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Mīr-Khvānd, Moḥammad ibn Khvāndshāh ibn Maḥmūd (written also as Mīr-Khvwānd, Mirkhond, and other variants; 1433/1434–1498) was a noted Persian-language historian of the fifteenth century. He is known in English also as Mir Khvand and in Latin and Greek as Mirchond.


Born in 1433 in Bukhārā, present-day Uzbekistan, the son of a pious man belonging to an old Bukhāran family of sayyids, or direct descendants of Muḥammad, Mīr-Khvvānd grew up and died in Balkh. From his early youth he applied himself to historical studies and literature in general.[1]

In Herāt, Afghanistan, where Mīr-Khvvānd spent the greater part of his life, he gained the favor of that famous patron of letters, Mīr ʿAlī-Shīr Navāʾī (1440–1501), who served his old schoolfellow, the reigning sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (r. 1469–1506), the last Tīmūrid ruler in Persia, first as keeper of the seal, afterwards as governor of Jurjan. At the request of Mīr ʿAlī-Shīr, himself a distinguished statesman and writer, Mīr-Khvvānd began about 1474, in the quiet convent of Khilashyah, which his patron had founded in Herāt as a house of retreat for literary men of merit, his great work on universal history, the Rawżat aṣ-ṣafāʾ (روضة الصفا, ‘garden of purity’).

'Garden of Purity'[edit]

Main article: Garden of Purity

His "The Garden of Purity" is a history of the world since creation in seven volumes.[2]

Work online[edit]


  1. ^ Henry Miers Elliot, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, ed. John Dowson (London: Trübner and Co., 1872), 127-129; OCLC 3425271, available in full text from Google Books.
  2. ^ Arthur John Arberry Classical Persian literature - Page 390 - 1958 "Muhammad ibn Khavand Shah ibn Mahmud, better known as Mir Khvand (Mirchond) was born in 1433 and died in 1498; ......Into that 'Garden of Purity' he crowded (in seven huge volumes) all that had happened since Creation in the world known to Muslim historians; he chose Juvaini as the model of how to write Persian, but he was ambitious to better his master so ... A. Jourdain, J. A. Vullers and W. H. Morley had occupied themselves with editing or translating parts of the mammoth,