[edit]

Seven Diamond Points[edit]

The Ratnagotravibhaga contains a synthesis of Sugatagarbha [h] literature [i] into five chapters that distill seven 'diamond points' (vajrapada):

  1. 'Buddha' (Sanskrit: ; Wylie: sañs-rgyas; Chinese:)
  2. 'Dharma' (Sanskrit: Wylie: chos; Chinese:)
  3. 'Saṃgha' (Sanskrit: gaṇa;[44] Wylie: dge-'dun; Chinese:)
  4. 'Essence' (Sanskrit: dhātu; Wylie: khams; Chinese:)
  5. 'Awakened' (Sanskrit: bodhi; Wylie: byañ-chub; Chinese:)
  6. 'Qualities' (Sanskrit: guna; Wylie: yon-tan; Chinese:)
  7. 'Activities' (Sanskrit: karman; Wylie: phyin-las' Chinese:)

In the tantric twilight language of correspondence the triratna of Sangha, Dharma and Buddha are Body, Voice and Mind (and qualities and activities).[45]

According to Norbu,[46] all five of these, body (sku), voice (gsung), mind (thugs), qualities (yon tan), activities (phrin las), constitute a 'mindstream' or 'continuum of being' of either a sentient being (with adventitious obscurations) or a buddha (without adventitious obscurations).[47]

Everlasting element[edit]

The "ratnagotra" (lineal jewel, gem lineage) is a synonym for the buddha nature, the 'element' which is "as it is", the 'everlasting' aspect of the continuum of being, the aspect that is constant and 'unsullied'. In Dzogchen technical language, 'primordial purity' (Wylie: ka dag), which is none other than the 'one taste' (ro gcig) of the 'gnosis of commonality/egality' [j].[34]

This is metaphorically 'twilighted' in the RGV as 'dhruva' (Sanskrit), 'pole star'. From the vantage of the Northern Hemisphere of Earth, the pole star is apt because day or night it is always in the sky, hence constant, immutable and fixed, but not necessarily visible. The pole star appears not to move but the heavenly bodies revolve around it as though it is a fixed 'point' (Sanskrit: bindu).

Just as the pole star is not truly fixed in the sky, the 'everlasting' aspect is not eternal, and should be understood as subject to the Catuṣkoṭi which is employed in the RGV. The 'essence', the 'element', the 'ratnagotra' must not be essentialized. Rather than the term 'eternal' or 'everlasting' [k] which smacks of 'eternalism' (Pali: sassatavada) anathemic to Buddhadharma[l], a continuum spontaneously 'self-emergent' (rang shar) is sound [m].

Essence, nature and power[edit]

An important Dzogchen doctrinal view on the Sugatagarbha qua 'Base' (gzhi) [49] that foregrounds this is 'essence' (ngo bo), 'nature' (rang bzhin) and 'power' (thugs rje):[n]

  • Essence is openness or emptiness (ngo bo stong pa),
  • Nature is luminosity, lucidity or clarity [o],
  • Power is universal compassionate energy (thugs rje kun khyab), unobstructed (ma 'gags pa).[50][51][p][q]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Though Sanskrit versions of the RGV and RGVV are extant, these versions are of later recensions and not truly representative of the original according to the analysis of Takasaki (1966).
  2. ^ The Chinese version being the oldest manuscript of the RgV but not necessarily the most faithful.
  3. ^ Il se peut que quelques-unes des divergences, en principe fondamentales, entre les traditions tibétaines et chinoise au sujet de l'auteur du RGV soient plus apparentes que réeles. Jusqu' ici on a le plus souvent procédé en suposant que la tradition indo-tibétaine qui tient Maitreya pour l'auteur de ce traité est entirècontraire a la tradition sino-indienne sur *Sāramati. Cependant, ne serait-il pas également possible de considérer le nom *Sāramati -- de même que le nom Vyavadāta-samaya dans le colophon du MSA -- comme une épithète de Maitreya ? En effect, dans le Maitreya-prasthāna-sūtra, bLo-gros brtan-po (= Sthiramati, ou quelque nom synonyme comme Dṛḍhamati) a été effectivement mentioneé comme l'appelation sous laquelle Maitreya était connu dans dans une existence antériere. Si le nom mentioné par Fa-tsang et d'autres autorités pouvait alors être considéré comee une epithéte de Maitreya, la divergence entre la tradition rapporté par les docteurs chinois et la tradition indo-tibétaine ne serait plus irréductible.[2]
  4. ^ Nugteren (2005: p.146) states: "The origin of the Śākyas is given in the legend of Ambaṭṭha, in which the Buddha tells of his descent from King Okkāka. Long ago, King Okkāka wished to transfer his kingdom to the son of his favourite wife and banished the elder princes born from other wives. During their exile, these princes lived on the slopes of the Himālaya by the banks of a lotus pool in a vast śāka grove. King Okkāka is reported to have said about them: "Able (Śākya) are the princes." There is a pun here, as śākya also means 'belonging to the śāka tree'. The Śākya tribe, from which Buddha's epitheton 'Śākyamuni' was derived, belonged to the Gotama gotra. A gotra (P. gotta), literally 'cowshed', is a clan whose members claim to be descended from one ancestor, in this case the ancient ṛṣi Gotama. His descendants are known as Gotamas (P.) or Gautamas (S.), hence the Bodhisattva's later designation as Gautama Buddha. [NB: italics preserved from original source, metatext is an augmentation.][8]
  5. ^ The disciple of Naropa and the guru of Marpa
  6. ^ Wylie: de bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po
  7. ^ most exalted nature of the Buddha
  8. ^ 'Tathagatagarbha' is the term employed in the Mahayana literature proper and the Outer Tantras in general, but in the Inner Tantras and the most rarefied yana, the term 'Sugatagarbha' is employed as a general convention
  9. ^ RGV quotes from circa 20 buddha-nature texts
  10. ^ Sanskrit:Samatā-jñāna
  11. ^ As Gyatso (1982) was rendered into English by Berzin (2008)[48]
  12. ^ Moreover, in the Nyingma interpenetration of the Two Truths, employing the term 'eternal' or 'everlasting' for a direct experience of the 'base' (gzi) within this meditative tradition is not essentially problematic, though it may be for the scholarly tradition: 'timelessness' and 'atemporality' trump 'eternality'.
  13. ^ refer bija in Thirteenth Bhumi of Mantrayana
  14. ^ This triune ise indivisible and iconographically represented by the Gankyil.
  15. ^ as in the luminous mind of the Five Pure Lights) (rang bzhin gsal ba)
  16. ^ Certainly, the main characteristic of what is named “lamp” (sgron ma) can be circumscribed as “inseparability of clarity and emptiness” (gsal stong dbyer med). Thus, it is that which makes itself clear (gsal ba) — i.e., that which actualizes itself in and as visionary experience of form, colour, sound, etc., — without losing its quality of being empty of any concreteness. In other words, it is the inseparability of the empty essence (ngo bo stong pa) and the clear nature (rang bzhin gsal ba) of the ground (gzhi) in and as all-pervading compassion (thugs rje kun khyab) as it manifests outwardly in visionary experience. Of course, the term “manifest outwardly” (phyi snang) should not be taken too literally, rather, it should be understood as a projection¿ of the “inner” luminosity (nang gsal) of the ground which forms the innermost part or “heart“ (tsitta [an alternate orthographic rendering of citta (sanskrit)]) of man into a seemingly Outer Space (phyi’i dbyings). Useful in this context is the picture of the Youthful-Vase-Body (gzhon nu bum pa’i sku). When the outer wall of this body which symbolizes the ground in its “inner” potentiality, is broken through, its “inner” light is seen in the “Outer Space”. Obviously, the term “Outer Space” (phyi’i dbyings) does not refer to some kind of “science-fiction like outer space”, but means that the ground is making room for itself in and as experienceable plenum. Moreover, the term “lamp” (sgron ma) also implies a bodily presence. It is the ground present in the concrete givenness of an individual being and thus, it is similar to the tathagatagarbha of the general Mahayana Buddhism. Source: [1] (accessed: Saturday May 9, 2009)
  17. ^ Annotation: ¿ 'Projection' should be understood as the triunic manifestation of energy: dang, rolpa & tsal; refer Thoughtform and Tulpa, etc.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Takasaki (1966),
  2. ^ La Théorie du Tathāgatagarbha et du Gotra, David Seyfort Ruegg, EFEO (1969), p46
  3. ^ V.H. Bailey & E.H. Johnston, "A Fragment of the Uttratantra in Sanskrit", BSOS 8 (1935-37) p77-89
  4. ^ Takasaki 1966: p. 62
  5. ^ Takasaki, Jikido (1966). A Study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra) Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism (Rome Oriental Series 33). Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, p.62
  6. ^ Peter Harvey, "An Introduction to Buddhism." Cambridge University Press, 1993, page 114.
  7. ^ 2005: p. 146
  8. ^ Nugteren, Albertina (2005). Belief, bounty, and beauty: rituals around sacred trees in India. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-14601-6. Source: [2] (accessed: Monday April 11, 2009), p.146
  9. ^ Source: [3][dead link] (Accessed: Tuesday 12, 2009)
  10. ^ Source: [4][dead link] (accessed: Monday April 12, 2009)
  11. ^ Ruegg, D. Seyfort (1976). 'The Meanings of the Term "Gotra" and the Textual History of the "Ratnagotravibhāga".' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 39, No. 2 , pp.341-363.
  12. ^ Tenzin Gyatso 1982 in his teaching on the Uttaratantra
  13. ^ Berzin 2008
  14. ^ Gyatso, Tenzin (discourse, 1982) & Berzin, Alexander (translation and transcription, 2008). Buddha-Nature, Day One of a Discourse on 'Uttaratantra'; Part Two: The First Three Verses of Chapter One. Discourse by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Bodh Gaya, India, January 17, 1982. Translated by Alexander Berzin and revised, January 2008. Source: [5] (accessed: Saturday May 9, 2009)
  15. ^ Hookham 1991: p. 165
  16. ^ Hookham, S. K. (1991). The Buddha within: Tathagatagarbha doctrine according to the Shentong interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhaga. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-0357-2. Source; [6] (accessed: Tuesday May 5, 2009), p.165.
  17. ^ Mathes 2008: p. 2
  18. ^ Mathes, Klaus-Dieter (2008). A Direct Path to the Buddha Within: Gö Lotsāwa's Mahāmudra Interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhāga. Somerville, MA, USA: Wisdom Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-86171-528-4(pbk.:alk.paper): p.2
  19. ^ a b Johnston, E. H. (ed.) & Chowdhury, T. (indexation)(1950). The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānanottaratantraśāstra. Patna. (NB: seen through the press and furnished with indexes by T. Chowdhury).
  20. ^ a b c d Takasaki, Jikido (1966). A Study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra) Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism (Rome Oriental Series 33). Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, p.6
  21. ^ For further information on these manuscripts refer Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society (J.B.O.R.S.), vol XXI, p. 31 (III. Ṣalu monastery, vol. XI-5, No. 43) and. XXIII, p. 34 (VII. Ṣalu monastery, vol. XIII-5, No. 242).
  22. ^ ratnagotravibhāgo mahāyānottaratantraśāstram
  23. ^ No. 4025; Tohaku University (Ed.)(1934). A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons, Sde-dge Edition, Tohaku University; refer Tibetan Buddhist canon
  24. ^ No. 1611, Vol.31; Chinese Tripiṭaka. Taisho Daizokyo Edition, Japanese. Refer: Machine-readable text-database of the Taisho Tripitaka (zip files of Taisho Tripitaka vol. 1-85); refer Chinese Buddhist canon.
  25. ^ a b Takasaki, Jikido (1966). A Study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra) Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism (Rome Oriental Series 33). Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, p.7
  26. ^ Taisho Tripitaka Vol. 31, No. 1611 究竟一乘寶性論
  27. ^ Sadhukhan, Sanit Kumar (1994). 'A Short History of Buddhist Logic in Tibet'. Bulletin of Tibetology, p.12.
  28. ^ THEG PA CHEN PO RGYUD BLA MA'I BSTAN BCOS BZHUGS SO[dead link]
  29. ^ Obermiller, Eugène (1931). 'The Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation Being a Manual of Buddhist Monism.' Acta Orientalia 9, 81-306.
  30. ^ Buddha Nature: The Mahayana Uttaratantra Shastra with Commentary Rosemary Fuchs. Snow Lion Publications. Ithica: 2000
  31. ^ Takasaki, Jikido A Study on the Ratnagotravibhāga – Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism, Serie Orientale Roma XXXIII ISMEO 1966
  32. ^ a b deJong, Jan W. (1979). 'Review of Takasaki 1966'. Buddhist Studies by J. W. de Jong, 563-82. Ed. by Gregory Schopen. Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press.
  33. ^ a b Schmithausen, Lambert (1971). 'Philologische Bemerkungen zum Ratnagotravibhaga.' Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens 15, 123-77.
  34. ^ a b Takasaki (1966)
  35. ^ Takasaki, Jikido (1966)pp10-18
  36. ^ Mathes, Klaus-Dieter (2008). A Direct Path to the Buddha Within: Gö Lotsāwa's Mahāmudra Interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhāga. Somerville, MA, USA: Wisdom Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-86171-528-4(pbk.:alk.paper): p.1
  37. ^ C.D. Sebastian, Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Delhi, 2005, pp. 40-41
  38. ^ Sebastian, Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Delhi, 2005, p. 50
  39. ^ Sebastian, Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Delhi, 2005, pp. 46-47
  40. ^ C.D. Sebastian, Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, 2005, p. 21
  41. ^ Duckworth, Douglas S. (2008). Mipham on Buddha-nature: the ground of the Nyingma tradition. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-7521-2.
  42. ^ Mipham's view of Buddha Nature
  43. ^ oral word by word commentary of Ju Mipham's exegesis of RGV
  44. ^ For a related amplification of the term 'gana' as "community" within the tradition refer: ganacakra.
  45. ^ Bucknell, Roderick & Stuart-Fox, Martin (1986). The Twilight Language: Explorations in Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism. Curzon Press: London. ISBN 0-312-82540-4
  46. ^ Namkhai Norbuet. al. 1991, 2001: p. 176
  47. ^ Norbu, Namkhai (1991, 2001). The Precious Vase: Instructions on the Base of Santi Maha Sangha. Shang Shung Edizioni. Second revised edition, p.176. (Translated from the Tibetan, edited and annotated by Adriano Clemente with the help of the author. Translated from Italian into English by Andy Lukianowicz.)
  48. ^ Gyatso, Tenzin (discourse, 1982) & Berzin, Alexander (translation and transcription, 2008). Buddha-Nature, Day One of a Discourse on 'Uttaratantra'; Part Two: The First Three Verses of Chapter One. Discourse by His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Bodh Gaya, India, January 17, 1982. Translated by Alexander Berzin and revised, January 2008. Source: [7] (accessed: Saturday May 9, 2009)
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  50. ^ Petit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of Dzochen, the Great Perfection. Boston: Wisdom Publications (1999). ISBN 0-86171-157-2Source: [8] (accessed: Saturday May 9, 2009), p.78-79
  51. ^ Scheidegger, Daniel (2007: p.27). 'Different Sets of Light-Channels in the Instruction Series of Rdzogs chen'. Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines.

Sources[edit]

  • Takasaki, Jikido A Study on the Ratnagotravibhāga – Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism, Serie Orientale Roma XXXIII ISMEO 1966
  • Ruegg, D. Seyfort (1976). 'The Meanings of the Term "Gotra" and the Textual History of the "Ratnagotravibhāga"'. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 39, No. 2 (1976), pp. 341–363

External links[edit]