Ratnangi (pronounced ratnāngi, meaning the one with a gem-like body) is a rāgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 2nd melakarta rāgam (parent scale) in the 72 melakarta rāgam system of Carnatic music. It is called Phenadhyuti in Muthuswami Dikshitar school of Carnatic music.
Structure and Lakshana
It is the 2nd rāgam in the 1st chakra Indu. The mnemonic name is Indu-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ra ga ma pa dha ni. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure (ascending and descending scale) is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):
The scale uses the notes shuddha rishabham, shuddha gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham and kaisiki nishadham. As it is a melakarta rāgam, by definition it is a sampoorna rāgam (has all seven notes in ascending and descending scale). It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Jalārnavam, which is the 38th melakarta scale.
Phenadhyuti is the 2nd Melakarta in the original list compiled by Venkatamakhin. The notes used in the scale are the same, but the ascending scale is different.
Here are a few common compositions sung in concerts, set to Ratnangi.
- Kalasavardhijam by Thyagaraja
- Tarunam ide by Koteeswara Iyer
- Sree Gurum Chintayaamyaham by Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna
The following composition is set to Phenadhyuti.
- Sri Dakshinamurthim by Muthuswami Dikshitar
This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.
Ratnangi's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 2 other melakarta rāgams, namely, Gamanashrama and Jhankaradhwani. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. For further details and an illustration refer Graha bhedam on Ratnangi.
- Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
- Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras