Rawhide (TV series)
Raymond St. Jacques
|Theme music composer||Dimitri Tiomkin (Music)
Ned Washington (Lyrics)
|Opening theme||"Rawhide" performed by Frankie Laine|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||8|
|No. of episodes||217|
|Executive producer(s)||Ben Brady|
Vincent M. Fennelly
Bernard L. Kowalski
Charles Marquis Warren
Robert E. Thompson
Gene Fowler, Jr.
George A. Gittens
Philip H. Lathrop
John M. Nickolaus, Jr.
|Running time||50 min.|
|Picture format||Black-and-white 4:3|
|Original run||January 9, 1959– January 4, 1966|
Rawhide is an American Western TV series starring Eric Fleming and Clint Eastwood that aired for eight seasons on the CBS network on Friday nights, from January 9, 1959 to September 3, 1965, before moving to Tuesday nights from September 14, 1965 until January 4, 1966, with a total of 217 black-and-white episodes. The series was produced and sometimes directed by Charles Marquis Warren, who also produced early episodes of Gunsmoke.
Spanning seven and a half years, Rawhide was the fifth-longest-running American television Western, exceeded only by eight years of Wagon Train, nine years of The Virginian, fourteen years of Bonanza, and twenty years of Gunsmoke.
||This section possibly contains original research. (May 2014)|
Set in the 1860s, Rawhide portrays the challenges faced by the drovers of a cattle drive. There are 20–25 riders looking after 3,000 head of cattle, the maximum manageable herd. The cattle drive begins in San Antonio, Texas, and makes its way along the Sedalia Trail (Sedalia, the final destination, is in Missouri about 50 miles east from Kansas City). In later seasons the crew push the cattle up the newer Chisholm Trail rather than the Sedalia Trail. The herd is estimated to be worth about $50,000–60,000 (about 1.3 million in 2010 dollars) if sold at market and represents a pool of cattle from approximately 200 owners. The trail boss carries a considerable sum of cash for all necessities and all possible emergencies. The drovers' pay was a dollar a day and "all you can eat". Riding drag was often a punishment since it was behind the herd, so a rider would pick up all of the herd's dust. Drives had a remuda, a pool of extra horses. If something happened to a man's horse, he would be useless without an instant replacement.
Most episodes are introduced with a monologue by Gil Favor (portrayed by Eric Fleming), the trail boss. In a typical Rawhide story, the drovers come upon people on the trail and are drawn into solving whatever problem they present or confront. Sometimes one or more of the crew venture into a nearby town and encounter some trouble from which they need to be rescued. Rowdy Yates (Clint Eastwood) was young and at times impetuous in the earliest episodes and Favor had to keep a tight rein on him. Favor was a savvy and strong leader who always played "square" with his fellow men; a tough customer who could handle the challenges and get the job done. (Producer Charles Warren called on the diary written in 1866 by trail boss George C. Duffield to shape the character of Favor.) Although Favor had the respect and loyalty of the men who worked for him, there were a few times when people, including Yates, were insubordinate under him after working too hard or after receiving a tongue lashing. Favor had to fight at times and always won. Some of the stories were obviously easier in production terms but the peak form of the show was convincing and naturalistic, and sometimes brutal. Its situations could range from parched plains to anthrax, ghostly riders to wolves, cattle raiding, bandits, murderers, and so forth. A problem on such drives was the constant need for water, and the scout spent much of his time looking for it, sometimes finding that water holes and even rivers had dried up. In some ways the show was similar to the TV series Wagon Train, which had debuted on NBC on September 18, 1957.
The series was not afraid to face tough issues. Robert Culp played an ex-soldier on the drive who had become dangerously addicted to morphine. Mexican drover Jesús faced racism at times (from people outside of the crew). There was still anger left over from the Civil War which had ended only four years earlier, and the "Poco Tiempo" episode reveals that Rowdy's father's name was Dan, that Rowdy came from Southwestern Texas, and that he went off to war at 16 (being later held in a Union prison camp). Trail boss Favor had been a Confederate Captain in the war. 'Incident on The Edge of Madness' in season one, guest starring Lon Chaney Jr., saw Favor's old commanding officer attempting to enlist the aid of Favor and his men to start the 'New Confederacy of Panama' much to Favor's dismay; in this episode we learn that Favor and Nolan were in the Confederate forces up on Marye's Heights at the Battle of Fredericksburg, and 'felt shamed' at having to gun down so many Union soldiers. There were still American Indians about, some of whom demanded cattle as payment for going through their land. There were rough characters in the shows and in one episode Gil Favor was tortured by having his face held near a fire. In another, 'Incident of The Town in Terror', people thought a sick Rowdy Yates had "the plague" (anthrax) and guns were used to enforce quarantine of the cattle drovers outside the town. There were also cattle rustlers, including Commancheros.
The show could on occasions be eerily atmospheric. "Incident With an The Executioner" featured a mysterious dark rider (Dan Duryea) seen on the hillside following the herd, "Incident of The Haunted Hills" featured a sacred Indian burial ground, "Incident of The Druid Curse" and season two's "Incident of The Murder Steer" (where anyone sighting a rogue steer with "Murder" carved on its side soon after dies, based on an actual legend of the old west), plus episodes with ghost towns, cattle with horns lit up by St. Elmo's fire at dusk, with cowboys struck by lightning, plus a strange totally enclosed gypsy wagon, apparently steering itself, repeatedly turning up etc., all stand out as curiously "spooky" tales for a bustling dusty cattle drive; the show's often stark incidental music suited these stories perfectly.
In episode 67, "Incident Near the Promised Land" (most episode titles began with "Incident" until Bruce Geller and Bernard L. Kowalski became the producers for season six), the cattle drive finally reached Sedalia (for the first time in the series). Unusually, episode 68 continues on from that, where the cattle have been sold and the men celebrate in town and decide on their futures with even Favor thinking of leaving the business. Instead of the usual ending, wherein Gil Favor gives the command "Head 'em up! Move 'em out!" and the cattle move off, this episode had the end titles over a view of a Sedalia street. Episode 69 sees Gil Favor visiting his two daughters, Gillian and Maggie, who live with their Aunt Elena in Philadelphia. In episode 70, a number of the men are back together and heading back to San Antonio about 650 miles away, with a herd of horses (used in the titles) instead of cattle. Episode 71 sees a new cattle drive ready to go but the owner of 1600 of the cattle wants to be in charge, so Favor reluctantly signs on as a ramrod, but after problems, Favor becomes boss again at the end of the show. These five episodes made up one storyline instead of the usual single episode stories which could have been set anywhere in the West.
Favor had many bad moments in the series but none worse than the "Lost Herd" episode wherein, close to drive's finish, he wants to beat another herd to town to get the best prices. He takes a narrow shortcut; there's thunder and lightning and the herd stampedes over the cliffs, leaving him just 9 out of 3000 cattle when the drive reaches town. He doesn't have the money to pay the drovers off and has to face the owner (Royal Dano) whose cows he has lost, knowing that he might never work in the business again.
Dean Martin made a rare dramatic television series appearance as a gunfighter named Canliss, with Laura Devon as his wife, in a suspenseful 1964 episode written by Stirling Silliphant entitled "Canliss."
From the second season, episodes began to feature individual cast members, notably Clint Eastwood's Rowdy Yates (sole star in "Incident on The Day of The Dead" which opens season two); later both Scout Pete Nolan (Sheb Wooley) and even cook G. W. Wishbone (Paul Brinegar) were featured as leads, while Eric Fleming's Gil Favor remained in overall charge.
Pete Nolan (Sheb Wooley), the scout, departs as a regular cast member after "The Deserter's Patrol" (season four, episode 18, 9 Feb 1962), but returns for a single episode "Reunion" (episode 26, 6 April 1962), and for a further nine episodes in season seven from "Texas Fever" (episode 18, 5 February 1965).
Charles H. Gray's character Clay Forester, having played a villain in three episodes of season four (from "The Inside Man", episode 6), then reforms and replaces Nolan as scout from "The Greedy Town" (season four, episode 19). Gray remained in the regular cast for the rest of season four and five (though in a number of later episodes he is credited but not seen). Clay Forrester reappeared later in "Incident of El Toro" in season six (episode 26, 9 April 1964).
Two other minor semi-regular cast members were "Toothless" (William R. Thompkins) in seasons five and six, plus one season seven appearance (sometimes uncredited), and "Yo Yo" (Paul Comi) who makes six appearances in season seven.
The eighth and final season saw Eric Fleming controversially depart the series after an apparent disagreement with producers. Clint Eastwood was promoted to series star as Rowdy Yates finally became the trail boss (this was hinted at earlier when several times Favor made it clear he was training the young ramrod to eventually "step into his boots" and become trail boss). The impression given is this was a later cattle drive with Yates now in charge, at a time after Favor had either "retired" or given up as boss, presumably having made his money or opted for a career change since no mention is ever made onscreen of him or the reason for his absence in the final season's episodes, which had been exactly the case with the television show Wagon Train in the wake of series lead Ward Bond's abrupt death.
John Ireland as Jed Colby and Raymond St Jacques as Simon Blake also joined the regular cast at this time, plus semi-regular minor cast member David Watson as Ian Cabot was added, however the revised format only lasted just a further thirteen episodes before the series was suddenly axed in mid season.
Regular cast members included:
- Eric Fleming as trailboss Gil Favor (seasons 1 to 7)
- Clint Eastwood as ramrod (and trailboss in season 8) Rowdy Yates
- Paul Brinegar as the cantankerous cook, George Washington Wishbone
- Robert Cabal as the wrangler, Jesús "Hey Soos" Patines
- James Murdock as the cook's unfortunate assistant, Harkness "Mushy" Mushgrove III
- Steve Raines as rider Jim Quince (ramrod in season 8)
- Rocky Shahan as rider Joe Scarlet
- Sheb Wooley as scout Pete Nolan (seasons 1 to 4, later season 7 nine episodes)
- John Ireland as Jed Colby (season 8 only)
- Raymond St. Jacques as rider Simon Blake (season 8 only)
- Charles H. Gray as Clay Forrester (seasons 4 and 5 only, one appearance in season 6)
- William R. Thompkins as Toothless (seasons 5, 6, one appearance in season 7)
- Paul Comi as Yo Yo (season 7 only)
- David Watson as Ian Cabot (season 8 only)
Notable guest stars
- Nick Adams
- Claude Akins
- Rico Alaniz
- Eddie Albert
- Chris Alcaide
- Michael Ansara
- Mary Astor
- Frankie Avalon
- Phyllis Avery
- Roy Barcroft
- John Drew Barrymore
- Charles Bateman
- Shelley Berman
- James Best
- Charles Bronson
- McDonald Carey
- Conlan Carter
- Lon Chaney, Jr.
- James Coburn
- Pat Conway
- Elisha Cook, Jr.
- Ben Cooper
- Walter Coy
- Broderick Crawford
- Robert L. Crawford, Jr.
- Linda Cristal
- Dennis Cross
- Robert Culp
- Royal Dano
- Bruce Dern
- Laura Devon
- Troy Donahue
- James Drury
- Brian Donlevy
- Dan Duryea
- Buddy Ebsen
- Barbara Eden
- Jack Elam
- Jean Engstrom
- Jena Engstrom
- Leif Erickson
- Gene Evans
- Roger Ewing
- Sally Forrest
- Steve Forrest
- Ron Foster
- Anne Francis
- Dean Fredericks
- Beverly Garland
- Jock Gaynor
- Billy Gray
- Tom Greenway
- Alan Hale, Jr.
- Kevin Hagen
- Ron Hagerthy
- Ron Hayes
- Peter Helm
- Charles Herbert
- Dwayne Hickman
- Earl Holliman
- Sherry Jackson
- Rick Jason
- I. Stanford Jolley
- Don Keefer
- Brian Keith
- DeForest Kelley
- Douglas Kennedy
- George Kennedy
- Wright King
- Frankie Laine
- Martin Landau
- Harry Lauter
- Ruta Lee
- Suzanne Lloyd
- June Lockhart
- Julie London
- Jack Lord
- Peter Lorre
- Jock Mahoney
- Dean Martin
- Carole Mathews
- Mercedes McCambridge
- Eve McVeagh
- Tyler McVey
- Darren McGavin
- Burgess Meredith
- Robert Middleton
- Vera Miles
- Martin Milner
- Gerald Mohr
- Elizabeth Montgomery
- Terry Moore
- Agnes Moorehead
- Ed Nelson
- Leslie Nielsen
- Leonard Nimoy
- Warren Oates
- Susan Oliver
- Joan O'Brien
- J. Pat O'Malley
- Dan O'Herlihy
- Debra Paget
- Luana Patten
- Walter Pidgeon
- Edward Platt
- Cesar Romero
- Marion Ross
- William Schallert
- Robert F. Simon
- Quintin Sondergaard
- Harry Dean Stanton
- Barbara Stanwyck
- Bob Steele
- Woody Strode
- Barbara Stuart
- Olive Sturgess
- Gloria Talbott
- William Tannen
- Carol Thurston
- Lee Van Cleef
- John Vivyan
- Robert J. Wilke
- Chill Wills
- Ed Wynn
- Dick York
- Marie Windsor
Series producer Charles Marquis Warren based Rawhide on three sources:
- Cattle Empire, the movie that he directed in 1955 and for which Endre Bohem was a screenwriter and Paul Brinegar, Steve Raines and Rocky Shahan were actors; all also worked in Rawhide.
- Chisholm Trail, the classic novel by Borden Chase that inspired the epic motion picture Red River starring John Wayne and Montgomery Clift.
- The diary of trail boss George C. Duffield, written during a cattle drive from San Antonio to Sedalia in 1866. The narrations with which Gil Favor begins each episode are similar in style and breadth to the entries in Duffield's journal, lending the show an extra measure of authenticity.
The premiere episode of Rawhide reached the top 20 in the Nielsen ratings.
The show had a grueling production schedule, being mostly weekly with a three- to four-month break between seasons. After the first season of 22 episodes, seasons 2–7 were each 30 episodes. Often, the only way the lead actors could get a break was if they were said to be off on business. On rare occasions, the show would feature a small number of the actors and some misfortune, maybe in a town, which would give the others time off.
Eric Fleming drowned at the age of 41 when a canoe flipped over on location while filming the movie High Jungle in 1966.
The theme song's lyrics were written by Ned Washington in 1958. It was composed by Dimitri Tiomkin and sung by pop singer Frankie Laine. The theme song became very popular, and was covered several times and featured in movies such as The Blues Brothers and Shrek 2.
CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) has released the first six seasons of Rawhide on DVD in Region 1. Season 7, volumes 1 & 2 were released on March 4, 2014. The eighth and final season will be released on June 3, 2014.
In Region 2, Rawhide has been released in Scandinavia. Season 1, by Noble Entertainment, two boxes, 2009-2010. Season one re-releasing in January 2014 by Soulmedia. Season 2 and season 3, by Soulmedia (season 2 in two boxes, and season 3 in four boxes). No more seasons will be released in Scandinavia.
Revelation Films has released the first three seasons on DVD in the UK. Season 4 will be released on March 23, 2015, followed by season 5 on June 22, 2015. They are released as complete season sets rather than two volumes.
In Region 4, Madman Entertainment has released all eight seasons on DVD in Australia. Each season in one box. Season 8, the Final Season, was released on October 5, 2011. DVD releases play heavily on Clint Eastwood's later fame, depicting him in the foreground as the chief character and crediting: "Clint Eastwood in...", however the original show credits for seasons one to seven actually depict the late Eric Fleming (as Gil Favor) being the lead cast member, with Eastwood as co-star (excepting a few later episodes where Eastwood is the sole star).
|DVD name||Ep No.||Region 1||Region 2 (UK)||Region 2 (Scandinavia)||Region 4|
|Season 1||23||July 25, 2006||November 15, 2010||October 28, 2009
January 13, 2010
|January 20, 2010|
|Season 2, Volume 1||16||May 29, 2007||April 11, 2011||September 22, 2010||March 9, 2010|
|Season 2, Volume 2||16||December 18, 2007||September 22, 2010|
|Season 3, Volume 1||15||May 27, 2008||July 11, 2011||September 28, 2011
January 11, 2012
|August 11, 2010|
|Season 3, Volume 2||15||December 9, 2008||February 15, 2012
August 29, 2012
|Season 4, Volume 1||15||June 7, 2011||March 23, 2015||Seasons 4–8, not to be released||September 27, 2010|
|Season 4, Volume 2||15||November 1, 2011|
|Season 5, Volume 1||16||September 18, 2012||June 22, 2015||February 2, 2011|
|Season 5, Volume 2||15|
|Season 6, Volume 1||15||June 4, 2013||TBA||May 2, 2011|
|Season 6, Volume 2||15||TBA|
|Season 7, Volume 1||15||March 4, 2014||TBA||August 3, 2011|
|Season 7, Volume 2||15||TBA|
|Season 8||13||June 3, 2014||TBA||October 5, 2011|
On the Region 1 DVD sets, the episode "Incident of the Roman Candles" is included on both the Season One DVD set as well as the Season Two Volume One DVD set. Similarly, the episode "Abilene" is included on both the Season Four Volume Two DVD set as well as the Season Five Volume Two DVD set.
In 1961, Signet Books published a paperback original novel called Rawhide by Frank C. Robertson based upon the television show. Eric Fleming as Gil Favor and Clint Eastwood as Rowdy Yates are both on the front cover of the book. The book follows Favor, Yates, Wishbone and others as they try to get their herd to Sedalia ahead of a rival's herd. The book was published multiple times with the last run printed in 1986.
- Munn, p. 35
- Inflation 1860-2010 calculated using Inflation Calculator - Pre-1975 data from historical Consumer Price Index statistics (USGPO, 1975), all data since then from the annual Statistical Abstracts of the United States.
- The Legend of Rawhide - The Katy Depot, Sedalia, Missouri
- Eric Fleming Information Base Biography
- The Legend of Rawhide – The Katy Depot, Sedalia, Missouri]
- "The Big Cartoon Database". Retrieved 2012-01-28.
- "Rawhide - The Complete Series One [DVD]: Amazon.co.uk: Clint Eastwood: Film & TV". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- "Rawhide - The Complete Series Two [DVD] : Amazon.co.uk: Clint Eastwood, Eric Fleming: Film & TV". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- "Rawhide - The Complete Series Three [DVD]: Amazon.co.uk: Clint Eastwood: Film & TV". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- "Rawhide - The Complete Series Four [DVD]: Amazon.co.uk: Clint Eastwood: Film & TV". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- "Rawhide - The Complete Series Five [DVD]: Amazon.co.uk: Clint Eastwood: Film & TV". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- "Rawhide (1959) - The Complete 6th Season (8 Disc Fatpack)". Ezydvd.com.au. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
- Robertson, Frank C. (1986). Rawhide. London: Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-247701-7.
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