||This article may present fringe theories, without giving appropriate weight to the mainstream view, and explaining the responses to the fringe theories. (September 2014)|
||This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (September 2014)|
Depending on the exact philosophy or type of lifestyle and results desired, raw food diets may include a selection of fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, eggs, fish, meat and dairy products. It may also include simply processed foods such as various types of sprouted seeds, cheese, and fermented foods such as yoghurts, kefir, kombucha or sauerkraut, but generally not foods that have been pasteurized, homogenized, or produced with the use of synthetic pesticides, chemical fertilizers, industrial solvents or chemical food additives.
- 1 Varieties
- 2 History
- 3 Common beliefs
- 4 Research
- 5 Potential harmful effects of cooking
- 6 Nutritional deficiencies in raw vegan diets
- 7 Food poisoning
- 8 Controversies
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
Raw food diets are diets composed entirely of food that is uncooked or which is cooked at low temperatures.
A raw vegan diet consists of unprocessed, raw plant foods that have not been heated above 40–49 °C (104–120 °F). Raw vegans such as Dr. Brian Clement, Dr. Gabriel Cousens, Thierry Browers a.k.a. "Superlight", and Douglas Graham believe that foods cooked above this temperature have lost much of their nutritional value and are less healthful or even harmful to the body. Advocates argue that raw or living foods have natural enzymes, which are critical in building proteins and rebuilding the body, and that heating these foods destroys the natural enzymes and can leave toxic materials behind. However, critics point out that enzymes, as with other proteins consumed in the diet, are denatured and eventually lysed by the digestive process, rendering them non-functional. Typical foods included in raw food diets are fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and legumes.
Among raw vegans there are some subgroups such as fruitarians, juicearians, or sproutarians. Fruitarians eat primarily or exclusively fruits, berries, seeds, and nuts. Juicearians process their raw plant foods into juice. Sproutarians adhere to a diet consisting mainly of sprouted seeds.
Vegetarianism is a diet that excludes meat (including game and byproducts like gelatin), fish (including shellfish and other sea animals) and poultry, but allows dairy and/or eggs. Common foods include fruit, vegetables, sprouts, nuts, seeds, grains, legumes, dairy, eggs and honey. There are several variants of this diet.
Raw animal food diets
|Main ingredients||Raw beef|
|Cookbook:Steak tartare Steak tartare|
Included in raw animal food diets are any food that can be eaten raw, such as uncooked, unprocessed raw muscle-meats/organ-meats/eggs, raw dairy, and aged, raw animal foods such as century eggs, fermented meat/fish/shellfish/kefir, as well as vegetables/fruits/nuts/sprouts/honey, but in general not raw grains, raw beans, and raw soy. Raw foods included on such diets have not been heated above 40 °C (104 °F). Raw animal foodists believe that foods cooked above this temperature have lost much of their nutritional value and are much less helpful to the body. Many believe that raw meats should come from sources such as grassfed meats or wild game rather than grainfed meats.
Examples of raw animal food diets include the Primal Diet, Anopsology (otherwise known as "Instinctive Eating" or "Instincto"), and the Raw Paleolithic diet (otherwise known as the "Raw Meat Diet").
The Primal Diet consists of fatty meats, organ meats, dairy, honey, minimal fruit and vegetable juices, and coconut cream, all raw.
The "Raw Meat Diet", otherwise known as the "Raw, Paleolithic Diet", is a raw version of the (cooked) Paleolithic Diet, incorporating large amounts of raw animal foods such as meats/organ-meats, seafood, eggs, and some raw plant-foods, but usually avoiding non-Paleo foods such as raw dairy, grains, and legumes.
A number of traditional aboriginal diets consisted of large quantities of raw meats, organ meats, and berries, including the traditional diet of the Nenet tribe of Siberia and the Inuit people.
In the 1830s, Presbyterian minister Sylvester Graham promoted dietary principles similar to the raw food diet as a cure for the current cholera epidemic threatening to strike the United States. Graham, most noted for the famous graham cracker, described chronic disease in general and cholera in particular could be prevented by drinking pure water and eating simple fresh food not complicated or compounded by culinary practices.
Beliefs held by raw foodists include:
- enzymes in raw foods (such as amylases, proteases, and lipases) aid digestion. Heating food above 104-120 °Fahrenheit (40-49 °C) degrades or destroys these enzymes in food. A few raw foodists such as Dr. Douglas Graham dispute the importance of enzymes in foods.
- Raw foods include bacteria and other micro-organisms that affect the immune system and digestion by populating the digestive tract with beneficial gut flora. In addition, many raw-foodists, particularly primal-dieters, are believers in the hygiene hypothesis, a concept that promotes the health benefits of exposure to natural, symbiotic bacteria like those found in unpasteurized fermented foods.
- Raw foods have higher nutrient values than foods that have been cooked.
- Processed food and convenience food often contain excitotoxins (such as flavor enhancers) that can cause excitotoxicity. Foods with added chemicals, preservatives, additives, colouring agents/dyes of any kind are frowned upon by most raw-foodists.
- Raw foods are the ideal food for human consumption, and the basis of a raw food lifestyle. Irritants or stimulants like coffee, alcohol, and tobacco are not recommended. Also heated fats and proteins like fried oils and roasted nuts are to be avoided, as they are deemed by many raw foodists to be carcinogenic.
- Wild foods followed by organic whole foods are more nutritious than conventionally domesticated foods or industrially produced foods.
- Cooked foods contain harmful toxins, which can cause chronic disease and other problems, Heating oils and fats can produce trace amounts of trans fats. Cooking foods produces advanced glycation end products ("glycotoxins", see also Maillard reaction).
- Raw foods such as fruits and vegetables are high in antioxidants, which raw-foodists believe can help to stifle signs of aging. Dr. Joel Fuhrman, author of "Eat To Live", says that uncooked cruciferous vegetables have the most powerful anti-cancer effects of all foods. He also says that most of the phytonutrients function as antioxidants in the body, meaning they neutralize free radicals, rendering them harmless and reducing cancer risk. Raw foodists believe that this property found in alkaline living foods or raw food, which neutralizes free radicals, makes green smoothies a powerful antioxidant drink.
- Because raw seeds and nuts are vulnerable to moldiness and rancidity, raw products made from these ingredients should stay refrigerated to maintain optimum nutritional value and flavor, as well as to minimize oxidation caused by the nut and seed oils' becoming rancid.
- Air-pollution and smoking are extremely harmful to health. They also believe that recycled tapwater is harmful, especially fluoridated or chlorinated tapwater.
Many foods in raw food diets are simple to prepare, such as fruits, salads, meat, and dairy. Other foods can require considerable advanced planning to prepare for eating. Rice and some other grains, for example, require sprouting or overnight soaking to become digestible. Many raw foodists believe it is best to soak nuts and seeds before eating them, to activate their enzymes, and deactivate enzyme inhibitors. The amount of soak time varies for all nuts and seeds.
According to some cookbook authors, preparation of gourmet raw food recipes usually calls for a blender, food processor, juicer, and dehydrator. Depending on the recipe, some food (such as crackers, breads and cookies) may need to be dehydrated. These processes, which produce foods with the taste and texture of cooked food, are lengthy. Some raw foodists dispense with these recipes, feeling that there is no need to emulate the other non-raw diets or increase sales of kitchen appliances.
Freezing food is acceptable, even though freezing lowers enzyme activity. This view is only held by some raw-foodists, with many raw-foodists actually viewing freezing as harmful, though not as unhealthy as cooking.
Raw food movement
Early proponents include St. Louis Estes, Edmund Bordeaux Szekely, Johnny Lovewisdom, Ann Wigmore and Viktoras Kulvinskas (co-founders of the Hippocrates Health Institute), Arnold Ehret (author and advocate of fasting), Aris Latham (of Sunfired Foods, Inc., known as the godfather of raw food), Arshavir Ter Hovannessian and Norman W. Walker (who advocated the consumption of vegetable juices).
Notable contemporary proponents include several chefs, published authors and lecturers, such as Dr. Douglas Graham, Dan "The Man" McDonald, Karyn Calabrese, Matt and Angela Monarch, Juliano Brotman, Dara, Markus Rosenkranz, Paul Nisson, Tonya Zavasta, Alissa Cohen, Chef Be*Live, Matthew Kenney, David Wolfe, Aris La Tham, Aajonus Vonderplanitz, Sarma Melngailis, Janice Skoreyko, and Elijah Joy.
Celebrity proponents include Demi Moore, Woody Harrelson, Jason Mraz, Ben Vereen, and Carol Alt. Woody Harrelson has published books on raw food, starred in a raw food film, created a raw food website and also opened O2, a raw food restaurant and bar. Model and actress Carol Alt includes raw animal products in her diet; she has written several books on her version of the raw diet and lifestyle. Her last one, The Raw 50, includes many chefs like Melissa Mango, celebrity Chef Be*Live and more.
Interest in the "Raw Foods Movement" continues to grow  and is especially prevalent in Australia and the western United States, like California. In Canada there is an international Raw Food Culinary Arts and Nutrition Institute, Raw Foundation, where the movement has gained much popularity. In Europe, it has remained a novelty, although a few restaurants have opened in the UK, Germany, and other large cities. Numerous all-raw cookbooks have been published.
Supercharge Me! 30 Days Raw is a feature-length documentary film about the raw foods diet, made by Jenna Norwood, a former public relations consultant turned independent filmmaker, health educator and raw food chef. In the film, inspired by Morgan Spurlock's Super Size Me, Jenna ate only raw foods for thirty days, to document the effect it would have on her health.
To date, scientific literature describing health and nutrition aspects of raw foods or living foods diets is limited, and most studies are of vegetarian diets; most of these exclude all animal products and derive the majority of calories from uncooked plant matter. A meta-analysis of scientific studies from 1994 to 2004 concluded there to be an inverse correlation between the risk of developing certain types of cancer and eating both raw and cooked vegetables. Consumption of raw vegetables tended to be associated with decreased cancer risks somewhat more often than consumption of cooked vegetables. The majority of studies included show an inverse association between both raw and cooked vegetables and cancer. On the other hand, certain studies have indicated detrimental health effects stemming from raw vegan diets. A 2005 study has shown that a raw vegan diet is associated with a lower bone density. One study of raw vegan diets shows amenorrhea and underweightness in women. Another one indicates an increased risk of dental erosion with a raw vegan diet.
Small clinical studies have shown long term raw food adherents to be more efficient at ridding the body of various toxic compounds. An upregulation in certain detoxification pathways and a decrease in bacterial enzymes of certain toxic products found in stools long term raw food adherents suggest this health benefit.
Other medical studies on raw food diets have shown some positive and negative health outcomes. According to one medical trial, "long-term consumption of a 70% raw-plant-food diet is associated with favorable serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides but also with elevated plasma homocysteine and low serum HDL cholesterol" as well as vitamin B12 deficiency. Another study from Germany found that a "long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma beta-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations". A study mentioned benefits of a raw vegan diet for lowering obesity and hypertension A study has also shown reduced fibromyalgia symptoms for those on a raw vegan diet as well as reduced symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, according to another study.
German research in 2003 showed significant benefits in reducing breast cancer risk when large amounts of raw vegetable matter are included in the diet. The authors attribute some of this effect to heat-labile phytonutrients.
One study comparing pasteurized and unpasteurized breast milk, showed that pasteurizing breast milk for hospital use and milk banks is unnecessary. Another study showed a link between consumption of unpasteurized milk and a lowered prevalence of allergies.
Artturi Virtanen showed that enzymes in uncooked foods are released in the mouth when vegetables are chewed. Raw foodists extrapolate from such research the supposition that the enzymes found in living foods interact with other substances, notable ones being the enzymes produced by the body itself, to aid in digestion. Promoters of raw foods, such as the Weston-Price Foundation, support the idea that, since no digestive juices are secreted in the upper stomach, the enzymes in the raw foods last for about 30 minutes in the upper stomach before being destroyed in the lower stomach, thus giving them enough time to break down the raw foods, to some extent.
Columbia University research in 2008 showed significant improving of mental and emotional quality of life for participants using raw vegan diet in raw vegan institute. Another American research in 2001 showed Fibromyalgia syndrome improved in observational study using a mostly raw vegetarian diet
One of the problems in researching microorganisms in the digestive system is that many of them cannot live outside the digestive system and can be analysed only by their genetic material. Steven R. Gill did some of this analysis and showed that in the "collective genome" of the human intestinal flora there is a high percentage of genes connected with synthesis of some vitamins and essential amino acids.
Toxic compounds created by cooking
Although microwave cooking may lead to reduced HCA levels in cooked meat products, Raw Foodists do not consider it any more favorable than other forms of cooking. Microwaving has been shown to cause a great decrease in all studied antioxidants in broccoli, compared to other cooking methods. Microwaving has also been shown to reduce vitamin B12 levels in beef, pork, and milk by 30-40%. Breast milk is commonly stored cold, and reheated before use. Using the microwave for this purpose has been shown to significantly reduce the anti-infective factors in human milk.
Cooking also creates certain heat-created toxic compounds, advanced glycation end products, otherwise known as AGEs. This reaction occurs both within the body and external to the body. Many cells in the body (for example endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cells of the immune system) from tissue such as lung, liver, kidney, and peripheral blood bear the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) that, when binding AGEs, contributes to age- and diabetes-related chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis, renal failure, arthritis, myocardial infarction, macular degeneration, cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, or neuropathy. Excretion of dietary AGEs is reduced in diabetics and lowering AGE intake may greatly reduce the impact of AGEs in diabetic patients and possibly improve prognosis.
Acrylamide in a substance found at high levels in certain cooked foods. According to the American Cancer Society it is not clear, as of 2013[update], whether acrylamide consumption affects people's risk of getting cancer.[relevant? ]
Effect of cooking on digestibility and allergy
Another study has shown that meat heated for 10 minutes at 130 °C (266 °F), showed a 1.5% decrease in protein digestibility. Similar heating of hake meat in the presence of potato starch, soy oil, and salt caused a 6% decrease in amino acid content.
Frying chickpeas, oven-heating winged beans, or roasting cereals at 200–280 °C (392–536 °F) reduces protein digestibility.
One study, comparing the effects of consuming either pasteurized, or homogenized/pasteurized, or unpasteurized milk, showed that pasteurized and homogenized/pasteurized milk might increase allergic reactions in patients allergic to milk.
Potential harmful effects of cooking
It has also been pointed out that cooking food, directly or indirectly, requires energy and may thus release gases associated with global warming. Raw diets mitigate the use of non-renewable resources, which results in raw diets being less environmentally deleterious than cooked food diets in this respect.
Nutritional deficiencies in raw vegan diets
Care is required in planning a raw vegan diet, especially for children. Dr. Joel Fuhrman, author of Disease-Proof Your Child, says there may not be enough vitamin B12, enough vitamin D, and enough calories for a growing child on a totally raw vegan diet. Fuhrman fed his own four children raw and cooked vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains, beans, and occasionally eggs. However, this nutritionist has made it clear in his books that he advocates 80 percent of our food should be raw, vegetable based, and that more than ten percent based on animal produce increases the risk of disease.
A study surveying people practicing raw vegan diets of varying intensities found that 30% of the women under age 45 had partial to complete amenorrhoea and that "subjects eating high amounts of raw food (> 90%) were affected more frequently than moderate raw food dieters". The study concluded that since many raw food dieters were underweight and exhibited amenorrhoea "a very strict raw vegan diet cannot be recommended on a long-term basis".
Food poisoning is a health risk for all people eating raw foods, and increased demand for raw foods is associated with greater incidence of foodborne illness, especially for raw meat, fish, and shellfish. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis among consumers of raw and undercooked animal products (including smoked, pickled or dried animal products) are well-documented, and include raw meat, raw organ meat, raw fish (whether ocean-going or freshwater), shellfish, raw milk and products made from raw milk, and raw eggs.
Many raw plant foods have been contaminated by dangerous and even deadly microorganisms, including jalapeño and serrano peppers, alfalfa sprouts and other sprouted seeds, green onions, spinach, lettuce, orange juice, apple juice and other unpasteurized fruit juices.
Demand for unpasteurized, or raw, milk is growing among consumers concerned about chemicals, hormones, and drugs in milk. Some oppose pasteurization on the grounds that - in their view - it impairs the quality of milk by denaturing enzymes and proteins, and killing beneficial bacteria. According to the FDA, some of the health benefits claimed by some raw milk advocates do not exist.
Raw dairy advocates have claimed that government agencies are heavily biased against raw dairy, providing incomplete facts or erroneous statistics.
Richard Wrangham, a primate researcher and professor of anthropology, has suggested that eating cooked food is more "natural" for the human digestive system, because the human digestive system may have evolved to deal with cooked foods. Wrangham thinks that cooking explains the increase in hominid brain sizes, smaller digestive tract, smaller teeth and jaws and decrease in sexual dimorphism that occurred roughly 1.8 million years ago. Most other anthropologists oppose Wrangham, stating that archaeological evidence suggests that cooking fires began in earnest only c.250,000 years ago, when ancient hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones, and flint appear across Europe and the Middle East. Two million years ago, the only sign of fire is burnt earth with human remains, which most other anthropologists consider to be mere coincidence rather than evidence of intentional fire. The mainstream view among anthropologists is that the increases in human brain-size occurred well before the advent of cooking, due to a shift away from the consumption of nuts and berries to the consumption of raw meat.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Raw food.|
- Wong, Cathy (17 September 2007). "Raw Food Diet". About.com. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
- Kaufman CF (2013). Smith AF, Kraig B, ed. Cooking Techniques. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. volume 1 (2nd ed.) (Oxford University Press). pp. 537–544. ISBN 978-0-19-973496-2.
- Graham, Douglas. "The Challenges of Going on a Raw Food Diet". FoodnSport.com. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
- "AskOxford: vegetarian". Askoxford.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Primal Dieting: Eat Your Raw food With A Roar!". Foodenquirer.com. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Green, Emily (2001-01-31). "Meat but No Heat - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Paleo/Primal Diet FAQ". http://paleodemystified.com. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Raw Paleo Diet - The Raw Paleolithic Diet & Lifestyle!". Rawpaleodiet.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Raw Paleo Diet – RVAF Systems Overview".
- More for less (2005-06-12). "The raw meat diet: do you have the stomach for the latest celebrity food fad? - Health News, Health & Wellbeing - The Independent". London: Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Raw Paleo Diet - The Raw Paleolithic Diet & Lifestyle!". Rawpaleodiet.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- Viestad, Andreas (2008-05-14). "Where Home Cooking Gets the Cold Shoulder - washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "BBC NEWS | In pictures: Cooking in the Danger Zone, Rotten walrus meat". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FPNS%2FPNS12_01%2FS0029665153000188a.pdf&code=ced53855b1b383c57fc0936b8a4b398c[dead link]
- Graham, Sylvester. Lectures on the science of human life. 1849.
- ""Digestive Enzymes do More than just Aid Digestion", an article at Holistic Junction". Holisticjunction.com. 2007-08-24. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Life Extension Magazine, April 1999, ''Digestive Enzymes: The Missing Link''". Lef.org. 1999-04-01. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Graham, Douglas. "Enzymes: Are They for Real?". FoodnSport.com.
- "cooking, loss of nutrients - Health Information About cooking, loss of nutrients | Encyclopedia.com: Dictionary Of Food and Nutrition". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Nutritional Effects of Food Processing – NutritionData.com". Nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- Morgan, Agnes Fay; Kern, Grace E. (April 1934). "The Effect of Heat Upon the Biological Value of Meat Protein". The Journal of Nutrition 7 (4): 367–79.
- "Organic Food Is More Nutritious Say EU Researchers". Medicalnewstoday.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Highfield, Roger; Gammell, Caroline (2007-12-03). "Study finds acrylamide link to cancer in women". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2010-04-10.
- "Raw Fresh Produce vs. Cooked Food". Living-foods.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- Washington Post, August 30, 2003, The Skinny on Trans Fats: "For example, a recent study conducted to determine the levels of trans fat isomers formed by heat found that in canola oil heated to 500 degrees F for 30 minutes, trans fat levels were increased by only 1 percent."
- Koschinsky, T; He, CJ; Mitsuhashi, T; Bucala, R; Liu, C; Buenting, C; Heitmann, K; Vlassara, H (1997). "Orally absorbed reactive glycation products (glycotoxins): An environmental risk factor in diabetic nephropathy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 (12): 6474–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.12.6474. PMC 21074. PMID 9177242.
- "Battling Aging with the Raw Diet". Facecreamcentral.com. 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Macroanalytical Procedures Manual (MPM) - MPM: V-10. Nuts and Nut Products Methods". FDA.gov. 2009-10-21. Retrieved 2012-03-03.
- "Raw Nut Health Information and Raw Seed Health Information and Terminology". Rejuvenative.com. Retrieved 2012-03-03.
- Raw Food Explained. "The Deadly Chemicals In Our Air". Rawfoodexplained.com. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- Name *. "Thanks For Not Smoking". Rawfoodexplained.com. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- "Where to find clean, safe, healthy drinking water". Raw-food-diet-magazine.com. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- Calabrese, Karyn (2011). "Soak Your Nuts: Cleansing With Karyn: Detox Secrets for Inner Healing and Outer Beauty." Healthy Living Publications
- "About the Raw Food (Living Foods) Diet". Allmyrecipes.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Selection & Storage Of Foods, I - Does Freezing Harm Foods?". Rawfoodexplained.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Raw Food Eating". Rawfoodstips.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- Raw-eating, or, A new world free from diseases, vices and poisons by Arshavir Ter Hovannessian, Publisher: Tehran [Iran]: A. Ter Hovannessian, 1967.
- "Raw Food Media Website". RFM. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Bev Bennet (August 17, 2008). "Raw food diet may lead to nutrition shortfalls, say experts". Nydailynews.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "In California, restaurants to bolster the immune system - International Herald Tribune". Iht.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "The Raw Food Diet: A Raw Deal | LiveScience". Livescience.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Die 48-Grad-Küche: Rohkost als Trend « DiePresse.com". Diepresse.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Locations". Live-Food.com. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "Raw and Live Food Vegetarian Books". Vegetarian-restaurants.net. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- "About". Jenna Norwood. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Woodstock Fruit Festival website. http://www.thewoodstockfruitfestival.com
- "Raw Food Diets Living Food - Review of scientific literature journals". Living-foods.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- Link, Lilli; Potter, J. (2004). "Raw versus cooked vegetables and cancer risk". Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13 (9): 1422–1435. PMID 15342442.
- Cunningham, E (2004). "What is a raw foods diet and are there any risks or benefits associated with it?". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104 (10): 1623. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2004.08.016. PMID 15389429.
- Cundiff, DK; Harris, W (2006). "Case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? Rickets? DiGeorge syndrome? Developmental delay?". Nutrition journal 5: 1. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-5-1. PMC 1363354. PMID 16412249.
- Donaldson, MS (2000). "Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements". Annals of nutrition & metabolism 44 (5–6): 229–34. doi:10.1159/000046689. PMID 11146329.
- Fontana, L; Shew, JL; Holloszy, JO; Villareal, DT (2005). "Low bone mass in subjects on a long-term raw vegan diet". Archives of Internal Medicine 165 (6): 684–9. doi:10.1001/archinte.165.6.684. PMID 15795346.
- Koebnick, C; Strassner, C; Hoffmann, I; Leitzmann, C (1999). "Consequences of a long-term raw vegan diet on body weight and menstruation: results of a questionnaire survey". Annals of nutrition & metabolism 43 (2): 69–79. doi:10.1159/000012770. PMID 10436305.
- Ganss, C; Schlechtriemen, M; Klimek, J (1999). "Dental erosions in subjects living on a raw food diet". Caries research 33 (1): 74–80. doi:10.1159/000016498. PMID 9831783.
- Hänninen, O., et al. "Vegan diet in physiological health promotion." Acta Physiologica Hungarica 86.3-4 (1998): 171-180.
- Koebnick, Corinna; Garcia, Ada L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Strassner, Carola; Lindemans, Jan; Katz, Norbert; Leitzmann, Claus; Hoffmann, Ingrid (2005). "Long-Term Consumption of a Raw Food Diet Is Associated with Favorable Serum LDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides but Also with Elevated Plasma Homocysteine and Low Serum HDL Cholesterol in Humans,2". Journal of Nutrition 135 (10): 2372–8. PMID 16177198.
- Garcia, AL; Koebnick, C; Dagnelie, PC; Strassner, C; Elmadfa, I; Katz, N; Leitzmann, C; Hoffmann, I (2008). "Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma beta-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans". The British journal of nutrition 99 (6): 1293–300. doi:10.1017/S0007114507868486. PMID 18028575.
- Douglass, JM; Rasgon, IM; Fleiss, PM; Schmidt, RD; Peters, SN; Abelmann, EA (1985). "Effects of a raw food diet on hypertension and obesity". Southern Medical Journal 78 (7): 841–4. doi:10.1097/00007611-198507000-00017. PMID 4012382.
- Kaartinen K, Lammi K, Hypen M, Nenonen M, Hanninen O, Rauma AL (2000). "Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms". Scand. J. Rheumatol. 29 (5): 308–13. doi:10.1080/030097400447697. PMID 11093597.
- Nenonen, MT; Helve, TA; Rauma, AL; Hänninen, OO (1998). "Uncooked, lactobacilli-rich, vegan food and rheumatoid arthritis". British journal of rheumatology 37 (3): 274–81. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/37.3.274. PMID 9566667.
- Adzersen, KH; Jess, P; Freivogel, KW; Gerhard, I; Bastert, G (2003). "Raw and cooked vegetables, fruits, selected micronutrients, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Germany". Nutrition and cancer 46 (2): 131–7. doi:10.1207/S15327914NC4602_05. PMID 14690788.
- Björkstén, B; Burman, LG; De Château, P; Fredrikzon, B; Gothefors, L; Hernell, O (1980). "Collecting and banking human milk: to heat or not to heat?". British Medical Journal 281 (6243): 765–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.281.6243.765. PMC 1714023. PMID 7427442.
- Perkin, MR; Strachan, DP (2006). "Which aspects of the farming lifestyle explain the inverse association with childhood allergy?". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 117 (6): 1374–81. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.03.008. PMID 16751000.
- "Enzymes by Sally Fallon with Mary G. Enig, PhD". Realmilk.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- Change in quality of life and immune markers after a stay at a raw vegan institute: a pilot study.
- Fibromyalgia syndrome improved using a mostly raw vegetarian diet: an observational study.
- Steven R. Gill et al. Metagenomic Analysis of the Human Distal Gut Microbiome // Science. 2006. V. 312. P. 1355–1359.
- López-Berenguer, C; Carvajal, M; Moreno, DA; García-Viguera, C (2007). "Effects of microwave cooking conditions on bioactive compounds present in broccoli inflorescences". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (24): 10001–7. doi:10.1021/jf071680t. PMID 17979232.
- Watanabe, F; Abe, K; Fujita, T; Goto, M; Hiemori, M; Nakano, Y (1998). "Effects of Microwave Heating on the Loss of Vitamin B(12) in Foods". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46 (1): 206–210. doi:10.1021/jf970670x. PMID 10554220.
- Quan, R; Yang, C; Rubinstein, S; Lewiston, NJ; Sunshine, P; Stevenson, DK; Kerner Ja, JA (1992). "Effects of microwave radiation on anti-infective factors in human milk". Pediatrics 89 (4 Pt 1): 667–9. PMID 1557249.
- Raloff, Janet (1992). "Microwaving can lower breast milk benefits | Science News | Find Articles at BNET". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- Larsson, SC; Bergkvist, L; Wolk, A (2006). "Processed meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines and stomach cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women". International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer 119 (4): 915–9. doi:10.1002/ijc.21925. PMID 16550597.
- Jakszyn, P; Gonzalez, CA (2006). "Nitrosamine and related food intake and gastric and oesophageal cancer risk: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence". World journal of gastroenterology 12 (27): 4296–303. PMID 16865769.
- Cai, W; He, JC; Zhu, L; Peppa, M; Lu, C; Uribarri, J; Vlassara, H (2004). "High levels of dietary advanced glycation end products transform low-density lipoprotein into a potent redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase stimulant in diabetic patients". Circulation 110 (3): 285–91. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000135587.92455.0D. PMID 15249511.
- Yamagishi, S; Matsui, T; Nakamura, K (2008). "Possible link of food-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to the development of diabetes". Medical hypotheses 71 (6): 876–8. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.07.034. PMID 18783891.
- Uribarri, J; Peppa, M; Cai, W; Goldberg, T; Lu, M; He, C; Vlassara, H (2003). "Restriction of dietary glycotoxins reduces excessive advanced glycation end products in renal failure patients". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 14 (3): 728–31. doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000051593.41395.B9. PMID 12595509.
- Peppa, M; Uribarri, J; Vlassara, H (2004). "The role of advanced glycation end products in the development of atherosclerosis". Current Diabetes Reports 4 (1): 31–6. doi:10.1007/s11892-004-0008-6. PMID 14764277.
- Sakata, N; Imanaga, Y; Meng, J; Tachikawa, Y; Takebayashi, S; Nagai, R; Horiuchi, S (1999). "Increased advanced glycation end products in atherosclerotic lesions of patients with end-stage renal disease". Atherosclerosis 142 (1): 67–77. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(98)00192-0. PMID 9920507.
- Verzijl, N; Degroot, J; Ben, ZC; Brau-Benjamin, O; Maroudas, A; Bank, RA; Mizrahi, J; Schalkwijk, CG et al. (2002). "Crosslinking by advanced glycation end products increases the stiffness of the collagen network in human articular cartilage: a possible mechanism through which age is a risk factor for osteoarthritis". Arthritis and rheumatism 46 (1): 114–23. doi:10.1002/1529-0131(200201)46:1<114::AID-ART10025>3.0.CO;2-P. PMID 11822407.
- Taki, K; Tsuruta, Y; Niwa, T (2008). "Cardiac troponin T and advanced glycation end-products in hemodialysis patients". American journal of nephrology 28 (5): 701–6. doi:10.1159/000127431. PMID 18431051.
- Yamada, Y; Ishibashi, K; Ishibashi, K; Bhutto, IA; Tian, J; Lutty, GA; Handa, JT (2006). "The expression of advanced glycation endproduct receptors in rpe cells associated with basal deposits in human maculas". Experimental eye research 82 (5): 840–8. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2005.10.005. PMC 3266699. PMID 16364296.
- Peppa, M; Raptis, SA (2008). "Advanced glycation end products and cardiovascular disease". Current diabetes reviews 4 (2): 92–100. doi:10.2174/157339908784220732. PMID 18473756.
- Sugiyama, S; Miyata, T; Horie, K; Iida, Y; Tsuyuki, M; Tanaka, H; Maeda, K (1996). "Advanced glycation end-products in diabetic nephropathy". Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation. 11 Suppl 5: 91–4. doi:10.1093/ndt/11.supp5.91. PMID 9044316.
- Chibber, R; Molinatti, PA; Rosatto, N; Lambourne, B; Kohner, EM (1997). "Toxic action of advanced glycation end products on cultured retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells: relevance to diabetic retinopathy". Diabetologia 40 (2): 156–64. doi:10.1007/s001250050657. PMID 9049475.
- Sugimoto, K; Yasujima, M; Yagihashi, S (2008). "Role of advanced glycation end products in diabetic neuropathy". Current pharmaceutical design 14 (10): 953–61. doi:10.2174/138161208784139774. PMID 18473845.
- "ATSDR - Redirect - ToxFAQs™: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)". Atsdr.cdc.gov. 2010-07-20. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- "Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk - National Cancer Institute". Cancer.gov. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Martí-Cid R, Llobet JM, Castell V, Domingo JL (Sep 2008). "Evolution of the dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Catalonia, Spain". Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 (9): 3163–71. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.002. PMID 18675309.
- Gammon MD, Santella RM (Mar 2008). "PAH, genetic susceptibility and breast cancer risk: an update from the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project". Eur. J. Cancer 44 (5): 636–40. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2008.01.026. PMID 18314326.
- Scientific Committee on Food - Task Force on PAH (4 December 2002). "PAH - Occurrence in foods, dietary exposure and health effects" (PDF). EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH and CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- "Acrylamide". American Cancer Society. 1 October 2013. Retrieved September 2014.
- http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FPNS%2FPNS4_02%2FS0029665146000321a.pdf&code=44a8dfdde48fb6037fc0936b8a4b398c[dead link]
- Oste, RE (1991). "Digestibility of processed food protein". Advances in experimental medicine and biology 289: 371–88. doi:10.1007/978-1-4899-2626-5_27. PMID 1897402.
- Seidler, T. (1987). "Effects of additives and thermal treatment on the content of nitrogen compounds and the nutritive value of hake meat". Food / Nahrung 31 (10): 959–70. doi:10.1002/food.19870311007. PMID 3437919.
- Høst A, Samuelsson EG; Samuelsson (Feb 1988). "Allergic reactions to raw, pasteurized, and homogenized/pasteurized cow milk: a comparison. A double-blind placebo-controlled study in milk allergic children". Allergy 43 (2): 113–8. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.1988.tb00404.x. PMID 3284399.
- Buncombe, Andrew (6 August 2007). "Cooking fires add to global warming". The New Zealand Herald. The Independent. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- Messina, V; Mangels, AR (2001). "Considerations in planning vegan diets: children". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101 (6): 661–9. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00167-5. PMID 11424545.
- Rachel Breitman. "The raw food diet: a half-baked idea for kids? — JSCMS". Jscms.jrn.columbia.edu. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Consequences of a Long-Term Raw Food Diet on Body Weight and Menstruation: Results of a Questionnaire Survey". Content.karger.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- Lee, CC; Lam, MS (1996). "Foodborne diseases". Singapore medical journal 37 (2): 197–204. PMID 8942264.
- Macpherson, CN (2005). "Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses". International Journal for Parasitology 35 (11–12): 1319–31. doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.06.004. PMID 16102769.
- Lun, ZR; Gasser, RB; Lai, DH; Li, AX; Zhu, XQ; Yu, XB; Fang, YY (2005). "Clonorchiasis: a key foodborne zoonosis in China". The Lancet infectious diseases 5 (1): 31–41. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(04)01252-6. PMID 15620559.
- Yoshida, H; Matsuo, M; Miyoshi, T; Uchino, K; Nakaguchi, H; Fukumoto, T; Teranaka, Y; Tanaka, T (2007). "An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis suspected to be related to contaminated food, October 2006, Sakai City, Japan". Japanese journal of infectious diseases 60 (6): 405–7. PMID 18032847. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2014-02-08.
- Pozio, E (2003). "Foodborne and waterborne parasites". Acta microbiologica Polonica. 52 Suppl: 83–96. PMID 15058817.
- Su, YC; Liu, C (2007). "Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a concern of seafood safety". Food microbiology 24 (6): 549–58. doi:10.1016/j.fm.2007.01.005. PMID 17418305.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2008). "Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infections in children associated with raw milk and raw colostrum from cows—California, 2006". MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 57 (23): 625–8. PMID 18551097.
- Donnelly, Catherine W. (1990). "Concerns of Microbial Pathogens in Association with Dairy Foods". Journal of Dairy Science 73 (6): 1656–61. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78838-8. PMID 2200814.
- Doyle, MP (1991). "Escherichia coli O157:H7 and its significance in foods". International Journal of Food Microbiology 12 (4): 289–301. doi:10.1016/0168-1605(91)90143-D. PMID 1854598.
- Cox, JM (1995). "Salmonella enteritidis: the egg and I". Australian veterinary journal 72 (3): 108–15. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1995.tb15022.x. PMID 7611983.
- Sivapalasingam, S; Friedman, CR; Cohen, L; Tauxe, RV (2004). "Fresh produce: a growing cause of outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997". Journal of food protection 67 (10): 2342–53. PMID 15508656.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2008). "Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Saintpaul infections associated with multiple raw produce items—United States, 2008". MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 57 (34): 929–34. PMID 18756191.
- Mahon, BE; Pönkä, A; Hall, WN; Komatsu, K; Dietrich, SE; Siitonen, A; Cage, G; Hayes, PS et al. (1997). "An international outbreak of Salmonella infections caused by alfalfa sprouts grown from contaminated seeds". The Journal of infectious diseases 175 (4): 876–82. doi:10.1086/513985. PMID 9086144.
- "Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on sprouted seeds. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods". International Journal of Food Microbiology 52 (3): 123–53. 1999. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(99)00135-X. PMID 10733245.
- Dentinger, CM; Bower, WA; Nainan, OV; Cotter, SM; Myers, G; Dubusky, LM; Fowler, S; Salehi, ED; Bell, BP (2001). "An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions". The Journal of infectious diseases 183 (8): 1273–6. doi:10.1086/319688. PMID 11262211.
- Heaton, JC; Jones, K (2008). "Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: a review". Journal of applied microbiology 104 (3): 613–26. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03587.x. PMID 17927745.
- Winter, Greg (2001-03-18). "Contaminated Food Makes Millions Ill Despite Advances". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
- Parish, ME (1997). "Public health and nonpasteurized fruit juices". Critical reviews in microbiology 23 (2): 109–19. doi:10.3109/10408419709115132. PMID 9226110.
- "Demand for raw milk growing, despite dangers - Diet and nutrition". Msnbc.msn.com. April 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Pasteurization Kills Enzymes Creating Worthless Milk". 1800naturalhealing.com. Retrieved 2008-11-07.
- "Got Milk?" by Linda Bren. FDA Consumer. September–October 2004.
- "FDA and CDC Bias Against Raw Milk-No Facts Provided in Recent Reminder about Raw Milk Consumption". Realmilk.com. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Clement, Brian (2006). "The Cooking Enigma". In Ungar, Peter S. Evolution of the Human Diet: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable. Oxford, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 308–23. ISBN 0-19-518346-0.
- Wrangham, R; Conklin-Brittain, N (2003). "'Cooking as a biological trait'". Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 136 (1): 35–46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03)00020-5. PMID 14527628.
- "Pennisi: Did Cooked Tubers Spur the Evolution of Big Brains?". Cogweb.ucla.edu. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- Gorman, RM (2008). "Cooking up bigger brains". Scientific American 298 (1): 102, 104–5. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0108-102.
- "06.14.99 - Meat-eating was essential for human evolution, says UC Berkeley anthropologist specializing in diet". Berkeley.edu. 1999-06-14. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
- "Meat in the human diet: an anthropological perspective. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
Several raw food preparation books have been published including:
- Raw Star Recipes by Bryan Au (Fast Pencil Premiere, 2011)
- Raw by Charlie Trotter, Roxanne Klein, Jason Smith, and Tim Turner (Ten Speed Press, 2003)
- The Complete Book of Raw Food Lori Baird, Ed., and Julie Rodwell, Con. Ed., (Healthy Living Books, 2004)
- Raw Food/Real World: 100 Recipes to Get the Glow by Matthew Kenney and Sarma Melngailis (William Morrow, 2005)
- RAWvolution: Gourmet Living Cuisine by Matt Amsden (William Morrow, 2006)
- Ani's Raw Food Kitchen: Easy, Delectable Living Foods Recipes by Ani Phyo (Da Capo Press, 2007)
- Transitioning to Living Cuisine by René Oswald (2008)
- Ani's Raw Food Desserts: 85 Easy, Delectable Sweets and Treats by Ani Phyo (Da Capo Press, 2009)
- Live Recipe Books: Entrees, Desserts, and Drinks & Brunch by Jennifer Italiano (liverecipebooks.com, 2009)
- Everyday Raw and Entertaining in the Raw by Matthew Kenney (Gibbs Smith, 2009)
- Everyday Raw Desserts by Matthew Kenney (Gibbs Smith, 2010)
- Everyday Raw Express by Matthew Kenney (Gibbs Smith, 2011)
- Ani's Raw Food Asia: Easy East-West Fusion Recipes the Raw Food Way by Ani Phyo (Da Capo Lifelong Books, 2011)
- Practically Raw: Flexible Raw Recipes Anyone Can Make by Amber Shea Crawley (Vegan Heritage Press, 2012)
- Going Going Gone Raw by Chef Be*Live, Douglas van Duyne and Cintia van Duyne (G. Normous, 2012)
- RAW by Josefine Andrén, Anne-Lise Marø Høiback and Jenni Mylly (Funky Fresh Foods, 2012)
- Gorilla Food: Living and Eating Organic, Vegan, and Raw by Aaron Ash (Arsenal Pulp Press, 2012)
- Ani's Raw Food Essentials: Recipes and Techniques for Mastering the Art of Live Food by Ani Phyo (Da Capo Lifelong Books, 2012)
- The RAWvolution Continues: The Living Foods Movement in 150 Natural and Delicious Recipes by Matt and Janabai Amsden (Atria, 2013)
- Practically Raw Desserts: Flexible Recipes for All-Natural Sweets and Treats by Amber Shea Crawley (Vegan Heritage Press, 2013)
- Raw and Simple: Eat Well and Live Radiantly with 100 Truly Quick and Easy Recipes for the Raw Food Lifestyle by Judita Wignall (Quarry Books, 2013)
- Soak Your Nuts: Karyn's Conscious Comfort Foods- Recipes for Everyday Life by Karyn Calabrese (Green Press Initiative, 2013)