Raymond Barre

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Raymond Barre
Raymond Barre.jpg
Prime Minister of France
In office
26 August 1976 – 22 May 1981
President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Preceded by Jacques Chirac
Succeeded by Pierre Mauroy
Mayor of Lyon
In office
1995–2001
Preceded by Michel Noir
Succeeded by Gérard Collomb
2nd European Commissioner for Economic & Financial Affairs
In office
7 February 1967 – 5 January 1973
Preceded by Robert Marjolin
Succeeded by Wilhelm Haferkamp
Personal details
Born (1924-04-12)12 April 1924
Saint-Denis, Réunion
Died 25 August 2007(2007-08-25) (aged 83)
Paris, France
Political party Independent
Other political
affiliations
Union for the French Democracy
(1978-1981)
Profession Economist
Religion Roman Catholic
The house where Raymond Barre was born in Saint-Denis, Réunion

Raymond Octave Joseph Barre (French: [ʁɛmɔ̃ baʁ]; 12 April 1924 – 25 August 2007) was a French centre-right politician and economist. He was a Vice President of the European Commission and Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs under three Presidents (Rey, Malfatti and Mansholt) and later served as Prime Minister under Valéry Giscard d'Estaing from 1976 until 1981. As a candidate for the presidency in 1988, he came in third and was eliminated in the first round. He was born in Saint-Denis, in the French island of Réunion, then still a colony (it became an overseas department in 1946).

Career[edit]

Professional life[edit]

After his education, Raymond Barre was professor of economics at Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po).

From 1959 to 1962, he was director of Jean-Marcel Jeanneney's staff, in the ministry of Industry and Trade. Then, in 1967, President Charles de Gaulle chose him as vice-president of the European Commission for Economic & Financial Affairs. He stayed in Brussels until January 1973, serving in the Rey, Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions. Having come back to France, he joined the cabinet as minister of the External Trade in January 1976.

Premiership[edit]

Seven months later, while mostly unknown at that time, President Giscard d'Estaing appointed him Prime minister and Minister of Economy and Finance. He presented him to the French people as "the best economist in France" (French: meilleur économiste de France). Under the Fifth Republic, he was the only person to hold these two offices at the same time. He left the ministry of Economy and Finance in 1978, but stayed as Prime minister until the defeat of Giscard d'Estaing at the 1981 presidential election.

At the head of the cabinet, he was faced with the conflict which divided the parliamentary majority between the "Giscardians" and the neo-Gaullist Rally for the Republic (RPR) led by his predecessor Jacques Chirac. The right majority unexpectedly won the 1978 legislative election.

Barre was also confronted with an economic crisis. He advocated a strict policy to cut inflation and public spending, and the industrial "restructuring" ("Barre Plans"). In the face of trade union opposition, he did not use diplomatic language, mocking "the bearers of banners" (French: les porteurs de pancartes) and he exhorted "instead of grousing, you should work hard".

Post-premiership[edit]

After his departure from the head of the cabinet, he was elected deputy of Rhône département under the label of the Union for French Democracy (UDF). He held his parliamentary seat until 2002.

In the 1980s, he competed for the leadership of the right against Chirac. Believing that the "cohabitation" was incompatible with the "Fifth Republic", he let Chirac take the lead of the cabinet after the 1986 legislative election. He ran as UDF candidate for president in the 1988 election, but some components of his party supported covertly the other right-wing candidate, the Neo-Gaullist Prime Minister Jacques Chirac. In this, in spite of positive polls at the beginning of the campaign, he came the third behind the two protagonists of the "cohabitation": the Socialist President François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac. For the second round, he called his voters to transfer to the RPR candidate, who was finally defeated.

After the failure of his presidential candidacy, he focused on his local tenures, in Lyon. In 1995, the RPR Mayor of Lyon Michel Noir could not compete for another term in due to a judicial indictment, and consequently, Barre was the right-wing candidate to the mayoralty. He was elected but he did not run for a second term in 2001. One year later, he finished his last parliamentary term in the French National Assembly and he retired from politics.

Raymond Barre was probably the only French politician to have reached such high levels of responsibilities without having ever been an official member or leader of any political party. He always kept some distance with what he considered to be the political "microcosm".

Raymond Barre died on 25 August 2007 at age 83 at the Val-de-Grâce military hospital in Paris,[1] where he was taken care for heart problems since his transfer from a hospital in Monaco on 11 April 2007.[2]

Political career[edit]

Governmental functions

Prime minister : 1976–1981.

Minister of Economy and Finance : 1976–1978.

Minister of Foreign Trade : January–August 1976.

Electoral mandates

National Assembly of France

Member of the National Assembly of France for Rhône (department) : 1981–2002. Elected in 1981, reelected in 1986, 1988, 1993, 1997.

Municipal Council

Mayor of Lyon : 1995–2001.

Municipal councillor of Lyon : 1995–2001.

Urban community Council

President of the Urban Community of Lyon : 1995–2001.

Member of the Urban Community of Lyon : 1995–2001.

Allegations of Anti-Semitism[edit]

Raymond Barre standing next to Mother Tessa Bielecki and Rabbi Immanuel Jakobovits during the 1989 World Economic Forum.

On several occasions, Raymond Barre made remarks that were interpreted as anti-Semitic, or at least supportive of anti-Semitism. In 1980, when he was prime minister, a bombing was attempted against a synagogue in the rue Copernic, in Paris; however the bomb detonated in the street when the Jews attending shabbat were inside the synagogue, and not when they were out; but as a result some non-Jewish bystanders were killed. Raymond Barre then famously denounced:

"A hateful attack which wanted to strike at the Jews who were in that synagogue, and which struck innocent French people who were crossing the street."[3]

A controversy erupted because Raymond Barre's sentence seemed to imply that the Jews inside the synagogue were neither completely innocent, or were not French.

Later, Barre was criticized for defending the collaborationist Maurice Papon at his trial. He issued the following statement to his accusers:

" I am and have always been on the side of the Holocaust's survivors to condemn barbary and its accomplices."[1]

Governments[edit]

Barre's First Government, 27 August 1976 – 30 March 1977[edit]

Barre's Second Government, 30 March 1977 – 5 April 1978[edit]

Changes

  • 26 September 1977 – Fernand Icart succeeds Fourcade as Minister of Equipment and Regional Planning.

Barre's Third Government, 5 April 1978 – 22 May 1981[edit]

Changes

  • 29 November 1978 – Jean François-Poncet succeeds Guiringaud as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
  • 4 July 1979 – Jacques Barrot succeeds Veil as Minister of Health and Social Security. Maurice Charretier succeeds Barrot as Minister of Commerce and Craft Industry.
  • 29 October 1979 – Jean Mattéoli succeeds Boulin as Minister of Labour and Participation.
  • 2 October 1980 – Joël Le Theule succeeds Bourges as Minister of Defense. Daniel Hoeffel succeeds Le Theule as Minister of Transport. Michel Cointat succeeds Deniau as Minister of External Commerce.
  • 22 December 1980 – Robert Galley succeeds Le Theule (d.14 December) as Minister of Defense.
  • 4 March 1981 – Michel d'Ornano succeeds Lecat as Minister of Culture. No one succeeds Lecat as Minister of Communication.

Retirement[edit]

Barre retired from active politics in June 2002. He was being treated at a hospital for a heart condition since April 2007 when he died on 25 August 2007. He was survived by his wife and two sons.[4]

References[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Minister of External Commerce
1976
Succeeded by
André Rossi
Preceded by
Jacques Chirac
Prime Minister of France
1976–1981
Succeeded by
Pierre Mauroy
Preceded by
Jean-Pierre-Fourcade
Minister of the Economy and Finance
1976–1978
Succeeded by
René Monory
Party political offices
Preceded by
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Union for French Democracy Presidential candidate
1988 (lost)
Succeeded by
François Bayrou (2002)