Raymond Leo Burke
Raymond Leo Burke
|Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura
Archbishop Emeritus of St Louis
|See||St. Louis (emeritus)|
|Appointed||June 27, 2008|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Deacon of S. Agata de’ Goti|
|Ordination||June 29, 1975
by Pope Paul VI
|Consecration||January 6, 1995
by Pope John Paul II
|Created Cardinal||November 20, 2010|
June 30, 1948 |
Richland Center, Wisconsin
|Parents||Thomas and Marie Burke|
|Alma mater||Holy Cross Seminary
The Catholic University of America
North American College
|Motto||secundum cor tuum|
|Coat of arms|
|Ordination history of Raymond Leo Burke|
|Ordained by||Pope Paul VI|
|Date of ordination||29 June 1975|
|Principal consecrator||Pope John Paul II|
|Co-consecrators||Giovanni Battista Re (Subst. Gen. Aff.)
Jorge María Card. Mejía (Sec. Cong. Epis. & Sec. Coll. Card.]])
|Date of consecration||January 6, 1995|
|Bishops consecrated by Raymond Leo Burke as principal consecrator|
|Robert Finn||May 3, 2004|
|Philip Tartaglia||November 20, 2005|
|James Vann Johnston, Jr.||March 31, 2008|
Raymond Leo Burke (born June 30, 1948) is an American Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the current Cardinal Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, having previously served as Archbishop of St. Louis (2003–2008) and Bishop of La Crosse (1994–2003). The Cardinal is also a prominent canon lawyer and is often perceived as voice of conservatism in the Church and within American politics.
- 1 Background
- 2 Priestly ministry
- 3 Episcopal ministry
- 4 Elevation to the College of Cardinals and later roles
- 5 Notable actions and statements
- 5.1 Politicians supporting legalization of abortion
- 5.2 Sheryl Crow concert
- 5.3 Saint Louis University staff
- 5.4 Ordination of women
- 5.5 2008 U.S. presidential election
- 5.6 Canon law regarding Holy Communion
- 5.7 Catholic higher education
- 5.8 Violations of liturgical norms
- 5.9 End-of-life palliative care and euthanasia
- 5.10 Catholic diocesan communications workers
- 5.11 Reintegration talks with the SSPX
- 5.12 Use of the Tridentine Mass
- 5.13 Comments at the 2012 World Synod of Bishops On The New Evangelization
- 5.14 Opposition to communion for Irish politicians who support abortion
- 5.15 Comments on statements made by Pope Francis summer of 2013 regarding abortion and marriage
- 5.16 Recent defense of Pope Francis' comments
- 6 Pope Francis reorganizes Congregation For Bishops - Cardinal Burke not reappointed
- 7 Published works
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Burke was born on June 30, 1948, in Richland Center, Wisconsin, the youngest of the six children of Thomas (died July 21, 1956) and Marie (died February 29, 1996) Burke. He was baptized on July 11, 1948. The family later moved to Stratford, Wisconsin. From 1962 to 1968, he attended the Holy Cross Seminary in La Crosse, Wisconsin. From 1968 to 1971, he studied at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. as a Basselin scholar and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1970 and a Master of Arts degree in 1971, both in philosophy. He completed studies for the priesthood at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome between 1971 and 1975, receiving a Bachelor of Sacred Theology degree and a Master of Arts, degree. Pope Paul VI ordained Burke to the priesthood on June 29, 1975, at Saint Peter's Basilica.
Burke is a member of the Board of Trustees of The Catholic University of America.
After his ordination to the priesthood Burke was assigned as assistant rector of the Cathedral of St. Joseph the Workman in La Crosse, Wisconsin. He also taught religion at Aquinas High School in La Crosse (where the Bishop Burke Hall, was named in his honor in 1997). From 1980 to 1984, Burke studied canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, where he received his license in canon law (1982) and doctorate in canon law (1984). He then returned to La Crosse and was named the Moderator of the Curia and Vice Chancellor of the La Crosse Diocese. In 1989, Pope John Paul II named Burke the first American Defender of the Bond of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the highest ecclesiastical court in the Catholic Church, apart from the Pope himself.
Bishop of La Crosse
On December 10, 1994, Pope John Paul II named Burke Bishop of La Crosse, consecrating him to the episcopate on January 6, 1995, in St. Peter's Basilica. Burke took possession of the See of La Crosse on February 22, 1995.
In 2000 Burke convened the fifth diocesan synod for the Diocese of La Crosse, which resulted in the publication of Synod V, acts : celebrated June 11–14, 2000 in 2003. He was also named a Knight Commander with Star of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre in 1997 and received the Canon Law Society of America's Role of Law award in 2000. In 2002, Burke was influential in founding the Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem, an order of Augustinian canons dedicated to the traditional form of the liturgy.
During his tenure as Bishop of La Crosse, Burke initiated the construction of a shrine near La Crosse on the bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe, patroness of the Americas. As part of the shrine, a chapel designed in the Renaissance style was dedicated on July 31, 2008. The archbishop also installed a prominent shrine to the Sacred Heart in the diocesan cathedral, reflecting his desire to foster the sacred arts and to encourage spiritual devotions which have long been characteristic of Catholicism. Cardinal Burke remains director of the Our Lady of Guadalupe Shrine, even though currently residing in Rome, Italy.
A few priests in the Diocese of La Crosse have claimed that Burke's leadership there was divisive. The construction of the shrine, the diocese's withdrawal from Church World Service's annual Crop Walk, and his welcoming of fringe religious orders alienated some priests and laity.
Archbishop of St. Louis
Burke served as Bishop of La Crosse until December 2, 2003, when he was named Archbishop of St. Louis, succeeding Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali (who had been appointed to be the Archbishop of Philadelphia) as Archbishop of St. Louis. He was installed on January 26, 2004. Burke was presented with the pallium on June 29, 2004 by Pope John Paul II. In St. Louis, Burke emphasized the promotion of vocations to the ministerial priesthood; he also published a column in the archdiocesan weekly newspaper, the Saint Louis Review. In both La Crosse and St. Louis, Burke established oratories for those who attend the Tridentine Rite. He invited traditional Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priests into his dioceses and ordained priests for the group both in the U.S. and abroad. His ordination of two traditionalist priests on June 15, 2007, was the first time in 40 years that the Tridentine rite of ordination had been used in the cathedral. In July 2006, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Burke as a member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the highest court in the Catholic Church. He issued a statement, in line with Catholic moral precepts, opposing embryonic stem cell research when an amendment to the Missouri Constitution that allows it was narrowly passed by voters there.
During his tenure in Saint Louis, Archbishop Burke was awarded two honorary doctorates in humane letters. One was from Ave Maria University in 2005; the other was from Christendom College in 2007.
On June 25, 2007, Burke accompanied Cardinal Seán Patrick O'Malley, Archbishop of Boston, on a trip to Rome, where the prelates reviewed Pope Benedict's impending motu proprio Summorum Pontificum granting any priest of the Roman Rite to celebrate the Latin Mass according to the Missal of Pius V (revised by John XXIII) without the permission of his bishop.
On May 6, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI named Burke to two Vatican offices, increasing Burke's already prominent stature in Rome. He was named a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, which authentically interprets Canon Law, and also became a member of the Congregation for the Clergy, which regulates the formation and training of diocesan priests and deacons.
Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura
Raymond Leo Burke
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
On June 27, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Archbishop Burke to the office of Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, a position roughly equivalent to that of President of the Conseil d'Etat of France. The Signatura is the final canonical venue for most administrative recourses (requests for review of decrees issued by Bishops) unless the Pope advocates cases to his judgement, while the Tribunal of the Roman Rota remains the highest judicial venue for ecclesiastical trials, excepting questions of nullity of its decrees or sentences which are judged by Signatura. While actually very few actual matters come before the Signatura, in terms of honor, Archbishop Burke was the second-highest ranking American prelate at the Vatican after Cardinal William Levada, who took Pope Benedict's place as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
Archbishop Burke was the first non-European named to head the Tribunal within the Roman Curia. The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura exercises final appellate jurisdiction concerning conflicts occurring between two or more Vatican Congregations or Dicasteries, and appeals of administrative decisions rendered by diocesan bishops and Vatican Congregations.
With this appointment, Burke became the tenth US native to serve in the Roman Curia. Upon the public announcement of the appointment by the Holy See, he said: "I am deeply humbled by the trust which His Holiness has placed in me, and, in priestly obedience, I have pledged to serve our Holy Father to the best of my abilities... Leaving the service of the Church in the Archdiocese of Saint Louis is most sad for me. It has been an honor and gift for me to serve the archdiocese over the past four years and five months."
His farewell Mass in the Archdiocese of St. Louis was held in the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis on Sunday, August 17, 2008. It was concelebrated by Bishops George Joseph Lucas, Robert Joseph Hermann, John Joseph Leibrecht, John R. Gaydos, Robert W. Finn, Raymond James Boland, and Kevin William Vann. Over seventy-five priests, fifty seminarians, a full honor guard of the Knights of Columbus (over 60 members), and over fifty Knights and Dames of the Order of Malta were in attendance.
Like all heads of departments of the Roman Curia, Cardinal Burke is a member also of various other offices in the Curia. The appointments are for five years and are renewable. Being resident in Rome, he is invited to attend not only the plenary meetings of those departments, which in principle are held every year, but also the ordinary meetings. Thus on May 6, 2008, Burke was appointed a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, which authentically interprets canon law, and of the Congregation for the Clergy, which regulates the formation and training of diocesan priests and deacons; on October 17, 2009, of the Congregation for Bishops, the curial body charged with overseeing the appointment of most but not all Latin Church bishops outside mission territories. ; on July 6, 2010, of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; on July 24, 2010, of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints; on January 29, 2011, of the Council of Cardinals and Bishops of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State.
On October 7, 2008, Burke was appointed President of the Commission for Advocates, which is responsible for admitting the world's qualified canon lawyers to a registry of those who may practice in the Vatican's courts – a sort of bar association. This post is related, but secondary to and distinct from his post as Prefect of the Signatura.
On March 11, 2010, in the wake of the sexual abuse scandal that had come to light in the countries of Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands, and Austria, Burke said that the Vatican needed to design a set of guidelines based in canon law that would guide bishops and tribunals worldwide in determining how to report the cases to the Holy See. Revisions will also be made to a policy formulated by Benedict that provides for high levels of secrecy in the process. The German bishops had drawn up guidelines that Pope Benedict XVI was considering using worldwide, and many other countries (such as the United States) already have set procedures for such cases. However, it is a delicate process, especially for a bishop who must formally denounce and remove a priest (presuming he is indeed guilty and thus that the accusations are based in fact), who is spiritually considered to be his son. Also, there remain questions about how to handle scandals that only come to light during sacramental confession, where the confessor is obliged under pain of excommunication to be totally silent about anything and everything he hears from any penitent. A further problem is the fact that some pedophile priests who are perpetrators of child sexual abuse do this in the confessional, which is an especially grave offense in the eyes of the Church.
Elevation to the College of Cardinals and later roles
On November 20, 2010, Pope Benedict XVI elevated Burke to the cardinalate, as Cardinal-Deacon of Sant'Agata dei Goti. Burke was the fifth man who served as Archbishop of St. Louis to become a member of the College of Cardinals, the others being John Joseph Glennon (1946), Joseph Ritter (1961), John Carberry (1969) and Justin Francis Rigali (2003), the now-retired Archbishop of Philadelphia.
According to the St. Louis Review, the archdiocese newspaper, St. Louis Archbishop Robert James Carlson announced at a reception at the Apostolic Signatura during a pilgrimage to Rome upon the occasion of Cardinal Burke's elevation the creation of a Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke Chair in Canon Law at St. Louis's Kenrick-Glennon Seminary. This follows the similar establishment of a Justin Francis Cardinal Rigali Chair in Liturgical Studies there, when former St. Louis Archbishop Justin Francis Rigali was named Archbishop of Philadelphia.
On February 5, 2011, the memorial of St. Agatha, Cardinal Burke took canonical possession of his titular church in Rome, Sant'Agata dei Goti. The ordinary form stational Mass, said in Italian and Latin, was held in the evening.
In May 2011, Cardinal Burke was awarded another honorary doctorate from the Franciscan University of Steubenville in Steubenville, Ohio. In his Commencement speech, he said that long admired the University because he regards it, unlike some other American Catholic universities in the context of a highly secularized Western society, as having remained faithful to the ethical guidelines and teachings of the Church's Magisterium (the teaching office of the Catholic Church, made up of the Pope and the bishops worldwide in communion with him, and those given authority to teach by them).
In October 2012, for the 13th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for the New Evangelization, he was the President of the Commission for Controversies, which is probably due to his role both as a Canon Law expert and his position as the Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura.
On December 16, 2013, Pope Francis announced appointments to the Congregation for Bishops, removing Burke.
Notable actions and statements
Burke is seen by many as one of the most conservative of the American bishops, and increasingly as a leader of the conservative wing of Cardinals in the Church. Reasons for his U.S. prominence include his position regarding the political actions of Catholics who hold public office, and his disputes with the Polish-American community at St. Stanislaus Kostka Church in St. Louis; while support for him among conservative Cardinals and bishops is based upon his clear and magisterial style of governance, coupled with his advancing of a return to traditional expressions of liturgical piety to the Church's fold.
Politicians supporting legalization of abortion
During the 2004 presidential election, Burke publicly stated that John Kerry and other Catholic politicians who publicly support legalized abortion should not be given or receive the Eucharist. This statement was based mainly on two canons of Catholic Canon Law, which state that ministers of Holy Communion should not administer the Eucharist to people who obstinately persist in manifest grave sin and that those who are conscious of being in a state of grave sin (as determined by Catholic doctrine) should not receive the Eucharist.
Burke had articulated the same position while he was in La Crosse, but the statements he made as Archbishop of St. Louis gained more notice and added to his reputation for being canonically consistent. He is one of a number of bishops who have declared that they would refuse Communion to such politicians but one of the few who has selectively called out certain individuals by name. He added that Catholic voters who supported pro-choice candidates specifically because they supported abortion rights were committing grave sin and should not receive Communion without first having their sin absolved through the Sacrament of Penance.
Burke later clarified his position, stating that one could vote for a pro-choice politician and not commit a mortal sin, if one believed there was a more significant moral issue than abortion at hand, but he also stated that he could not think of any sort of issue that would qualify.
Sheryl Crow concert
On April 25, 2007, after singer Sheryl Crow, an abortion rights supporter, was scheduled to perform at a benefit concert for the Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, Archbishop Burke resigned as chair of the hospital foundation's board of directors.
Deeming this a scandal, Burke claimed that to have the hospital host Crow would give "the impression that the Church is somehow inconsistent in its teaching." The Saint Louis archbishop reportedly asked that her invitation be privately removed, but then felt compelled to submit his resignation once Crow's performance in concert was confirmed.
Saint Louis University staff
On January 22, 2008, Burke urged Saint Louis University to take disciplinary action against its head basketball coach, Rick Majerus, after Majerus publicly supported abortion and embryonic stem cell research at a campaign event for Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton three days earlier.
With Saint Louis University being run by the Society of Jesus, Burke responded by saying, "When you take a position in a Catholic university, you don't have to embrace everything the Catholic Church teaches. But you can't make statements which call into question the identity and mission of the Catholic Church." SLU spokesman Jeff Fowler responded to Burke's statement by saying, "Rick's comments were his own personal view. They were made at an event he did not attend as a university representative."
Burke again responded to the controversy aroused by his statements in an interview with the archdiocesan newspaper, The St. Louis Review, on the following February 1. The archbishop said, "It gives scandal to other people, Catholics and non-Catholics alike, if they hear a Catholic give an interview to the media, saying that I am proud to be a Catholic but at the same time I hold these views." When asked about his usually outspoken manner in controversial issues, he responded, "Is there something unusual about a bishop saying that it’s wrong to be in favor of procured abortion? I’m a Roman Catholic priest and bishop. What else would you expect me to say?"
Ordination of women
During June 2008, Burke applied an interdict, which excludes from church ministries and forbids participation in the sacraments, to Sister of Charity Louise Lears, judging her guilty of three grave canonical offenses against the Catholic Church's faith and teachings. Lears, a pastoral worker and educator, had publicly stated her belief that all of the church's ministries, including the priesthood, should be open to women. Lears received the interdict after attending an attempted ordination of a woman to the Catholic priesthood at a Jewish synagogue by the WomenPriests movement.
2008 U.S. presidential election
In a September 2008 interview, Burke said that "the Democratic Party risks transforming itself definitively into a 'party of death,' because of its choices on bioethical questions," especially elective abortion.
In May 2009, he stated, "Since President Obama clearly announced, during the election campaign, his anti-life and anti-family agenda, a Catholic who knew his agenda regarding, for example, procured abortion, embryonic-stem-cell research, and same-sex marriage, could not have voted for him with a clear conscience."
Canon law regarding Holy Communion
In March 2009, Burke was interviewed by Randall Terry, the pro-life activist and Catholic convert who founded Operation Rescue. In the videotaped interview, Archbishop Burke called on American bishops to withhold Communion, in line with canon 915, from Catholic politicians who support legalized abortion. The bishops' failure to do so, Burke said, "is weakening the faith of everyone. It's giving the impression that it must be morally correct to support procured abortion." He also called President Barack Obama "an agent of death" for his pro-choice views. Terry called for the removal of Paul Loverde and Donald Wuerl, for not denying Communion to these politicians, and also criticized Cardinals Roger Mahony and Theodore McCarrick. After the interview was released, Burke apologized to his "brother bishops" for the "misuse" of his statements, saying: "Mr. Terry has used the videotape for another purpose which I find most objectionable." He clarified that he made his remarks not as Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, head of the Vatican's highest court, but simply as an American bishop.
In an October 2010 interview, held before the consistory in which he was elevated to the cardinalate, Burke reiterated that to directly vote for a candidate who not only supports the right to choose to have an abortion and/or to have the right to euthanasia, but who actively supports abortion and/or euthanasia, because of the candidate's stance, is a mortal sin. To vote for a candidate who held these stances without a very grave reason- and he said there were not many, if any at all- would still be wrong even if the voter did not expressly vote for him or her because of those stances. The only possible valid reason, Cardinal-designate Burke said, would be if that candidate was the least pro-abortion or pro-euthanasia of the candidates.
Catholic higher education
On Wednesday, December 15, 2010, a story posted by the ZENIT website homepage (Innovative Media) described Cardinal Burke as "underlining the importance of Catholic higher education, and the need for these institutions to keep their identity strong. The prefect...gave an address at the Thomas More College of Liberal Arts (Merrimack, New Hampshire), where he affirmed the importance that 'the Church has consistently assigned to Catholic higher education, in order that 'the convergence of faith and reason in the one truth may be seen more clearly'."
Violations of liturgical norms
At the March 2, 2011 launch of a book in Italian, whose title translates as "How to Go to Mass and Not Lose Your Faith", Cardinal Burke declared that liturgical abuses damage the faith of Catholics: "If we err by thinking we are the center of the liturgy, the Mass will lead to a loss of faith. Unfortunately, too many priests and bishops treat violations of liturgical norms as something that is unimportant, when, in fact, they are serious abuses."
End-of-life palliative care and euthanasia
At a July 23, 2011 conference on end-of-life care conference sponsored by the St. Gianna Physician's Guild, Cardinal Burke said that suffering does not cause a person to have less meaning in his life, nor does it give the government the right to decide if that person should live or die: "No matter how much a life is diminished, no matter what suffering the person is undergoing, that life demands the greatest respect and care. It's never right to snuff out a life because it's in some way under heavy burden."
Catholic diocesan communications workers
According to an April 19, 2012, online news brief posted by Catholic News Service (CNS),: "Church communicators have an important and serious duty to obey church teaching and defend the church's mission of saving souls and safeguarding truth, said the head of the Vatican's highest court. Caution as well as control over content and where it's distributed are needed because while the field of communications "has great potential for good," it "also can be turned to the harm of the faithful," said U.S. Cardinal Raymond L. Burke, prefect of the Supreme Court of the Apostolic Signature. Communicators should be guided and directed by pastors to make sure their content is free from doctrinal and theological error, and Catholics should avoid outlets that openly attack Christian morality, he added. The cardinal was one of dozens of speakers at a biennial seminar for people who work in the field of media and communications for dioceses, religious institutions and other church organizations. Sponsored by Rome's Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, the April 16–18 seminar focused on ways the church could better portray the essence and vitality of the Christian faith. Cardinal Burke, who is a canon lawyer, focused his talk April 18 on the importance of canon law in protecting the integrity of the church's mission and its members. The church's discipline and canonical processes are "not only not a hindrance to the effective communication of the Catholic faith, but also an effective manifestation of the vitality of the faith."..."
Reintegration talks with the SSPX
According to a Friday, June 15, 2012 posting of an online news story article by Catholic News Service (CNS), reported and written by Francis X. Rocca, Cardinal Burke, in an interview with CNS after a meeting between Bishop Bernard Fellay, the Superior General of the Society of Saint Pius X (SSPX) and William Cardinal Levada, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, expressed confidence, that despite remaining doctrinal obstacles and problems getting all the members to reconcile with the Vatican (they will be dealt with separately and individually), that many members of the Society would most likely fully reconcile in the not too distant future.
Use of the Tridentine Mass
In an interview with Catholic News Service (CNS), in a video interview and an article written by Francis X. Rocca and posted on Friday, July 6, 2012, Cardinal Burke said that the Church could appreciate the unique contributions the Tridentine Mass and its style can have on possibly remedying potential errors of post-Vatican II life and liturgy of the Church, emphasizing that either the Mass's liturgy had to be done properly and that the Latin Tridentine formula had to be followed correctly when it was celebrated publicly or privately. Pope Benedict XVI, in the July 2007 Motu Proprio (formal document) Summorum Pontificum, had authorized wider use of the older Mass, in part to reconcile the SSPX and other traditionalists to the Church, but also to encourage greater awareness of the richness and depth of that liturgy.
Comments at the 2012 World Synod of Bishops On The New Evangelization
According to a Thursday, October 25, 2012 news brief from Catholic News Service (CNS), in written comments to the Synod on Tuesday afternoon, October 23, Cardinal Burke criticized "antinomianism"- the belief that grace exempts Christians from obedience to the moral law. This abandonment of Church doctrine over the past half-century has undermined the reforms of Vatican Council II and post-conciliar ecclesial (Church) life, helping relativism and secularism, especially in the West, make what are viewed by the Church as intrinsically evil acts (those considered always, or at least nearly always wrong, usually independent of the circumstances or other factors, e.g., abortion, euthanasia, genocide, changes to marriage, embryonic stem cell research) seem less evil and more appropriate to an individual believer or to society.
Opposition to communion for Irish politicians who support abortion
An article in the Irish Independent on 6 February 2013 reported Cardinal Burke as stating that, in accordance with canon law, priests should exclude politicians who support abortion from receiving communion.
Comments on statements made by Pope Francis summer of 2013 regarding abortion and marriage
"One gets the impression, or it's interpreted this way in the media, that he thinks we're talking too much about abortion, too much about the integrity of marriage as between one man and one woman," Burke said recently about the Pope to EWTN. "But we can never talk enough about that." 
Recent defense of Pope Francis' comments
In a Feb. 21 2014 article in the English edition of L’Osservatore Romano, Cardinal Burke firmly denied media perceptions " ... that the Holy Father plans to change the Church’s teaching on important moral issues of our time." The cardinal said persons “hardened against the truth” will read the Pope’s approach differently, claiming the Holy Father wants to change Church teachings that today’s secularized culture rejects. The cardinal also said their “false praise” mocks the fact that Francis is Successor of Peter and that the Pope “rejects the acceptance and praise of the world.”
“It is not that the Holy Father is not clear in his opposition to abortion and euthanasia or in his support of marriage as the indissoluble, faithful and procreative union of one man and one woman,” Cardinal Burke said in L’Osservatore Romano. “Rather, he concentrates his attention on inviting all to nurture an intimate relationship, indeed communion, with Christ, within which the non-negotiable truths, inscribed by God upon every human heart, become ever more evident and are generously embraced.” 
Pope Francis reorganizes Congregation For Bishops - Cardinal Burke not reappointed
The Congregation For Bishops nominates priests to be bishops worldwide. The Congregation for Bishops shapes the Church by giving the Pope a list of three priests for each opening of a bishop's chair. The Pope then picks from the three, though he can, and sometimes does, name another man. The latest list of appointees (announced December 16, 2013) did not include Cardinal Burke's name. 
It has been conjectured that since most of the new bishops Francis has named since March have strong experience as pastors and in other posts that deal pastorally with the people in the pews, his preferences will be reflected in the membership of the Congregation For Bishops. Cardinal Burke's career before becoming Archbishop of Saint Louis was focused on roles in the Church bureaucracy. 
- Lack of discretion of judgment because of schizophrenia: doctrine and recent rotal jurisprudence, Doctoral Dissertation, (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1986). See also "Defectus discretionis iudicii propter schizophreniam: Doctrina et recens iurisprudentia," Periodica, 73 (1984) 555–570; and "Lack of Discretion of Judgment: Canonical Doctrine and Legislation," in The Jurist, 45 (1985) 171–209.
- "Canon 1095, 1° and 2°," in Incapacity for marriage: Jurisprudence and Interpretation, Acts of the III Gregorian Collguium, Robert M. Sable, coordinator and editor (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1987).
- In I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico, Studi giuridici 27 (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1992): "La procedura amministrativa per la dichiarazione di nullità del matrimonio," 93–105, and "Il processo di dispensa dal matrimonio rato e non consummato: la grazia pontificia e la sua natura," 135–144.
- "The Application of Canon 1095 and sacramental-pastoral activity concerning marriage," in Ius in vita et in missione Ecclesiæ, Acta Symposii internationalis iuris canonici occurrente X anniversario promulgationis Codicis iuris canonici diebus 19–24 aprilis 1993 in Civitate Vaticana celebrati, Pontificia Concilium de legum textibus interpretandis (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1994) 1095–1102.
- "The Distinction of Personnel in Hierarchically Related Tribunals," in Studia canonica, 28 (1994) 85–98.
- "Canon 1421: The Nullity of a Decision by a Single Lay Judge,"  in Arthur J. Espelage, OFM (ed.), CLSA Advisory Opinions 1994–2000 (Washington, DC: CLSA, 2002) 451–452.
- "Canons 1421–1422 and 1435–1436: The Exercise of the Office of Judge or Defender of the Bond by a Priest on Leave of Absence from Priestly Ministry," [1995, co-authored with Joseph R. Punderson] in Arthur J. Espelage, OFM (ed.), CLSA Advisory Opinions 1994–2000 (Washington, DC: CLSA, 2002) 453–454.
- "La "confessio iudicialis" e le dichiarizioni giudiziali delle parti," in I mezzi di prova nelle cause matrimoniali secondo la giurisprudenza rotale, Studi Giuridici XXXVIII (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1995) 15–30.
- Commentary on the July 12, 1993, Decree of the Apostolic Signatura relating to the qualifications of advocates, Canadian Canon Law Society Newsletter, 21 (1996) 9–13; for Spanish translation see: "Abogados, uniones matrimoniales irregulares y causas de nulidad matrimonial: Texto y comentario de una Respuesta de Tribunal Supremo de la Signatura Apostolica," in REDC, 51 (1994) 639–645.
- "Canon Law at the Service of the New Evangelization," given on the occasion of receiving the Role of Law Award from the Canon Law Society of America, in Canon Law Society of America Proceedings, 62 (2000) 497–500; introductory remarks of gratitude, 495–496.
- "On Our Civic Responsibility for the Common Good," (Saint Louis: Archdiocese of Saint Louis, 2004).
- "Canon 915: The Discipline Regarding the Denial of Holy Communion to Those Obstinately Persevering in Manifest Grave Sin," in Periodica, 96 (2007) 3–58.
- Divine Love Made Flesh: The Holy Eucharist as the Sacrament of Charity. San Diego: Catholic Action. 2012. ISBN 978-0981631424.
- List of the Catholic bishops of the United States#American bishops serving outside the United States
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (July 2010)|
- St. Louis Archdiocese website. Retrieved Dec 18, 2010
- Canon 349 mentions "The cardinals of the Holy Roman Church...".
- Archdiocese of St. Louis – Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke
- Aquinas High School .:History:
- Catholic Hierarchy.org. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke. Accessed February 12, 2013.
- Synod V, acts : celebrated June 11–14, 2000. La Crosse, Wis.: Diocese of La Crosse, 2003.
- Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem
- Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke
- "Return to Beauty": Shrine could bring international spotlight to La Crosse, La Crosse Tribune, December 9, 2007.[dead link]
- "Archbishop dedicates shrine's Rosary Walk", La Crosse Tribune, December 9, 2007.[dead link]
- Andrew Rabel, The Overseer of Justice, Inside the Vatican Magazine.
- Welcome to the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe[dead link]
- "National Catholic Register," December 5, 2010, p. B4. Accessed January 31, 2011.
- Gay, Malcolm (August 25, 2004). "Bishop Takes Queen". The Riverfront Times.
- La Crosse Tribune – 7.0 : Burke named archbishop of St. Louis
- La Crosse Tribune – 7.0 : Bishop Burke doesn't mind ‘taking the heat'
- La Crosse Tribune – 7.0 : Burke bids farewell
- La Crosse Tribune – 7.0 : Activist reputation precedes Burke
- St. Louis archbishop, others tapped for Vatican's supreme court – Catholic Online
- Ave Maria University confers first honorary degrees, May 11, 2005
- Archbishop Burke and College Founders Honored at 30th Anniversary Convocation, September 21, 2007.
- Catholic World News. Vatican confirms briefing on motu proprio; publication near June 28, 2007
- Press Office of the Holy See
- Statement of Cardinal-designate Raymond L. Burke on the Announcement of Consistory for Creation of Cardinals|Office of Communications
- Archbishop bids emotional farewell to St. Louis faithful | St. Louis Review
- Press Office of the Holy See
- NOMINA DI MEMBRI DELLA CONGREGAZIONE DELLE CAUSE DEI SANTI
- Nomina di membri del Consiglio di Cardinali e Vescovi della Sezione per i Rapporti con gli Stati della Segreteria di Stato
- Archbishop Burke appointed to head Vatican’s ‘bar association’ :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)
- CNS STORY: Vatican defends efforts by pope, church to curb sex abuse by priests
- 'Pope Francis removes former La Crosse Bishop Raymond Burke,' Milwaukee Sentinel Journal, December 16, 2013
- 'Pope Replaces Conservative U.S. Cardinal on Influential Vatican Committee', New York Times, Jim Yardley and Jason Horowitz, December 16, 2013
- Pope Replaces Conservative U.S. Cardinal on Influential Vatican Committee
- online edition of the St. Louis Review
- Titular Church
- Franciscan University of Steubenville
- Yardley, Jim (December 16, 2014). "Pope Replaces Conservative U.S. Cardinal on Influential Vatican Committee". New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- "The St. Louis archbishop made headlines earlier this year when he said he would refuse to give Communion to the Democratic presidential candidate, Sen. John Kerry, D-Mass., a Catholic who supports legal abortion." (Archbishop Burke says he'll continue politics-abortion campaign, by John Thavis, CNS, Nov 29, 2004)
- Id. canon 915 ("Ad sacram communionem ne admittantur excommunicati et interdicti post irrogationem vel declarationem poenae aliique in manifesto gravi peccato obstinate perseverantes.")
- Codex Iuris Canonici canon 916 ("Qui conscius est peccati gravis, sine praemissa sacramentali confessione Missam ne celebret neve Corpori Domini communicet, nisi adsit gravis ratio et deficiat opportunitas confitendi; quo in casu meminerit se obligatione teneri ad eliciendum actum perfectae contritionis, qui includit propositum quam primum confitendi.")
- Archbishop Raymond Burke of St. Louis had informed his archdiocese that "Catholics in St. Louis who vote for political candidates supportive of abortion rights have committed a grave sin in the eyes of the Church, and should confess and do penance before receiving Communion". ("Voting for abortion rights candidate is a sin", SLToday.com, June 25, 2004 )
- Washington Post. Archbishop Blasts Sheryl Crow Appearance April 25, 2007
- Whispers in the Loggia. Burke's Plea: No Crow April 25, 2007
- STLtoday. Archbishop says Majerus should be disciplined January 22, 2008
- St. Louis Review. Archbishop Burke addresses Catholic identity February 1, 2008
- Community supports ousted nun
- CNS STORY: U.S. archbishop at Vatican says Democrats becoming 'party of death'
- (Archbishop) Ray of Clarity – Kathryn Jean Lopez – National Review Online
- Fox, Thomas C. (March 26, 2009). "Vatican official chides U.S. bishops on abortion". National Catholic Reporter. Video of the interview here 
- Fox, Thomas C. (March 26, 2009). "Burke apologizes for remarks critical of U.S. bishops". National Catholic Reporter.
- Catholic News Service: "Vatican officials say bad Masses lead to weak faith"
- National Catholic Register, "Bad Mass = Weak Faith"
- "Cardinals: liturgical abuse weakens the faith"
- Catholic News Agency
- Cardinal Burke Statement on the Society of Saint Pius X
- The Archdiocese of St. Louis – Biography of Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke
- Biography of Cardinal Burke
- Aquinas High School La Crosse, Wisconsin
- Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, La Crosse, Wisconsin
- Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest
- St. Mary's Oratory, Wausau, Wisconsin
- St. Mary's, Cashton, Wisconsin
|Catholic Church titles|
John Joseph Paul
|Roman Catholic Bishop of La Crosse
Jerome Edward Listecki
|Roman Catholic Archbishop of St. Louis
Robert James Carlson
|Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Tomáš Špidlík SJ
|Cardinal-Deacon of Sant’Agata de’ Goti