Raymond Leo Burke

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His Eminence
Raymond Leo Burke
Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke.jpg
Appointed November 8, 2014
Predecessor Paolo Sardi
Other posts Cardinal-Deacon of S. Agata de’ Goti
Orders
Ordination June 29, 1975
by Pope Paul VI
Consecration January 6, 1995
by Pope John Paul II
Created Cardinal November 20, 2010
by Pope Benedict XVI
Rank Cardinal-Deacon
Personal details
Born (1948-06-30) June 30, 1948 (age 66)
Richland Center, Wisconsin
Nationality United States
Denomination Roman Catholic
Residence Rome, Italy
Parents Thomas and Marie Burke
Previous post
Alma mater Holy Cross Seminary
The Catholic University of America
North American College
Gregorian University
Motto secundum cor tuum
(After your own heart)
Coat of arms {{{coat_of_arms_alt}}}
Styles of
Raymond Leo Burke
Coat of arms of Raymond Leo Burke.svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal

Raymond Leo Burke (born June 30, 1948) is an American cardinal prelate[1] of the Roman Catholic Church.[2] He currently serves as the patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, a position some interpret as a demotion from his previous position as Cardinal Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, which he held until November 2014.[citation needed]

Cardinal Burke previously served as the Archbishop of the Archdiocese of St. Louis, Missouri (2003–2008) and as the Bishop of the Diocese of La Crosse, Wisconsin (1994–2003). Burke is a prominent canon lawyer and is often perceived as a voice of conservatism in the Roman Catholic Church and American politics.

Background[edit]

Burke was born on June 30, 1948, in Richland Center, Wisconsin,[3] the youngest of the six children of Thomas (died July 21, 1956) and Marie (died February 29, 1996) Burke. Burke went to St. Mary's Parish School in Richland Center from 1954 to 1959. In 2012, the new addition to St. Mary's Parish School was constructed and named in his honor: the Raymond Cardinal Burke Annex.[4][5] The family later moved to Stratford, Wisconsin. His paternal Burke great-grandfather came from County Tipperary, Ireland.[6] From 1962 to 1968, he attended Holy Cross Seminary in La Crosse, Wisconsin. From 1968 to 1971, he studied at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. as a Basselin scholar and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1970 and a Master of Arts degree in 1971, both in philosophy. He completed studies for the priesthood at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome between 1971 and 1975, receiving a Bachelor of Sacred Theology degree and a Master of Arts, degree.[3] Pope Paul VI ordained Burke to the priesthood on June 29, 1975, at Saint Peter's Basilica.[3]

Priestly ministry[edit]

After his ordination to the priesthood Burke was assigned as assistant rector of the Cathedral of St. Joseph the Workman in La Crosse, Wisconsin. He also taught religion at Aquinas High School in La Crosse (where the new addition the Bishop Burke Hall was named in his honor in 1997 and then in 2011 was renamed the Cardinal Burke Hall.)[7][8][9] From 1980 to 1984, Burke studied canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, where he received a license in canon law in 1982 and a doctorate in canon law in 1984.[3] He then returned to La Crosse where he was named the Moderator of the Curia and Vice Chancellor of the La Crosse Diocese. In 1989, Pope John Paul II named Burke the first American Defender of the Bond of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the highest ecclesiastical court official in the Catholic Church, apart from the Pope.[3]

Episcopal ministry[edit]

Bishop of La Crosse[edit]

On December 10, 1994, Pope John Paul II named Burke Bishop of La Crosse, consecrating him to the episcopate on January 6, 1995, in St. Peter's Basilica.[10] Burke took possession of the See of La Crosse on February 22, 1995.[10]

In 2000 Burke convened the fifth diocesan synod for the Diocese of La Crosse, which resulted in the publication of Synod V, acts : celebrated June 11–14, 2000 in 2003.[11] He was also named a Knight Commander with Star of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre in 1997 and received the Canon Law Society of America's Role of Law award in 2000.[3] In 2002, Burke was influential in founding the Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem, an order of Augustinian canons dedicated to the traditional form of the liturgy.[12]

During his tenure as Bishop of La Crosse, Burke constructed a shrine dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe, patroness of the Americas.[13][14][15][16] The archbishop also installed a shrine to the Sacred Heart in the diocesan cathedral, reflecting his desire to encourage spiritual devotions.[17]

Some priests in the Diocese of La Crosse have claimed that Burke's leadership there was divisive. The construction of the shrine, the diocese's withdrawal from Church World Service's annual Crop Walk, and his welcoming of fringe religious orders alienated some priests and laity.[18]

Archbishop of St. Louis[edit]

Coat of arms of Card. Raymond Leo Burke as Archbishop of Saint Louis

On December 2, 2003, Burke was named Archbishop of St. Louis, succeeding Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali (who had been appointed Archbishop of Philadelphia).[19][20][21][22] He was installed on January 26, 2004 and was presented with the pallium on June 29, 2004 by Pope John Paul II. In St. Louis, Burke emphasized the promotion of vocations to the priesthood. He also published a column in the archdiocesan weekly newspaper, the Saint Louis Review. In both La Crosse and St. Louis, Burke established oratories for those who attend the Tridentine Rite. He invited the traditional Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest into his dioceses and ordained priests for the group both in the U.S. and abroad. His ordination of two traditionalist priests on June 15, 2007, was the first time in 40 years that the Tridentine rite of ordination had been used in the cathedral.[23] In July 2006, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Burke to the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura,[24] the highest court in the Catholic Church. When an amendment to the Missouri Constitution that allows embryonic stem cell research was passed, he issued a statement opposing it.[citation needed]

During his tenure in Saint Louis, Burke was awarded two honorary doctorates in humane letters, one from Ave Maria University in 2005,[25] the other from Christendom College in 2007.[26] During his tenure, Burke was also involved in the beginning of a contest over the attempted closing of a church in the diocese, St. Stanislaus Kostka Church. After Rev. Marek Bozek, then 37, led a Christmas Eve mass in 2005, Burke "declare[d] that the church was in 'schism', a designation that led to the excommunication of Mr. Bozek and the church's lay board". In 2012, however, a state court agreed with the congregation, now an independent Catholic church, over the diocese on ownership of the parish's assets.[27]

On May 6, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI named Burke to two Vatican offices.[28] He was named a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, which authentically interprets Canon Law, and also became a member of the Congregation for the Clergy, which regulates the formation and training of diocesan priests and deacons.

Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura[edit]

On June 27, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Burke Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura.[29] The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura exercises final appellate jurisdiction for conflicts between two or more Vatican congregations and appeals of administrative decisions by diocesan bishops and Vatican congregations. Burke was the first non-European named to head the tribunal and became the second-highest ranking American prelate at the Vatican after Cardinal William Levada, the prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

His farewell Mass in the Archdiocese of St. Louis, held in the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis on August 17, 2008, was concelebrated by Bishops George Joseph Lucas, Robert Joseph Hermann, John Joseph Leibrecht, John R. Gaydos, Robert W. Finn, Raymond James Boland, and Kevin William Vann.[30]

On May 6, 2008, Burke was appointed a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, which authentically interprets canon law, and of the Congregation for the Clergy, which regulates the formation and training of diocesan priests and deacons; on October 17, 2009, of the Congregation for Bishops, the curial body that oversees the appointment of most Latin Church bishops outside mission territories;[31][32] on July 6, 2010, of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments;[33] on July 24, 2010, of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints;[34] and on January 29, 2011, of the Council of Cardinals and Bishops of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State.[35] On October 7, 2008, Burke was appointed President of the Commission for Advocates, which is responsible for admitting the world's qualified canon lawyers to a registry of those who may practice in the Vatican's courts, a sort of bar association.[36]

On March 11, 2010, in the wake of the sexual abuse scandal that had come to light in Europe, Burke said that the Vatican needed to design a set of guidelines based in canon law that would guide bishops and tribunals worldwide in determining how to report the cases to the Holy See. Revisions would also be made to a policy formulated by Benedict that provided for high levels of secrecy in the process.[37]

Elevation to the College of Cardinals and later roles[edit]

Burke at a Mass at St. Clement Eucharistic Shrine in Boston, 2010

On November 20, 2010, Pope Benedict XVI elevated Burke to the cardinalate, as Cardinal-Deacon of Sant'Agata dei Goti, making Burke the fifth archbishop of St. Louis to become a member of the College of Cardinals. In honor of Burke, St. Louis Archbishop Robert James Carlson created a Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke Chair in Canon Law at St. Louis's Kenrick-Glennon Seminary.[38]

On February 5, 2011, the memorial of St. Agatha, Burke took canonical possession of his titular church in Rome, Sant'Agata dei Goti.[39]

In May 2011, Burke was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Franciscan University of Steubenville in Steubenville, Ohio.[40]

In October 2012, he was appointed the President of the Commission for Controversies at the 13th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops.[41]

On December 16, 2013, Burke was replaced by Cardinal Donald Wuerl on the Congregation for Bishops, the church body that selects new bishops.[42]

On November 8, 2014 an expected demotion was confirmed and Burke was removed as prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, the final court of appeal for any ecclesiastical judgement.[43][44] Like his previous removal from the Congregation for Bishops,[43] this demotion was thought to be related to his conflicts with Pope Francis over orthodoxy and criticism of the Pope's leadership and proposals for reform. Notably Burke said about church under Pope Francis, "There is a strong sense that the church is like a ship without a rudder." [45][46][47] Sources differ whether the move will likely strengthen or weaken Francis.[48][49][50] He was replaced at the Apostolic Signatura by Dominique Mamberti. Burke was then appointed as Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, which is largely a ceremonial post usually given to a retired cardinal or as a secondary job to an active one.[51]

Notable actions and statements[edit]

Politics, politicians, and abortion[edit]

During the 2004 presidential election, Burke stated that he would not give the Eucharist to John Kerry or other Catholic politicians who publicly support legalized abortion.[52] He also wrote a pastoral letter saying Catholics should not vote for politicians who support abortion or other "anti-life" practices.[52] Burke later clarified his position, stating that one could vote for a pro-choice politician and not commit a mortal sin, if one believed there was a more significant moral issue than abortion at hand, but he also stated that he could not think of any sort of issue that would qualify.[53][citation needed]

In March 2009, Burke called on American bishops to withhold the Eucharist from Catholic politicians who support legalized abortion.[54] The bishops' failure to do so, Burke said, "is weakening the faith of everyone. It's giving the impression that it must be morally correct to support procured abortion."[54] He also said that any president who promotes and implements "anti-life" legislation could be an "agent of death".[54] Burke later said that he made his remarks not as Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, head of the Vatican's highest court, but simply as an American bishop.[55]

In February 2013 Burke commented on the Irish abortion debate, stating that, in accordance with canon law, priests should exclude politicians who support abortion from receiving the Eucharist.[56]

In a September 2008 interview, Burke said that "the Democratic Party risks transforming itself definitively into a 'party of death', because of its choices on bioethical questions", especially elective abortion.[57]

In May 2009, Burke stated, "Since President Obama clearly announced, during the election campaign, his anti-life and anti-family agenda, a Catholic who knew his agenda regarding, for example, procured abortion, embryonic-stem-cell research, and same-sex marriage, could not have voted for him with a clear conscience."[58]

Sheryl Crow concert[edit]

When Sheryl Crow, an abortion rights advocate, was scheduled to perform at a benefit concert for the Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, Burke stated that to have the hospital host Crow would give "the impression that the Church is somehow inconsistent in its teaching."[59] He asked that her invitation be privately removed, and resigned from the board on April 25, 2007 when Crow's performance was confirmed.[60]

Saint Louis University staff[edit]

In 2008, Burke urged Saint Louis University to take disciplinary action against its head basketball coach, Rick Majerus, after Majerus publicly supported abortion and embryonic stem cell research at a campaign event for Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton.[61] Burke stated that "When you take a position in a Catholic university, you don't have to embrace everything the Catholic Church teaches. But you can't make statements which call into question the identity and mission of the Catholic Church." St. Louis University supported Majerus's right to publicly expound on his own personal views when made at an event he did not attend as a university representative.[61]

Ordination of women[edit]

In June 2008, Burke applied an interdict, which excludes a person from church ministries and the sacraments, to a Sister of Charity, Louise Lears, judging her guilty of three grave canonical offenses against the Catholic Church's faith and teachings. Lears, a pastoral worker and educator, had publicly stated her belief that all of the church's ministries, including the priesthood, should be open to women.[62] Lears received the interdict after attending an ordination ceremony which the Church considers invalid of a woman to the Catholic priesthood at a Jewish synagogue by the WomenPriests movement.[63]

Violations of liturgical norms[edit]

On March 2, 2011, Burke declared that liturgical abuses damage the faith of Catholics: "If we err by thinking we are the center of the liturgy, the Mass will lead to a loss of faith. Unfortunately, too many priests and bishops treat violations of liturgical norms as something that is unimportant, when, in fact, they are serious abuses."[64][65][66]

End-of-life palliative care and euthanasia[edit]

At a July 23, 2011, conference on end-of-life care sponsored by the St. Gianna Physician's Guild, Burke said that suffering does not cause a person to have less meaning in his life, nor does it give the government the right to decide if that person should live or die: "No matter how much a life is diminished, no matter what suffering the person is undergoing, that life demands the greatest respect and care. It's never right to snuff out a life because it's in some way under heavy burden."[67]

SSPX reintegration[edit]

Burke has expressed confidence that, despite doctrinal obstacles, many members of the Society of St. Pius X would reconcile with the Vatican.[68]

Tridentine Mass[edit]

In a July 2007 apostolic letter "Summorum Pontificum", Pope Benedict XVI authorized wider use of the older Tridentine Mass.[69] Restoration of some parts of the traditional Mass has been supported by Burke as part of a "reform of the reform", modifying what he sees as deficiencies of the liturgy introduced under Pope Paul VI.[69]

Antinomianism[edit]

The 2012 Synod of Bishops meeting focused on "The New Evangelization". In written comments to the synod, Burke criticized "antinomianism"- the belief that grace exempts Christians from obedience to moral law, stating that it is "among the most serious wounds of society today," and is responsible for the legalization of "intrinsically evil" actions such as abortion, embryonic stem-cell research, euthanasia, and same-sex marriage.[70]

Pope Francis's statements about abortion and marriage[edit]

Shortly after Pope Francis did not re-appoint Burke to the Congregation of Bishops, Burke said, "One gets the impression, or it's interpreted this way in the media, that he thinks we're talking too much about abortion, too much about the integrity of marriage as between one man and one woman. But we can never talk enough about that."[71]

Burke has denied media perceptions that the Pope planned to change the Catholic Church's teaching on moral issues. He said that people "hardened against the truth" would claim that the Pope wants to change church teachings that today's secularized culture rejects. He also said their "false praise" mocks the fact that Pope Francis is the Successor of Peter and that the Pope "rejects the acceptance and praise of the world".[72][73]

Divorce[edit]

Burke has opposed any change of church practice that would permit divorced Catholics to remarry or receive the Eucharist. In 2013 he co-authored a book with cardinals Gerhard Ludwig Mueller and George Pell on the subject.[74]

Homosexuality[edit]

Burke is a critic of Pope Francis' moves to soften the church's attitudes to homosexual people.[75] In an interview in October 2014, Burke referred to gay relationships as "profoundly disordered and harmful",[76] also suggesting that parents should not allow their children to have contact with sexually active gay people and should discourage them from attending family gatherings such as celebrations at Christmas.[77]

Reaction to the 2014 Relatio post disceptationem interim report[edit]

Burke has expressed disagreements with the content of this 2014 report. His concerns were shared by Voice of the Family, a coalition of 15 major pro-life and pro-family groups, who called the Pirolas intervention “damaging”. “The unqualified welcome of homosexual couples into family and parish environments in fact damages everybody, by serving to normalise the disorder of homosexuality”, said Voice of the Family spokesman Maria Madise.[78]

Burke said that the interim document - which softened the Catholic Church's language on gays, contraception and divorced and civilly remarried people - showed that "a great number of the Synod Fathers found it objectionable". In an interview with Catholic World Report, Burke said the document "lacks a solid foundation in the Sacred Scriptures and the Magisterium (the teaching authority of the Catholic Church) and gives the impression of inventing a totally new, what one member of the Synod called ‘revolutionary’, teaching on marriage and the family."[79] Burke went to say, in an interview with BuzzFeed, that if "Pope Francis had selected certain cardinals to steer the meeting to advance his personal views on matters like divorce and the treatment of LGBT people", he would not be observing his mandate as the leader of the Catholic Church.[80]

Selected works[edit]

  • Lack of discretion of judgment because of schizophrenia: doctrine and recent rotal jurisprudence, Doctoral Dissertation, (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1986). See also "Defectus discretionis iudicii propter schizophreniam: Doctrina et recens iurisprudentia," Periodica, 73 (1984): 555–570; and "Lack of Discretion of Judgment: Canonical Doctrine and Legislation," in The Jurist, 45 (1985): 171–209.
  • "Canon 1095, 1° and 2°," in Incapacity for marriage: Jurisprudence and Interpretation, Acts of the III Gregorian Collguium, Robert M. Sable, coordinator and editor (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1987).
  • "La procedura amministrativa per la dichiarazione di nullità del matrimonio," in I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico, Studi giuridici 27 (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1992), 93–105.
  • "Il processo di dispensa dal matrimonio rato e non consummato: la grazia pontificia e la sua natura," in I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico, Studi giuridici 27 (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1992), 135–144.
  • "The Application of Canon 1095 and sacramental-pastoral activity concerning marriage," in Ius in vita et in missione Ecclesiæ, Acta Symposii internationalis iuris canonici occurrente X anniversario promulgationis Codicis iuris canonici diebus 19–24 aprilis 1993 in Civitate Vaticana celebrati, Pontificia Concilium de legum textibus interpretandis (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1994), 1095–1102.
  • "The Distinction of Personnel in Hierarchically Related Tribunals," in Studia canonica, 28 (1994): 85–98.
  • "Canon 1421: The Nullity of a Decision by a Single Lay Judge," [1994] in Arthur J. Espelage, OFM (ed.), CLSA Advisory Opinions 1994–2000 (Washington, DC: CLSA, 2002), 451–452.
  • "Canons 1421–1422 and 1435–1436: The Exercise of the Office of Judge or Defender of the Bond by a Priest on Leave of Absence from Priestly Ministry," [1995, co-authored with Joseph R. Punderson] in Arthur J. Espelage, OFM (ed.), CLSA Advisory Opinions 1994–2000 (Washington, DC: CLSA, 2002), 453–454.
  • "La "confessio iudicialis" e le dichiarizioni giudiziali delle parti," in I mezzi di prova nelle cause matrimoniali secondo la giurisprudenza rotale, Studi Giuridici XXXVIII (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1995), 15–30.
  • "Commentary on the July 12, 1993, Decree of the Apostolic Signatura relating to the qualifications of advocates," in Canadian Canon Law Society Newsletter, 21 (1996): 9–13; for Spanish translation see: "Abogados, uniones matrimoniales irregulares y causas de nulidad matrimonial: Texto y comentario de una Respuesta de Tribunal Supremo de la Signatura Apostolica," in REDC, 51 (1994): 639–645.
  • "Canon Law at the Service of the New Evangelization," given on the occasion of receiving the Role of Law Award from the Canon Law Society of America, in Canon Law Society of America Proceedings, 62 (2000): 497–500; introductory remarks of gratitude, 495–496.
  • "On Our Civic Responsibility for the Common Good," (Saint Louis: Archdiocese of Saint Louis, 2004).
  • "Canon 915: The Discipline Regarding the Denial of Holy Communion to Those Obstinately Persevering in Manifest Grave Sin," in Periodica, 96 (2007): 3–58.
  • Divine Love Made Flesh: The Holy Eucharist as the Sacrament of Charity. San Diego: Catholic Action. 2012. ISBN 978-0981631424. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ St. Louis Archdiocese website. Retrieved Dec 18, 2010
  2. ^ Canon 349 mentions "The cardinals of the Holy Roman Church...".
  3. ^ a b c d e f Archdiocese of St. Louis – Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke
  4. ^ 'Cardinal Burke blesses, breaks ground for school addition in Richland Center, The Catholic Times (Diocese of La Crosse), Joseph O' Brien, August 9, 2012, pg. 11
  5. ^ St. Mary of the Assumption Catholic School
  6. ^ independent.ie
  7. ^ Mission & History-Aquinas High School
  8. ^ 'Cardinal Burke at Aquinas today,' La Crosse Tribune, January 5, 2011
  9. ^ 'Cardinal Burke celebrates Mass at Aquinas High School-ACS rededicates Aquinas addition as Cardinal Burke Hall,' Joseph O'Brien, The Catholic Times (Diocese of La Crosse), January 13, 2011, pg. 3
  10. ^ a b Catholic Hierarchy.org. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke. Accessed February 12, 2013.
  11. ^ Synod V, acts : celebrated June 11–14, 2000. La Crosse, Wis.: Diocese of La Crosse, 2003.
  12. ^ Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem
  13. ^ Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke
  14. ^ "Return to Beauty": Shrine could bring international spotlight to La Crosse, La Crosse Tribune, December 9, 2007.[dead link]
  15. ^ "Archbishop dedicates shrine's Rosary Walk", La Crosse Tribune, December 9, 2007.[dead link]
  16. ^ Andrew Rabel, "The Overseer of Justice", Inside the Vatican Magazine.
  17. ^ Welcome to the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe[dead link]
  18. ^ Gay, Malcolm (August 25, 2004). "Bishop Takes Queen". The Riverfront Times. 
  19. ^ "Burke named archbishop of St. Louis", La Crosse Tribune.[dead link]
  20. ^ "Bishop Burke doesn't mind ‘taking the heat'", La Crosse Tribune.[dead link]
  21. ^ "Burke bids farewell", La Crosse Tribune.[dead link]
  22. ^ "Activist reputation precedes Burke", La Crosse Tribune.[dead link]
  23. ^ institute-christ-king.org, July 2007.[dead link]
  24. ^ "From the Supreme Tribunal ", Whispers in the Loggia
  25. ^ "Ave Maria University confers first honorary degrees", May 11, 2005.[dead link]
  26. ^ "Archbishop Burke and College Founders Honored at 30th Anniversary Convocation", September 21, 2007.[dead link]
  27. ^ Gay, Malcolm, "Defiant St. Louis Church Wins Archdiocese Suit", New York Times, March 17, 2012. Retrieved 2014-11-10.
  28. ^ 'Pope appoints Burke to two high church offices He'll help interpret church law and help regulated training of priests and deacons,' Tim Townsend, St. Louis Dispatch-Post, May 7, 2008
  29. ^ Press Office of the Holy See
  30. ^ "Archbishop bids emotional farewell to St. Louis faithful" St. Louis Review, August 18, 2008.
  31. ^ 212.77.1.245/news_services[dead link]
  32. ^ Martin, James, "Archbishop Burke Named to Congregation of Bishops" America, October 19, 2009.
  33. ^ Press Office of the Holy See[dead link]
  34. ^ NOMINA DI MEMBRI DELLA CONGREGAZIONE DELLE CAUSE DEI SANTI[dead link]
  35. ^ Nomina di membri del Consiglio di Cardinali e Vescovi della Sezione per i Rapporti con gli Stati della Segreteria di Stato[dead link]
  36. ^ "Archbishop Burke appointed to head Vatican’s ‘bar association’" Catholic News Agency, October 8, 2008.
  37. ^ John Thavis, "Vatican defends efforts by pope, church to curb sex abuse by priests", Catholic News Service, March 14, 2010.
  38. ^ Jennifer Brinker, "Kenrick-Glennon Seminary canon law chair established in Cardinal Burke's name", St. Louis Review, November 21, 2010.
  39. ^ "Cardinals Take Possession Of Diaconate, Titular Churches", EWTN News, February 1, 2011.
  40. ^ Franciscan University of Steubenville Office of Public Relations. "Commencement Speakers Call Graduates to Holiness", May 26, 2011.
  41. ^ Holy See Press Office. "XIII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, 7-28 OCTOBER 2012".
  42. ^ "Pope Francis removes former La Crosse Bishop Raymond Burke", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, December 16, 2013.
  43. ^ a b Edward Pentin, "Cardinal Burke to Malta, Mamberti to Apostolic Signatura", 8 November 2014
  44. ^ Pope demotes outspoken American conservative cardinal
  45. ^ Pope Francis again demotes hard-line U.S. cardinal
  46. ^ Pope Demotes U.S. Cardinal Critical of His Reform Agenda
  47. ^ [time.com/3574166/pope-francis-demotes-cardinal-raymond-burke/ Pope Francis Demotes Outspoken Conservative Cardinal
  48. ^ American Cardinal Raymond Burke demoted by Pope Francis
  49. ^ The Pope’s Unforced Error, His demotion of Cardinal Burke, a loyal but eloquent critic, could turn out to be his greatest mistake. Page 1 The Pope’s Unforced Error, His demotion of Cardinal Burke, a loyal but eloquent critic, could turn out to be his greatest mistake. Page 2
  50. ^ Pope Francis: Epic Innovator
  51. ^ Rocca, Francis Xavier (2014-11-08). "Pope removes Cardinal Burke from Vatican post". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 2014-11-08. 
  52. ^ a b John Thavis, "Archbishop Burke says he'll continue politics-abortion campaign", Catholic News Service, November 29, 2004.
  53. ^ "St. Louis prelate says voting for candidate who backs abortion a sin", Catholic News Service, June 4, 2004.[not in citation given]
  54. ^ a b c Fox, Thomas C. (March 26, 2009). "Vatican official chides U.S. bishops on abortion". National Catholic Reporter.  (Video of the interview)
  55. ^ Fox, Thomas C. (March 26, 2009). "Burke apologizes for remarks critical of U.S. bishops". National Catholic Reporter. 
  56. ^ Luke Byrne, "Priests told: deny communion to TDs who support abortion", The Independent, February 6, 2013.
  57. ^ Cindy Wooden, "CNS STORY: U.S. archbishop at Vatican says Democrats becoming 'party of death'", Catholic News Service, September 29, 2008.
  58. ^ Kathryn Jean Lopez, "(Archbishop) Ray of Clarity", National Review, May 12, 2009.
  59. ^ Christopher Leonard, "Archbishop Blasts Sheryl Crow Appearance", The Washington Post, April 25, 2007.
  60. ^ Rocco Palmo, Burke's Plea: No Crow, Whispers in the Loggia, April 25, 2007.
  61. ^ a b "Archbishop says Majerus should be disciplined", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 22, 2008.[dead link]
  62. ^ Thomas C. Fox, "Community supports ousted nun", National Catholic Reporter, July 2, 2008.
  63. ^ Joan Barthel, "Involved laity and determined pastor rebuild St. Louis parish", National Catholic Reporter, February 15, 2012.
  64. ^ Cindy Wooden, "Vatican officials say bad Masses lead to weak faith", Catholic News Service, March 3, 2011.
  65. ^ "Bad Mass = Weak Faith", National Catholic Register.[dead link]
  66. ^ Cindy Wooden, "Cardinals: liturgical abuse weakens the faith", The Catholic Herald (UK), March 3, 2011.
  67. ^ Marianne Medlin, "Cardinal Burke: suffering does not rid life of purpose", Catholic News Agency, July 25, 2011.
  68. ^ Francis X. Rocca, "Cardinal Burke optimistic on reconciliation with SSPX", Catholic News Service, June 15, 2012.
  69. ^ a b Francis X. Rocca, "For Cardinal Burke, restoring tradition is a work in progress", Catholic News Service, July 06 2012.
  70. ^ "Cardinal Burke: Vatican II betrayed by breakdown of church discipline", Catholic New Service, October 25, 2012.
  71. ^ Daniel Distant, "Cardinal Raymond Burke Replaced by Pope Francis: Conservatives Out, Moderates In", The Christian Post, December 18, 2013.
  72. ^ Raymond Leo Burke, "The Pope’s radical call to the new evangelization", L’Osservatore Romano, February 21, 2014.
  73. ^ Edward Pentin, "Cardinal Burke Praises Pope Francis' Efforts to Re-Christianize the West", National Catholic Register, February 25, 2014.
  74. ^ Blumberg, Antonia, "Cardinal Raymond Burke Takes Break From Vatican Synod To Say Ugly Things About Gay Relationships", The Huffington Post, October 14, 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
  75. ^ "Catholic Synod: Cardinal 'demoted' by Pope Francis". BBC. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  76. ^ huffingtonpost.com, 2014/10/10.
  77. ^ gaystarnews.com
  78. ^ lifesitenews.com
  79. ^ rte.ie
  80. ^ buzzfeed.com

External links[edit]

Episcopal succession[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
John Joseph Paul
Roman Catholic Bishop of La Crosse
1994–2003
Succeeded by
Jerome Edward Listecki
Preceded by
Justin Francis Rigali
Roman Catholic Archbishop of St. Louis
2004–2008
Succeeded by
Robert James Carlson
Preceded by
Agostino Vallini
Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
2008–2014
Succeeded by
Dominique Mamberti
Preceded by
Paolo Sardi
Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
2014–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Tomáš Špidlík SJ
Cardinal-Deacon of Sant’Agata de’ Goti
2010–present