ରାୟଗଡା - రాయగడ
Rayagada Railway Station
|Elevation||207 m (679 ft)|
|• Other Important||Telugu|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||OR, OD 18 A, B, C|
- 1 Geography
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Introduction
- 4 History
- 5 The tribals of Rayagada
- 6 Economy
- 7 Railway
- 8 Tourist attractions
- 9 Bhimasankar Jyotirlinga
- 10 CHURCHES
- 11 Fairs and festivals
- 12 Notable people
- 13 Education
- 14 Courts
- 15 Literary contributions
- 16 Politics
- 17 Features
- 18 References
- 19 External links
Rayagada is a district of meadows, forests, water falls and terraced valleys, peopled by many primitive tribal groups. The scenic beauty and heritage on the land is an unexplored paradise.
The pattern of people living in the district show unity in diversity of races, languages, and culture. The Scheduled Tribes living in the district possess dissimilar economics ranging from food gathering to settled cultivation. Their languages/dialects, societies and culture show inter-societal and -cultural variations because of the ethnic mosaic.
Rayagada is nearly 390 km from Bhubaneswar by road. It is connected by rail with important cities like: Bhubaneswar, Raipur, Visakhapatanam, Koraput, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai and Hyderabad.
As of 2001[update] India census, Rayagada had a population of 57,732. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Rayagada has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, and female literacy is 56%. In Rayagada, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.
There are various communities living in Rayagada. This is a tribal inhabited district of Odisha. Due to better communication with neighbour state Andhra Pradesh, the Telugu population is significant. Sindhis, Gujaratis and Marwaris who settled there a long time ago have become a distinct identity of the place. Tribals too comprise a significant population of the place. All the festivals relating to these communities are celebrated with pomp and fervour.
In the third century B.C, during the reign of Ashoka the Great, it was under Kalinga empire (ancient Odisha). The hilly track between Bansadhara and Nagabali was famous for spices. The Rastriks were defeated by Kharvela, the only Aryan Emperor of Kalinga (ancient Odisha), during the Chawpagada battle.
During the rule of Gangavansi and Suryavanshi Kings in Odisha, it was under feudatory chief of Kalinga-Utkala empire Dadarnab Dev of Gudari Kataka This region went to the Bahamanis when the last Hindu Gajapati emperor of Odisha, Mukund Dev was defeated at Gohera Tikiri in 1519. It came under the Nandapur Kingdom for 47 years. Biswambar Dev was defeated and killed by Hasin Khan of Mughal Chicacole Sarkar rulers of Odisha, was perhaps the third king installed at Rayagada.
The Sati Kunda Goddess Majhi Ghairani and the mudfort around it speaks much about its evidence. In subsequent years it was under Bobbili Tahasil of Vijayanagaram. During the English regime, Rayagada came under Jeypore administration and later was part of Koraput District. As part of the extension plan of districts in the Odisha state, On 2 October 1992 Rayagda District was carved out of the erstwhile Koraput district.
The tribals of Rayagada
The district has a predominant tribal population of 57.52%. All the 11 blocks of the district have been covered under tribal sub-plan with three micro projects in operation for the pre-literate indigenous tribal communities.
The topography of Rayagada gives a prefect platform for the tribals in sustaining their ethno-cultural identity in the district. Forest area covers an extent of 4785.36 km2 out of which 777.27 km² is Reserved forest.
The district has been the homeland of various tribal communities with their sub-tribes, who are found in different levels of development depending upon their assimilation with the mainstream or modern communities. In the ethno-cultural map of Odisha, two tribes stand out quite prominently for their education backwardness and continuing ethnic and cultural identity, the Kandhas and the Souras.
For the past six decades, Rayagada has seen institutions like IMFA, JKPAPER mills enriching the economy.
Rayagada has a great mineral source, with full of bauxite, silicon. According to a survey India has 56% of total bauxite storage of the world out of which Odisha has 62%. Out of that Rayagada has an 84% share. Depending on this, other industries like Birla, L&T, Sterlite showed an interest in Rayagada.
Rayagada is a destination for hotel industry: Hotels like Sai International, Jyotimahal, Vamsikrishna, Tejaswini, Kapilas, Raj Bhawan are a step ahead in this.
Besides these, small- and mid-scale industries enrich economy of Rayagada. Notable among them are Konark Alum Industries, Satyam Packers and Processors Pvt. Ltd., etc.
Other industries like Jeypore Sugars Ltd., ferro manganese were supplementing economy of Rayagada, but due to shortage in supply these were closed. The jeypore sugars was established by the British which attracted loads of people from nearby states to Rayagada. The industrial atmosphere, great location and availability of resources around made Rayagada a prominent town in Odisha
Rayagada railway station is an important station from where direct trains are available to Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar, Raipur, New Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Puri, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and other cities.
|#No||Train Number||Train Name|
|1||18302||Rayagada - Sambalpur Express|
|2||12844||Ahmedabad - Puri Express|
|3||12843||Puri - Ahmedabad Express|
|4||17481||Bilaspur - Tirupati Express|
|5||13352||Alleppey - Dhanbad Express|
|6||13351||Dhanbad - Alappuzha Express|
|7||18448||Jagdalpur - Bhubaneswar Hirakhand Express|
|8||18447||Bhubaneswar - Jagdalpur Hirakhand Express|
|9||12835||Hatia - Yesvantpur Express|
|10||18005||Howrah Jn - Jagdalpur Express|
|11||18006||Jagdalpur - Howrah Jn Express|
|12||18517||Korba - Visakhapatnam Express|
|13||18310||Nanded - Sambalpur Nagawali Express|
|14||12807||Visakhapatnam - H Nizamuddin Samta Express|
|15||12808||H Nizamuddin - Visakhapatnam Samta Express|
|16||12836||Yesvantpur - Hatia Express|
|17||12889||Tatanagar - Yesvantpur Express|
|18||12890||Yesvantpur - Tatanagar Express|
|19||17482||Tirupati - Bilaspur Express|
|20||18107||Rourkela - Koraput Express|
|21||18108||Koraput - Rourkela Express|
|22||18189||Tatanagar - Alappuzha Express|
|23||18309||Sambalpur - Nanded Express|
|24||18518||Visakhapatnam - Korba Express|
|25||12375||Chennai - Asansol Express|
|26||12376||Asansol - Chennai Express|
|27||18211||Durg - Jagdalpur Express|
|28||18212||Jagdalpur - Durg Express|
|29||18437||Bhubaneshwar - Bhawanipatna Link Express|
|30||18438||Bhawanipatna - Bhubaneshwar Link Express|
|31||22847||Visakhapatnam - Lokmanya Tilak Super Fast Express|
|32||22848||Lokmanya Tilak - Visakhapatnam Super Fast Express|
|33||18301||Sambalpur - Rayagada Express|
|34||18452||Puri - Hatia Tapaswini Express|
|35||57271||Vijayawada Jn - Rayagada Passenger|
|36||57272||Rayagada - Vijayawada Jn Passenger|
Rayagada, the district of many charms, is a thrill to the searching eyes. It has the facilities to serve as a base for visiting the nearby place of interest.
- Maa Majhighariani Temple is famous in Southern Division of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. Most of the devotees come from Madhyapradesh Chhatishgarh, Andhrapradesh including undivided Koraput District. Only the face of the Maa MajhiGhariani is worshiped. During Sunday, Wednesday and Friday a large number of devotees come to worship the Goddess. The temple is famous for Chaitra-Parba, i.e., March–April of every year.
- Maa Mangla Maa Temple lies in the Raniguda area of Rayagada.it is near the hathipathar
- Hatipathar is only 3 km from the district headquarters. It is a place of great scenic beauty with two waterfalls on the course of river Nagavali. The scenic beauty is impressive and the boulders here appear like huge elephants. Visitor are not welcome after heavy rains in 2006 changed the course of the Nagabali.
- Gayatri Temple at MITS College: A beautiful temple with Goddess Maa Gayatri, Saraswati and Maa Majhighariani. Engineering students do meditation and pooja after their studies in the temple. Lot of devotees come to the temple regularly. A Spiritual Library is present under the temple ground floor. Lot of books on Indian culture are there.
- Laxminarayan temple is at IMFA Factory, Therubali. The deities Laxminarayan, Hanuman, Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra and Lord Siva are worshiped by thousands devotees.
- Paikapada is famous for so many Siva Lingams. The deities like Lord Jagannath, Maa Dhakineswar Kalika, Samudra, etc. are worshiped here. The car festival of Lord Jagannath is also celebrated. During Sivaratri a large number of pilgrims come to observe the function. The place is near Theruballi. It is believed that there are 99,99,999 shivlingams (only one less than 1 crore) in and around Paikapada shrine.
- Chatikona is located about 48 km from Rayagada surrounded by a series of valleys and wooded hills of varying colours and the place is a center of pilgrimage for the temple of Mahadev. It offers picnickers gorgeous view of the waterfall. The Siva temple is the focus of hectic activities on Siva Ratri. The Dongaria Kondha of Chatikona represent the primitive section of the tribe.
- Minajhola is only 134 km from Rayagada. It is a beauty spot of nature, has a siva temple at the confluence of three rivers. It is situated in the heart of dense forest, rich in wildlife. Sivaratri is a popular festival of this place. Though there is no good all-weather road yet, the place is worth visiting. Regular bus service is available from Rayagada and Gunupur up to Gudari. The rest 25 km road is Jeepable.
- The Devagiri hill rises to a height of 120.2 meters. Unlike other hills it is not narrower upwards. The top of the hill is a flat platform of rectangular plain, which can be approached only from the northern side. There are 476 steps which are the unique feature of the Devagiri. At the top of the hill, there are perennial poles of water called the Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Bhargavi and Indradyumna. There is a cave looking like two jaws. The Siva Lingam is enshrined at the meeting point of the jaws. Sivaratri is its biggest festival, which draws a large crowd every year. It is 50 km from Rayagada. Regular bus services are available from Rayagada to Kalyansingpur and the sacred hill is close to Kalyansingpur.
- Padmapur houses the shrine of Manikeswari Siva. It is identified to be the seat of Dharmakirti, the Budhist-Logician-philosopher. It is a 7th-century temple. It is 90 km from Rayagada.
- Gayatri Temple at Padampur is a beautiful temple with Goddess Maa PanchMukhi-Gayatri, Maa durga and Maa Mahalakshmi. The temple is famous for Saraswati Puja Sri panchami in January–February. It is 90 km from Rayagada.
- Maa Markama Temple is located at Bissam Cuttack, 40 km from Rayagada. The temple got a new look and surrounded by lush green forest. Many people visit from near and far especially on Tuesdays. The town college has also been named after Goddess Markama.
- RAYGADA KORAPUT RAILWAY LINE: the distance form Rayagada to Koraput is about 176 km this route is full of adventure since there 36 tunnels and about 250 bridges fall in this route. this route is like konkan railway route and one can see animals while this journey. the koraput distinct is situated at the height of 870 meter from the sea level.
- The latest attraction of Rayagada is the Hanging Bridge at Chekaguda that connects the two sides of river Nagavali, which created a deep trench when it changed its flow path in 2006. The bridge resembles the Laxman Jhola
- Jagannath Temple at Rayagada : The temple has been rebuilt with a new look to attract the tourist mass. The Car festival is celebrated here in the month of Asadha every year.
- GUMA GHATI: it is about 20 km from Rayagada it is surrounding by dence forest n very good place to see. many citizen come here for picnic. a small water fall also here. One of the most beautiful lanscapes sceneric view, with wild animals in the dense forest and the forest is flled with Teak Wood exported all over.
- In addition, the list of Temples in Rayagada is quite long.
According to Linga Puran, Bhimasankar temple in Bhimpur is around 100 km from Rayagada and around 30 km from Gunupur is one of the Jyotirling, situated at the western part of the holy Mahendragiri mountains and at the river bank of Mahendratanaya (which is also believed as the Daakini area by many historian), was excavated in 1974, having quadrangular Shakti around the Linga and decorated by a Upavita as per the puran.
BAPTIST CHURCH RAYAGADA, At 7th Line, Rayat Colony, Sastri Nagar JELC CHURCH, Near Old Bus Stand Catholic Church, Near New Bus stand Bethel Church WME Church, Near rayagada College
Fairs and festivals
- Chaitra Parba of Maa Maji Ghariani Goddess (mainly at housing board colony attracts all)
- Chaiti Festival at GCD Grounds, Rayagada
- Rath Yatra at Rayagada in July near Jagannath temple
- Ganesh Puja at Telephone Bhavan Lane
- Kali Puja at Block Colony, Rayagada in November
- Gaja Laxmi Puja at New Colony, Rayagada during kumarpurnima
- Dusshera at J.K. Pur & Brahmin street, Rayagada in October.
- Annual celebration of Gram Devata during March–April (9 days) at Rayagada
- A Ganesh puja at the Kasturi Nagar & Near Rayagada College area
- Christmas in JEL Church.
- subha udbodhan mahostav of Sri Sri Thakur Anukul Chandra at Serikona, Rayagada, in January
- sree mahakala temple also situated at nanda pahad near gayatri temple gayatri nagar
- ganesh puja at new colony, near swaghat hotel
- Gaja Laxmi Puja one of the famous at new colony in Rayagada Dist...
- Eid celebration at Rayagada and J.K.Pur is very famous across District.
- Christmas Celebration at Baptist Church, Sastrinagar, Rayagagada
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Though a tribal dominated area, the focus on education has been there since long. Preschool education icon Kidzee with Interactive iLLUME, designed to help the child realize her unique abilities in a systematic, synergetic, and self-paced manner is established recently. GCD High School holds a prominent place being the oldest in the region. Govt. Girls' High School, Rayagada has been established since 1964 to develop women education in Rayagada. Gopabandhu Municipal High School another educational institution has been critical in educating children of this town.Now it has the facility of Kendriya Vidyalaya i.e.Kendriya Vidyalaya, Rayagada. The other schools in the region are Sacred Heart School, Deepti Convent School, Maharshi Vidya Mandir, St. Xavier's High School, Saraswati sisu vidya mandir School (HSE), Divine Public School, Rayagada, L.P.S. Public School,L.P.S School (JAYKAYPUR),Vignan Vidyalaya and Green Valley Public School(PENTA). They are English medium school and affiliated to CBSE and ICSE Delhi. There is another school in Therubali - Chinmaya Vidyalaya affiliated to CBSE for studies up to 10 + 2.The Vignan Vidalaya affiliated to CBSE is the first school in Rayagada which is enabled digital(Digi) classes for Nursery to class 10. A Primary School runs in the complex of Thakkar Bapa Ashram since 1958 to impart education to tribal boys and girls. The Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya of Rayagada district, affiliated to CBSE, is functioning at Bissam Cuttack.
Rayagada college imparts education at +2 and +3 levels for Science, Arts and Commerce stream. Women's college imparts education in +2 Science/Arts and Commerce. But at +3 level it imparts education for Arts stream only. State governments' diploma engineering college known as UTKAL GOURAB MADHUSUDAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (UGMIT) is present near by river Nagabali and imparts diploma courses in several branches of engineering.
Also the area has seen a rise in engineering colleges which apart from B.Tech in Engineering also have facilities for MCA, MBA and Bio-Technology courses.
Majhigharaini Institute of Technology and Sciences (MITS) MITS Rayagada (www.mitscollege.ac.in) established in 1997 under the management of Basantadevi Charitable Trust. MITS has developed into a sprawling campus of 50 acres (200,000 m2) in a picturesque location at Bhujbal, adjoining the State Highway No. 4 between Jeypore and Bhubaneswar. It drew its name from the Goddess Maghighariani, the reigning deity of Rayagada. This institute is part of MITS Group (www.mitsgroup.co.in) conglomerate of academic institutes, independent research laboratories and companies. The focus of the group is to have a synergy between its education, research and industry sector. Provides degree of M-tech, B-tech, MSc, BSc, BCA, ITI & Diploma courses to students all over the country. This is the first college in India to provide B-Tech in Bio-Technology apart from few IITs. The Bio-Technology Lab of MITS is best in class. MITS School of Bio-Technology (www.msb.ac.in) () is another college at Infosity, Bhubaneswar of the same MITS Group.
GIACR, formerly IACR, has given credibility to the education system in more than one ways.IACR has produced young talents for the IT sector of India and world.Mr.P.Dinakar and Mr. P.C Mishra has made it a premier organisation in Odisha. It draws the attraction of some global tech. giants like TCS, INFOSYS,WIPRO for their recruitment process.
GIST: A sister organisation of well known "Gandhi group" has successfully completed its one year in the field of engineering teaching. It is also another step taken by the "Gandhi group" for improving the education in Rayagada.
CTTC: Central tool room and training centre, a Government of India institute under MSME is forwarding in the field of engineering targeting the weaker section. CTTC with its unique course structure changing the unskilled and semi-skilled persons as skilled one and self-reliance as well. At the same time the high end course like MCC is producing perfect designers for future INDIA.
Centre for World Education Service, Rayagada is an Educational registered under Indian Society Act. Serving for diversified field of development in KBK District situated in Rayagada District renders sincere ungrudging service to the people and has made honest effort for academic improvement of different section of society. Though located in a backward district of Odisha there is the dawn of new such of prospectus looming large over its horizon. Rapid industrialization is taking place in the area. But the students and employees are not fit to cope with need challenging jobs causing under industrial sector.
KIDZEE RAYAGADA, which is asia's no 1 Preschool, is set up recently at Indira Nagar. Kidzee content is designed with an emphasis on every child's unique learning styles. Our curriculum, set off with our ethos of WRFC (What's Right For The Child) extends beyond the classroom and embraces the parents as well, for we believe learning remains incomplete unless a holistic, conducive, and seamless transition is effected between school and home. Our Parent-Toddler program helps parents foster their children's social, creative, and physical skills
Having establish and supported by high-level learned persons of India and Abroad CWES has its own credential in education sector providing quality service to the un-reached with an expose to international standards. CWES is an affiliate institute as Bharathiar University as Spot Admission and learning Centre for Odisha. CWES offers many professional courses such as MBA, MCA, PGDCA, M.Sc. Physics, M.Sc. Chemistry, M.Sc.Bio information, M.Sc.Environment Sc., B.Sc.IT, B.Sc.Computer. Sc., BCA, BBA, BBM, B.Sc.Maths., M.sc.Maths. CWES is quite popular as a language learning centre for English and German languages.
In addition to these, institutions like, DATAPRO,IT Zone, TCIL are well known for their contribution toward computer education. Among them IT Zone has some preference among students due to low fee structure and high quality education in some popular computer course like PGDCA, DCA,DIT, DTP, Accounting (tally with computer fundamental & Microsoft office package), C, C++,& Others short term courses. It also plays an important role in Government sponsorship Programmes.
GEMS- Giri Education Management Studies, is a Private education institutions which provides creditability education in +2 commerce field. It was founded by A.V.S Giri in the year of 1986. A.V.S Giri was a former student of Rayagada Auto College, who got state level Rank in his CHSE(+2) examination.It helps the students to build a proper & well justified career in Commerce field.Beside +2 education it also provides educational facilities for various professional courses such as - CA, CPT,ICWAI, CS etc. It has well qualified faculty members in order to facilitie proper education to its students
There are numbers of private coaching centre for +3 courses such as MAST (MUSTAFA'S ACCOUNTING SUCCESS TUTORIAL), Vikas etc.
The headquarters of Rayagada judgeship is located at Rayagada. The Court of District & Sessions Judge-cum- Special Judge, Court of Chief Judicial Magistrate, Court of Senior Civil Judge, Court of Sub Divisional Judicial Magistrate in addition to other revenue courts, are established here. The High Court of Orissa being the highest judicial authority of the state, all the judicial Courts of the district are under the direct control of the District and Sessions Judge, Rayagada. Presently, the Court of Nyayadhikari, Gram Nyayalaya, Kolnara is functioning at Rayagada.
In addition, the District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum, Rayagada functions at the headquarters for disposal of consumer disputes.
Rayagada is well known for its contribution to Oriya literature. There are number of cultural magazines continuously published from Rayagada. Prominent writers of this district are sarbo sri Damborudhar Patnaik, Sannyasi Sri Atmananda, Dr Kumudo ch. Mishra, Sibo Prasad Gantayat, Ranjan choudhury, Satyanarayan Gantayat, Basudev Patro, Susant Nayak, Dwitichandra Sahu, Ram Krushna Pattnik, Kishor Mohapatro, Golok Dolai, Pratibha Dash, Prakesh Mohapatro, Parth Sarathi Barik, etc.
The Oriya magazine The Jyotshna is known as the cultural mouthpiece of Rayagada. The magazine has been published since 1972. At first Jyotshna was published from Sunabeda of undivided Koraput district. Its founder is shri Basudev Patro and editor is smt Santilata Patro. Patro has written a number of short stories, poems, novels, sonnets, which brought critic's attention. His poem collection Konark has received a great deal of accolade from the Oriya readers. Now Konark is going to be published in English.
There are magazines like Panchaboti, Rayagada Samachar, AKASH, Green Room, etc. which enriched the cultural aspect of Rayagada. One of the editor of the Oriya magazine the SARVADOYO published from Cuttack's Bakhorabad Sri BHAGBAT PRASAD RATH hails from Rayagada Town. Sri B.P.Rath has written a number of novels in Oriya, like LUHORO MOSAL KEBE LIVENA, MONISO TOLE KANONO GOLE and in each and every novel he has emphasized on removal of social disparity. Sri B.P.Rath is facilitated by a number of organizations of India. In the 1980s the magazines published by sri B.P. Rath, like Green Room has revolutionised the literary environment. Other notable names in the literary circles is Bh. Nageswara Rao. The Veda Sourabha, A Vedic Oriya quarterly magazine has been published from Hatamuniguda. Sannyasi Sri Atmananda, the founder of Vishwa Vaidik Parivaar is the founder of the magazine. Sri Pranab Kishore Pattnaik edits the magazine. Of late Bidulata Huika, state convenor of Odisha Adibasi manch, a state level tribal outfit has compiled articles published in several Oriya news papers to a book called "Sampratika Paristitire Adibasi"-Tribals in the present context. She has also brought out two other books called "Maa Gadhiba Gaan-Mother will build the village" and "Jangala Adhikar Adhiniyama-Forest Rights Act". There are two Saraswati shishu vidya mandirs located at Rayagada. One is situated at Gayatri Nagar and another is at Ramakrishna Nagar. They play major role in the field of educating oriya medium students of Rayagada. There are a lot of tutorials in Rayagada town which imparts qualitative education to the students of college as well as school students. PADMINI TUTORIAL is one among them. It is exclusively for class IX and X students. In this tutorial teaching is followed by different audio visual media like video tutorials and other computer generated presentations.
Current MLA from Rayagada (ST) Assembly Constituency is Shri Lal Bihari Himrika of Biju Janata Dal, who won the seat in State elections in 2009 Lalbihari Himirika of BJD had won this seat in 2000. After serving as deputy speaker of Odisha assembly, now he is serving as a cabinet minister for Sc and ST development minister.
Rayagada is part of Koraput (Lok Sabha constituency). Shri Jayram Pangi (Biju Janta Dal) won the general election 2009 defeating Dr. Giridhar Gomango (INC) who represented this constituency 9 times.
- Good scenic beauty with rich greenery around, Rayagada becomes a must visit tourist destination of South Odisha.
- A bunch of good PSU and private banks like Utkal Gramiya Bank, Andhra Bank, Allahabad Bank, HDFC Bank, Bank of India, Indian Oversease Bank, Punjab National Bank, Axis Bank, ICICI Bank, Union Bank of India, IDBI Bank and State Bank of India have branches at Rayagada.
- A good number of luxurious hotels, three-star hotels and other economical comfortable hotels serving variety of cuisines.
- The famous Majhi Ghariani Temple of Rayagada.
- Well-connected by train and bus to major cities of India.
- JK groups Paper Plant is located in Jayakayapur of this district.
- IMFA'S main plant is located at Therubali of this district.
- Hanging (Jhula) Bridge at Chekagudda.
- Purnachandra Bidika, the Gold medalist in Asian Power lifting Championship & Anup Satapathy, the well known and only Magician of the district,belong to Rayagada.
- Rayagada becomes Polythene-free Town from 1 April 2015
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- As evident by Andhra Historical Journal XXVII edition at page 46
- The rock inscription of Allahbad inscribed by Mahamantri Harisena provides evidence to this effect.
- A rock inscription found at Pataleswar temple in Brahmi script provides an evidence to this effect.
- "Official site of Rayagada district Court"
- "State Elections 2004 - Partywise Comparison for 82-Rayagada Constituency of Odisha". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- "Assembly Constituencies - Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies of Odisha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- "The Telegraph" News dated 08.02.2015
- " Anup Satapathy described in Samayara Pratifalana: Oriya magazine"
- "Rayagada becomes Polythene-free News dated 29.03.2015 in dharitri.com