Raymond Leo Burke
Raymond Leo Burke
|Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura|
|Appointed||June 27, 2008|
|Other posts||Cardinal-Deacon of S. Agata de’ Goti|
|Ordination||June 29, 1975
by Pope Paul VI
|Consecration||January 6, 1995
by Pope John Paul II
|Created Cardinal||November 20, 2010
by Pope Benedict XVI
June 30, 1948 |
Richland Center, Wisconsin
|Parents||Thomas and Marie Burke|
|Alma mater||Holy Cross Seminary
The Catholic University of America
North American College
|Motto||secundum cor tuum
(After your own heart)
|Coat of arms|
|Ordination history of Raymond Leo Burke|
|Ordained by||Pope Paul VI|
|Date of ordination||29 June 1975|
|Principal consecrator||Pope John Paul II|
|Co-consecrators||Giovanni Battista Re (Subst. Gen. Aff.)
Jorge María Card. Mejía (Sec. Cong. Epis. & Sec. Coll. Card.)
|Date of consecration||January 6, 1995|
|Bishops consecrated by Raymond Leo Burke as principal consecrator|
|Robert Finn||May 3, 2004|
|Philip Tartaglia||November 20, 2005|
|James Vann Johnston, Jr.||March 31, 2008|
Raymond Leo Burke (born June 30, 1948) is an American cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the current Cardinal Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, having previously served as Archbishop of St. Louis (2003–2008) and Bishop of La Crosse (1994–2003). The cardinal is also a prominent canon lawyer and is often perceived as a voice of conservatism in the Roman Catholic Church and within American politics.
- 1 Background
- 2 Priestly ministry
- 3 Episcopal ministry
- 4 Elevation to the College of Cardinals and later roles
- 5 Notable actions and statements
- 5.1 Politics, politicians, and abortion
- 5.2 Sheryl Crow concert
- 5.3 Saint Louis University staff
- 5.4 Ordination of women
- 5.5 Violations of liturgical norms
- 5.6 End-of-life palliative care and euthanasia
- 5.7 SSPX reintegration
- 5.8 Tridentine Mass
- 5.9 Antinomianism
- 5.10 Pope Francis's statements about abortion and marriage
- 6 Selected works
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Burke was born on June 30, 1948, in Richland Center, Wisconsin, the youngest of the six children of Thomas (died July 21, 1956) and Marie (died February 29, 1996) Burke. The family later moved to Stratford, Wisconsin. From 1962 to 1968, he attended Holy Cross Seminary in La Crosse, Wisconsin. From 1968 to 1971, he studied at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. as a Basselin scholar and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1970 and a Master of Arts degree in 1971, both in philosophy. He completed studies for the priesthood at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome between 1971 and 1975, receiving a Bachelor of Sacred Theology degree and a Master of Arts, degree. Pope Paul VI ordained Burke to the priesthood on June 29, 1975, at Saint Peter's Basilica.
After his ordination to the priesthood Burke was assigned as assistant rector of the Cathedral of St. Joseph the Workman in La Crosse, Wisconsin. He also taught religion at Aquinas High School in La Crosse (where Bishop Burke Hall was named in his honor in 1997). From 1980 to 1984, Burke studied canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, where he received a license in canon law in 1982 and a doctorate in canon law in 1984. He then returned to La Crosse where he was named the Moderator of the Curia and Vice Chancellor of the La Crosse Diocese. In 1989, Pope John Paul II named Burke the first American Defender of the Bond of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the highest ecclesiastical court official in the Catholic Church, apart from the Pope.
Bishop of La Crosse
On December 10, 1994, Pope John Paul II named Burke Bishop of La Crosse, consecrating him to the episcopate on January 6, 1995, in St. Peter's Basilica. Burke took possession of the See of La Crosse on February 22, 1995.
In 2000 Burke convened the fifth diocesan synod for the Diocese of La Crosse, which resulted in the publication of Synod V, acts : celebrated June 11–14, 2000 in 2003. He was also named a Knight Commander with Star of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre in 1997 and received the Canon Law Society of America's Role of Law award in 2000. In 2002, Burke was influential in founding the Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem, an order of Augustinian canons dedicated to the traditional form of the liturgy.
During his tenure as Bishop of La Crosse, Burke constructed a shrine dedicated to Our Lady of Guadalupe, patroness of the Americas. The archbishop also installed a shrine to the Sacred Heart in the diocesan cathedral, reflecting his desire to encourage spiritual devotions.
Some priests in the Diocese of La Crosse have claimed that Burke's leadership there was divisive. The construction of the shrine, the diocese's withdrawal from Church World Service's annual Crop Walk, and his welcoming of fringe religious orders alienated some priests and laity.
Archbishop of St. Louis
On December 2, 2003, Burke was named Archbishop of St. Louis, succeeding Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali (who had been appointed Archbishop of Philadelphia). He was installed on January 26, 2004 and was presented with the pallium on June 29, 2004 by Pope John Paul II. In St. Louis, Burke emphasized the promotion of vocations to the priesthood. He also published a column in the archdiocesan weekly newspaper, the Saint Louis Review. In both La Crosse and St. Louis, Burke established oratories for those who attend the Tridentine Rite. He invited traditional Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priests into his dioceses and ordained priests for the group both in the U.S. and abroad. His ordination of two traditionalist priests on June 15, 2007, was the first time in 40 years that the Tridentine rite of ordination had been used in the cathedral. In July 2006, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Burke to the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, the highest court in the Catholic Church. When an amendment to the Missouri Constitution that allows embryonic stem cell research was passed, he issued a statement opposing it.
On May 6, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI named Burke to two Vatican offices. He was named a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, which authentically interprets Canon Law, and also became a member of the Congregation for the Clergy, which regulates the formation and training of diocesan priests and deacons.
Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura
Raymond Leo Burke
|Reference style||His Eminence|
|Spoken style||Your Eminence|
On June 27, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Burke Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura. The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura exercises final appellate jurisdiction for conflicts between two or more Vatican congregations and appeals of administrative decisions by diocesan bishops and Vatican congregations. Burke was the first non-European named to head the tribunal and became the second-highest ranking American prelate at the Vatican after Cardinal William Levada, the prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
His farewell Mass in the Archdiocese of St. Louis, held in the Cathedral Basilica of Saint Louis on August 17, 2008, was concelebrated by Bishops George Joseph Lucas, Robert Joseph Hermann, John Joseph Leibrecht, John R. Gaydos, Robert W. Finn, Raymond James Boland, and Kevin William Vann.
On May 6, 2008, Burke was appointed a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts, which authentically interprets canon law, and of the Congregation for the Clergy, which regulates the formation and training of diocesan priests and deacons; on October 17, 2009, of the Congregation for Bishops, the curial body that oversees the appointment of most Latin Church bishops outside mission territories; on July 6, 2010, of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; on July 24, 2010, of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints; and on January 29, 2011, of the Council of Cardinals and Bishops of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State. On October 7, 2008, Burke was appointed President of the Commission for Advocates, which is responsible for admitting the world's qualified canon lawyers to a registry of those who may practice in the Vatican's courts, a sort of bar association.
On March 11, 2010, in the wake of the sexual abuse scandal that had come to light in Europe, Burke said that the Vatican needed to design a set of guidelines based in canon law that would guide bishops and tribunals worldwide in determining how to report the cases to the Holy See. Revisions would also be made to a policy formulated by Benedict that provided for high levels of secrecy in the process.
Elevation to the College of Cardinals and later roles
On November 20, 2010, Pope Benedict XVI elevated Burke to the cardinalate, as Cardinal-Deacon of Sant'Agata dei Goti, making Burke the fifth archbishop of St. Louis to become a member of the College of Cardinals. In honor of Burke, St. Louis Archbishop Robert James Carlson created a Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke Chair in Canon Law at St. Louis's Kenrick-Glennon Seminary.
Notable actions and statements
Politics, politicians, and abortion
During the 2004 presidential election, Burke stated that he would not give the Eucharist to John Kerry or other Catholic politicians who publicly support legalized abortion. He also wrote a pastoral letter saying Catholics should not vote for politicians who support abortion or other "anti-life" practices. Burke later clarified his position, stating that one could vote for a pro-choice politician and not commit a mortal sin, if one believed there was a more significant moral issue than abortion at hand, but he also stated that he could not think of any sort of issue that would qualify.
In March 2009, Burke called on American bishops to withhold Communion from Catholic politicians who support legalized abortion. The bishops' failure to do so, Burke said, "is weakening the faith of everyone. It's giving the impression that it must be morally correct to support procured abortion." He also said that any president who promotes and implements "anti-life" legislation could be an "agent of death". Burke later said that he made his remarks not as Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, head of the Vatican's highest court, but simply as an American bishop.
In a September 2008 interview, Burke said that "the Democratic Party risks transforming itself definitively into a 'party of death,' because of its choices on bioethical questions", especially elective abortion.
In May 2009, he stated, "Since President Obama clearly announced, during the election campaign, his anti-life and anti-family agenda, a Catholic who knew his agenda regarding, for example, procured abortion, embryonic-stem-cell research, and same-sex marriage, could not have voted for him with a clear conscience."
Sheryl Crow concert
When Sheryl Crow, an abortion rights supporter, was scheduled to perform at a benefit concert for the Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, Burke stated that to have the hospital host Crow would give "the impression that the Church is somehow inconsistent in its teaching." He asked that her invitation be privately removed, and resigned from the board on April 25, 2007 when Crow's performance was confirmed.
Saint Louis University staff
In 2008, Burke urged Saint Louis University to take disciplinary action against its head basketball coach, Rick Majerus, after Majerus publicly supported abortion and embryonic stem cell research at a campaign event for Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton. Burke stated that "When you take a position in a Catholic university, you don't have to embrace everything the Catholic Church teaches. But you can't make statements which call into question the identity and mission of the Catholic Church." St. Louis University supported Majerus's right to publicly expound on his own personal views when made at an event he did not attend as a university representative.
Ordination of women
In June 2008, Burke applied an interdict, which excludes a person from church ministries and the sacraments, to a Sister of Charity, Louise Lears, judging her guilty of three grave canonical offenses against the Catholic Church's faith and teachings. Lears, a pastoral worker and educator, had publicly stated her belief that all of the church's ministries, including the priesthood, should be open to women. Lears received the interdict after attending an attempted ordination of a woman to the Catholic priesthood at a Jewish synagogue by the WomenPriests movement.
Violations of liturgical norms
On March 2, 2011 Burke declared that liturgical abuses damage the faith of Catholics: "If we err by thinking we are the center of the liturgy, the Mass will lead to a loss of faith. Unfortunately, too many priests and bishops treat violations of liturgical norms as something that is unimportant, when, in fact, they are serious abuses."
End-of-life palliative care and euthanasia
At a July 23, 2011 conference on end-of-life care sponsored by the St. Gianna Physician's Guild, Burke said that suffering does not cause a person to have less meaning in his life, nor does it give the government the right to decide if that person should live or die: "No matter how much a life is diminished, no matter what suffering the person is undergoing, that life demands the greatest respect and care. It's never right to snuff out a life because it's in some way under heavy burden."
In a July 2007 apostolic letter "Summorum Pontificum", Pope Benedict XVI authorized wider use of the older Tridentine Mass. Restoration of some parts of the traditional Mass has been supported by Burke as part of a "reform of the reform", modifying what he sees as deficiencies of the liturgy introduced under Pope Paul VI.
The 2012 Synod of Bishops meeting focused on "The New Evangelization". In written comments to the synod, Burke criticized "antinomianism"- the belief that grace exempts Christians from obedience to moral law, stating that it is "among the most serious wounds of society today," and is responsible for the legalization of "intrinsically evil" actions such as abortion, embryonic stem-cell research, euthanasia, and same-sex marriage.
Pope Francis's statements about abortion and marriage
Shortly after Pope Francis removed Cardinal Burke from the Congregation of Bishops, Burke stated, "One gets the impression, or it's interpreted this way in the media, that he thinks we're talking too much about abortion, too much about the integrity of marriage as between one man and one woman", Burke said about the Pope's statements. "But we can never talk enough about that."
Burke has denied media perceptions that the Pope planned to change the Church's teaching on moral issues. The cardinal said persons "hardened against the truth" would claim that the Pope wants to change church teachings that today's secularized culture rejects. The cardinal also said their "false praise" mocks the fact that Francis is the Successor of Peter and that the Pope "rejects the acceptance and praise of the world".
- Lack of discretion of judgment because of schizophrenia: doctrine and recent rotal jurisprudence, Doctoral Dissertation, (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1986). See also "Defectus discretionis iudicii propter schizophreniam: Doctrina et recens iurisprudentia," Periodica, 73 (1984): 555–570; and "Lack of Discretion of Judgment: Canonical Doctrine and Legislation," in The Jurist, 45 (1985): 171–209.
- "Canon 1095, 1° and 2°," in Incapacity for marriage: Jurisprudence and Interpretation, Acts of the III Gregorian Collguium, Robert M. Sable, coordinator and editor (Rome: Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1987).
- "La procedura amministrativa per la dichiarazione di nullità del matrimonio," in I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico, Studi giuridici 27 (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1992), 93–105.
- "Il processo di dispensa dal matrimonio rato e non consummato: la grazia pontificia e la sua natura," in I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico, Studi giuridici 27 (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1992), 135–144.
- "The Application of Canon 1095 and sacramental-pastoral activity concerning marriage," in Ius in vita et in missione Ecclesiæ, Acta Symposii internationalis iuris canonici occurrente X anniversario promulgationis Codicis iuris canonici diebus 19–24 aprilis 1993 in Civitate Vaticana celebrati, Pontificia Concilium de legum textibus interpretandis (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1994), 1095–1102.
- "The Distinction of Personnel in Hierarchically Related Tribunals," in Studia canonica, 28 (1994): 85–98.
- "Canon 1421: The Nullity of a Decision by a Single Lay Judge,"  in Arthur J. Espelage, OFM (ed.), CLSA Advisory Opinions 1994–2000 (Washington, DC: CLSA, 2002), 451–452.
- "Canons 1421–1422 and 1435–1436: The Exercise of the Office of Judge or Defender of the Bond by a Priest on Leave of Absence from Priestly Ministry," [1995, co-authored with Joseph R. Punderson] in Arthur J. Espelage, OFM (ed.), CLSA Advisory Opinions 1994–2000 (Washington, DC: CLSA, 2002), 453–454.
- "La "confessio iudicialis" e le dichiarizioni giudiziali delle parti," in I mezzi di prova nelle cause matrimoniali secondo la giurisprudenza rotale, Studi Giuridici XXXVIII (Vatican City: Libreria editrice Vaticana, 1995), 15–30.
- "Commentary on the July 12, 1993, Decree of the Apostolic Signatura relating to the qualifications of advocates," in Canadian Canon Law Society Newsletter, 21 (1996): 9–13; for Spanish translation see: "Abogados, uniones matrimoniales irregulares y causas de nulidad matrimonial: Texto y comentario de una Respuesta de Tribunal Supremo de la Signatura Apostolica," in REDC, 51 (1994): 639–645.
- "Canon Law at the Service of the New Evangelization," given on the occasion of receiving the Role of Law Award from the Canon Law Society of America, in Canon Law Society of America Proceedings, 62 (2000): 497–500; introductory remarks of gratitude, 495–496.
- "On Our Civic Responsibility for the Common Good," (Saint Louis: Archdiocese of Saint Louis, 2004).
- "Canon 915: The Discipline Regarding the Denial of Holy Communion to Those Obstinately Persevering in Manifest Grave Sin," in Periodica, 96 (2007): 3–58.
- Divine Love Made Flesh: The Holy Eucharist as the Sacrament of Charity. San Diego: Catholic Action. 2012. ISBN 978-0981631424.
- List of the Catholic bishops of the United States#American bishops serving outside the United States
- St. Louis Archdiocese website. Retrieved Dec 18, 2010
- Canon 349 mentions "The cardinals of the Holy Roman Church...".
- Archdiocese of St. Louis – Archbishop Raymond Leo Burke
- Mission & History-Aquinas High School
- Catholic Hierarchy.org. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke. Accessed February 12, 2013.
- Synod V, acts : celebrated June 11–14, 2000. La Crosse, Wis.: Diocese of La Crosse, 2003.
- Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem
- Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Raymond Leo Cardinal Burke
- "Return to Beauty": Shrine could bring international spotlight to La Crosse, La Crosse Tribune, December 9, 2007.[dead link]
- "Archbishop dedicates shrine's Rosary Walk", La Crosse Tribune, December 9, 2007.[dead link]
- Andrew Rabel, "The Overseer of Justice", Inside the Vatican Magazine.
- Welcome to the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe[dead link]
- Gay, Malcolm (August 25, 2004). "Bishop Takes Queen". The Riverfront Times.
- "Burke named archbishop of St. Louis", La Crosse Tribune.[dead link]
- "Bishop Burke doesn't mind ‘taking the heat'", La Crosse Tribune.[dead link]
- "Burke bids farewell", La Crosse Tribune.[dead link]
- "Activist reputation precedes Burke", La Crosse Tribune.[dead link]
- http://www.institute-christ-king.org/documents/Jul07Newsletter.pdf[dead link]
- "St. Louis archbishop, others tapped for Vatican's supreme court", Catholic Online[dead link]
- "Ave Maria University confers first honorary degrees", May 11, 2005.[dead link]
- "Archbishop Burke and College Founders Honored at 30th Anniversary Convocation", September 21, 2007.[dead link]
- Press Office of the Holy See
- "Archbishop bids emotional farewell to St. Louis faithful" St. Louis Review, August 18, 2008.
- [dead link]
- James Martin, "Archbishop Burke Named to Congregation of Bishops" America, October 19, 2009.
- Press Office of the Holy See[dead link]
- NOMINA DI MEMBRI DELLA CONGREGAZIONE DELLE CAUSE DEI SANTI[dead link]
- Nomina di membri del Consiglio di Cardinali e Vescovi della Sezione per i Rapporti con gli Stati della Segreteria di Stato[dead link]
- "Archbishop Burke appointed to head Vatican’s ‘bar association’" Catholic News Agency, October 8, 2008.
- John Thavis, "Vatican defends efforts by pope, church to curb sex abuse by priests", Catholic News Service, March 14, 2010.
- Jennifer Brinker, "Kenrick-Glennon Seminary canon law chair established in Cardinal Burke's name", St. Louis Review, November 21, 2010.
- "Cardinals Take Possession Of Diaconate, Titular Churches", EWTN News, February 1, 2011.
- Franciscan University of Steubenville Office of Public Relations. "Commencement Speakers Call Graduates to Holiness", May 26, 2011.
- Holy See Press Office. "XIII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, 7-28 OCTOBER 2012".
- "Pope Francis removes former La Crosse Bishop Raymond Burke", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, December 16, 2013.
- Jim Yardley and Jason Horowitz, "Pope Replaces Conservative U.S. Cardinal on Influential Vatican Committee'", New York Times, December 16, 2013.
- John Thavis, "Archbishop Burke says he'll continue politics-abortion campaign", Catholic News Service, November 29, 2004.
- "St. Louis prelate says voting for candidate who backs abortion a sin", Catholic News Service, June 4, 2004.[not in citation given]
- Fox, Thomas C. (March 26, 2009). "Vatican official chides U.S. bishops on abortion". National Catholic Reporter. (Video of the interview)
- Fox, Thomas C. (March 26, 2009). "Burke apologizes for remarks critical of U.S. bishops". National Catholic Reporter.
- Luke Byrne, "Priests told: deny communion to TDs who support abortion", The Independent, February 6, 2013.
- Cindy Wooden, "CNS STORY: U.S. archbishop at Vatican says Democrats becoming 'party of death'", Catholic News Service, September 29, 2008.
- Kathryn Jean Lopez, "(Archbishop) Ray of Clarity", National Review, May 12, 2009.
- Christopher Leonard, "Archbishop Blasts Sheryl Crow Appearance", The Washington Post, April 25, 2007.
- Rocco Palmo, Burke's Plea: No Crow, Whispers in the Loggia, April 25, 2007.
- "Archbishop says Majerus should be disciplined", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 22, 2008.[dead link]
- Thomas C. Fox, "Community supports ousted nun", National Catholic Reporter, July 2, 2008.
- Joan Barthel, "Involved laity and determined pastor rebuild St. Louis parish", National Catholic Reporter, February 15, 2012.
- Cindy Wooden, "Vatican officials say bad Masses lead to weak faith", Catholic News Service, March 3, 2011.
- "Bad Mass = Weak Faith", National Catholic Register.[dead link]
- Cindy Wooden, "Cardinals: liturgical abuse weakens the faith", The Catholic Herald (UK), March 3, 2011.
- Marianne Medlin, "Cardinal Burke: suffering does not rid life of purpose", Catholic News Agency, July 25, 2011.
- Francis X. Rocca, "Cardinal Burke optimistic on reconciliation with SSPX", Catholic News Service, June 15, 2012.
- Francis X. Rocca, "For Cardinal Burke, restoring tradition is a work in progress", Catholic News Service, July 06 2012.
- "Cardinal Burke: Vatican II betrayed by breakdown of church discipline", Catholic New Service, October 25, 2012.
- Daniel Distant, "Cardinal Raymond Burke Replaced by Pope Francis: Conservatives Out, Moderates In", The Christian Post, December 18, 2013.
- Raymond Leo Burke, "The Pope’s radical call to the new evangelization", L’Osservatore Romano, February 21, 2014.
- Edward Pentin, "Cardinal Burke Praises Pope Francis' Efforts to Re-Christianize the West", National Catholic Register, February 25, 2014.
|Catholic Church titles|
John Joseph Paul
|Roman Catholic Bishop of La Crosse
Jerome Edward Listecki
Justin Francis Rigali
|Roman Catholic Archbishop of St. Louis
Robert James Carlson
|Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Tomáš Špidlík SJ
|Cardinal-Deacon of Sant’Agata de’ Goti