|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2007)|
Raziyya al-Din (1205 – October 13, 1240), throne name Jalâlat ud-Dîn Raziyâ (Perso-Arabic:جلاله الد دین رضیه), Hindi: जलालत उद-दीन रज़िया), usually referred to in history as Razia Sultan, was born in Budaun and was the Sultan of Delhi in India from 1236 to May 1240. Like some other Muslim princesses of the time, she was trained to lead armies and administer kingdoms if necessary. Razia Sultana was the only woman ruler of both the Sultanate and the Mughal period, although other women ruled from behind the scenes. Razia refused to be addressed as Sultana because it meant "wife or mistress of a sultan". She would answer only to the title "Sultan." In many people's opinions Razia had all the qualities of a great monarch.
- 1 Reign as Sultan and Death
- 2 Legacy
- 3 Controversy regarding Razia's Grave
- 4 In popular culture
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Literature
Reign as Sultan and Death
Razia (also called Radiyya or Raziyya) succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated his daughter Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and last women ruler of Delhi Sultanate. (According to one source, Iltumish's eldest son had initially been groomed as his successor, but had died prematurely.) But the Muslim nobility had no intention of acceding to Iltutmish's appointment of a woman as heir, and after the sultan died on April 29, 1236, Razia's brother, Rukn ud din Firuz, was elevated to the throne instead.
Ruknuddin's reign was short. With Iltutmish's widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Ruknuddin abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Ruknuddin and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated after only six months in power.
With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultan of Delhi. She dressed like a man and sat in open durbar. She was an efficient ruler and possessed all the qualities of a Monarch. As a child and adolescent, Razia had little contact with the women of the harem, so she had not learnt the customary behavior of women in the Muslim society that she was born into. Even before she became Sultan, she was reportedly preoccupied with the affairs of state during her father's reign. As Sultan, Razia preferred a man's tunic and headdress; and contrary to custom, she would later show her face when she rode an elephant into battle at the head of her army.
A shrewd politician, Razia managed to keep the nobles in check, while enlisting the support of the army and the populace. Her greatest accomplishment on the political front was to manipulate rebel factions into opposing each other. At that point, Razia seemed destined to become one of the most powerful rulers of the Delhi Sultanate.
But Razia miscounted the consequences that a relationship with one of her advisers, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, an Abyssinian Siddi (Habshi) slave, would have for her reign. According to some accounts, Razia and Yaqut were lovers, other sources simply identify them as close confidants. In any case, before long she had aroused the jealousy of the Turkic nobility by the favoritism she displayed toward Yaqut, who was not a Turk, when she appointed him to be Superintendent of the Stables. Eventually, a childhood friend named Malik Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda, joined a rebellion by other provincial governors who refused to accept Razia's authority.
A battle between Razia and Altunia ensued, with the result that Yaqut was killed and Razia taken prisoner. She was incarcerated in April, 1240 at Qila Mubarak at Bathinda. While in prison Razia Sultan was allowed to go to Hajirattan mosque to offer prayers on Fridays in a special palki. She was released in August, 1240. To escape death, Razia agreed to marry Altunia. Meanwhile, Razia's brother, Muizuddin Bahram Shah, had usurped the throne. After Altunia and Razia undertook to take back the sultanate from Bahram through battle, both Razia and her husband were defeated on 24th of Rabi' al-awwal A.H. 638 (Oct. 1240). Thus Raziya’s reign was followed by Bahram Shah (1240-42). Then they fled Delhi and reached Kaithal the next day, where their remaining forces abandoned them. They both fell into the hands of Jats and were robbed and killed on 25th of Rabi' al-awwal A.H. 638, this date corresponds to October 13, 1240. Bahram, for his part, would later be dethroned for incompetence.
Razia is said to have pointed out that the spirit of religion was more important than its parts, and that even the Islamic prophet Muhammad spoke against overburdening the non-Muslims. On another occasion, she reportedly tried to appoint an Indian Muslim convert from Hinduism to an official position but again ran into opposition from the nobles.
Razia was reportedly devoted to the cause of her empire and to her subjects. There is no record that she made any attempt to remain aloof from her subjects, rather it appears she preferred to mingle among them.
Razia established schools, academies, centers for research, and public libraries that included the works of ancient philosophers along with the Qur'an and the traditions of Muhammad. Hindu works in the sciences, philosophy, astronomy, and literature were reportedly studied in schools and colleges.
Controversy regarding Razia's Grave
There are conflicting accounts regarding her actual site of grave. There are at least three claims regarding her grave site. This is compounded by the fact that none of the 3 grave sites has any epitaph (inscription) on tombstone in memory of the one buried there. So far there are no archaeological or documentary evidences to confirm the site of her grave. The dispute is whether she was buried in Kaithal or Delhi or Tonk, and also where were Altunia and Yakut buried.
Claim regarding Razia's Grave at Old Delhi
First claim is that Razia's grave lies among the narrow lanes of Old Delhi that is in a courtyard in Bulbul-i-khana, Shahjahanabad, near the Turkman Gate entrance. Crumbling and covered by dust and grime, the grave has clearly suffered the ravages of time. The grave is surrounded on all sides by unattractive residential buildings not yet given over to INTACH for demolition and gentrification purposes. In the 13th century, the site of the tomb was a jungle, and no one knows how Razia's body ended up where it lies today. A second grave, believed to be that of her brother, Rukn ud din Firuz, accompanies Razia's. Some of the Muslim residents of the neighborhood have turned a part of the tomb into a mosque, where prayers are conducted five times each day.
Claim regarding Razia's Grave at Siwan near Kaithal in Haryana
Second claim is that the tomb of Razia is situated in Siwan near Kaithal city, Haryana state. The tomb lies in the north-western suburbs of the city where, a few years back, a jail was erected by the present administration. A newsletter of the Haryana chapter of Intach-Virasat says “ Restoration of Razia Sultan’s tomb at Kaithal and its beautification was prepared by HUDA engineers at an estimated cost of Rs. 52.85 lakhs. The absence of response from the Waqf Board that had been approached for release of funds was noted, and the Haryana chapter now proposes to approach some corporate sector companies.”. Given the controversy surrounding her grave site, it is possible that she may have been initially interred at Kaithal and then later at Delhi but this remains purely a speculation with no evidence of any kind.
Claim regarding Razia's Grave at Tonk in Rajasthan
Third and more recent claim that she and her African slave paramour are buried at Tonk in Rajasthan where her father Iltumish had laid a siege The controversy and re-examination of historical facts arose after Sayed Sadique Ali, an Urdu lecturer at the local government post-graduate college claimed that the graves at the site are that of Razia and her trusted slave, Yaqut. He based his findings on the calligraphic Arabic script deciphered by the pattern of stones of irregular shapes affixed around the graves. The stones convey a particular message which, according to him, is: "Shahide Muhabbat Quvvatul-Mulk Jamaluddin Yaqut" around the smaller grave, and on the main grave, situated at a higher level, it reads: "Sultanul Hind Razia."
In popular culture
Being the first female monarch of the Delhi Sultanate, Razia Sultan has been the subject of many legends. A piece of historical fiction entitled 'Razia: Queen of India' based on the Sultana's life written by Rafiq Zakaria in 2000. The Sultana also has her own title in the Indian comic book series, Amar Chitra Katha. In 1961 Devendra Goel directed a film named Razia Sultana, starring Nirupa Roy and Paidi Jairaj. More recently, she was the subject of Razia Sultan, a 1983 urdu film, written and directed by Kamal Amrohi, starring Hema Malini as Razia and Dharmendra as Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut.
Razia Sultana also features in an online comic strip entitled "Razia Sultan" by Halima Voyles. In the comic, Razia features as a female sultan dealing with the disgruntled Turkish nobility and courts, the disapprobation of her brothers Rukn and Muiz, her sister Shazia and her love struck childhood friend Altunia.
- List of Indian monarchs
- List of women warriors in folklore
- Women in post-classical warfare
- Great Lives
- Timeline of the Turkic peoples (500–1300)
- List of state leaders in 1236
- Women in Islam
- Gloria Steinem (Introduction), Herstory: Women Who Changed the World, eds. Deborah G. Ohrn and Ruth Ashby, Viking, (1995) p. 34-36. ISBN 978-0sex670854349[dead link]
- Table of Delhi Kings: Muazzi Slave King The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 368..
- Satish Chandra, History of Medieval India(800–1700), New Delhi, Orient Longman, (2007), p.100. ISBN 81-250-3226-6
- Dr. Richard Pankhurst, "Ethiopia Across the Red Sea and Indian Ocean", Addis Ababa, Addis Tribune, (21 May 1999)
- "Raziya Sultan".
- Razia Sultan The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, 1867–1877.
- Conversion of Islamic and Christian dates
- Razia Sultan’s Tomb – Delhi live
- "Unwritten epitaph : HERITAGE – India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
- Jamila Brijbhushan, Sultan Raziya, Her Life and Times: A Reappraisal, South Asia Books (1990) ISBN 81-85425-09-4
- Rafiq Zakaria, Razia, Queen of India, Oxford University Press (1966)
Rukn ud din Firuz
Muiz ud din Bahram
Rukn ud din Firuz
|Sultan of Delhi
Muiz ud din Bahram