Reșița

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Reșița

Reșița downtown and distant view of Govândari neighborhood.    Panoramic view with the newest part of the city or Govândari.
Reșița downtown and distant view of Govândari neighborhood.

Panoramic view with the newest part of the city or Govândari.
Coat of arms of Reșița
Coat of arms
Location of Reșița
Location of Reșița
Coordinates: 45°18′0″N 21°53′25″E / 45.30000°N 21.89028°E / 45.30000; 21.89028Coordinates: 45°18′0″N 21°53′25″E / 45.30000°N 21.89028°E / 45.30000; 21.89028
Country  Romania
County Caraș-Severin County
Status County capital
Government
 • Mayor Mihai Stepanescu (Ind.)
Population (2011)
 • Total 65,509
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website http://www.primaria-resita.ro/

Reșița (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈreʃit͡sa]; German: Reschitz; Croatian: Ričica; Serbian: Решица/Rešica; Hungarian: Resicabánya; Czech: Rešice) is a city in western Romania and the capital of Caraș-Severin County, in the Banat region. Its 2004 population was 83,985.

Etymology[edit]

The name of Reșița might come from the Latin recitia, meaning "cold spring", as the historian Nicolae Iorga once suggested, presuming that the Romans gave this name to Resita, from a water spring on the Doman valley. A much more plausibile version, according to Iorgu Iordan, would be that the name is actually coming from a Slavic word: people living in the neighbouring village of Carașova 15 km away, referring to this place, that in those days was a similar village to theirs, as being „u rečice” (at the creek). It can also be noted that almost all Slavic countries have places with the name of Rečice (pronounced Recițe in Romanian).[1]

History[edit]

Historically, the town has its origins in the 15th century under the name of Rechyoka and Rechycha. Archaeological research found traces of habitation going back to the Neolithic, Dacian and Roman eras. It was mentioned in 1673 under the name of Reszinitza, whose citizens paid taxes to Timişoara, and by the years 1690–1700, it was mentioned as being part of the District of Bocșa together with other towns in the Bârzava Valley. The town was referenced to in the conscription acts of 1717 under the name of Retziza. On 3 July 1771, it became an important metal-manufacturing center in the region. The foundation of the industrial Reșița were laid with the establishment of factories near the villages of Reșița Română (Reschiza Kamerală or Oláh Resitza) and Reșița Montană (Eisenwerk Reschitza, Német(h) Reschitza or Resiczbánya). Reșița Montană was at first inhabited by Romanians[dubious ][need quotation to verify], and later, in 1776, 70 German families settled there. Between 1880 and 1941, Germans were the dominant population in the city, with as many of them as 12,096 residing here in 1941, as opposed to 9,453 Romanians, and 1861 Hungarians living here in the same year. Between the years 1910–1925, Reșița had the status of a rural area, and in 1925, it was declared a town thanks to its development to a powerful industrial location in modern Romania. In 1968, it became a municipality.

After 1989 Reșița lost most of its importance and its economy faced a drawback, along with the Romanian economy. The population also suffered a decrease, dropping from 110,000 in 1989 to 86,000 in 2006. After the fall of communism, the Reșița Steelworks (Combinatul Siderurgic Reșița, CSR) were bought by an American investor who brought the factory just one step away from bankruptcy. Today the steelworks are run by TMK Europe GmbH, a German subsidiary of the OAO TMK, Moscow, who has projects of modernization for the CSR. Still, it is believed[by whom?] that CSR will never again reach the status it had in the communist era.

The city[edit]

The city is situated around the flow of the Bârzava river that runs through all the city and collects the Doman river, in the centre of the city. The shape of the city is imitating the shape of the Bârzava river amongst the hills, while only few buildings are erected on the hills, mostly houses.

It is made of three main areas, two former villages that were very close: Romanian Reşiţa (Romanian: Reşiţa Română or Olah Resitza) and Highland Reşiţa (Romanian: Reşiţa Montană, Eisenwerk Reschitza or Nemet Reschitza); a new area, recently built, made of tower blocks on a wide opened meadow, called Bârzava's Meadow.[2]

Neighbourhoods of Reşiţa
Neighbourhood
name
Official name Former name Occasional name Additional name
New City Bârzava's Meadow New Reşiţa North Reşiţa Govândari
entirely built after 1965, under the Communist Romania, it contains 4 zone areas around a main boulevard, called microraions, a legacy term of the former Soviet Union:
  • Micro I
  • Micro II
  • Micro III
  • Micro IV
Downtown City Centre Romanian Reşiţa South Reşiţa N/A
rebuilt after the installment of the Socialist Romania in 1947,[2] it contains the following zone areas:
  • Centre - Civic center, rarely City centre
  • Doman - Domanului Valley
    (Romanian: Valea Domanului)
  • Luncă - Pomost's Meadow
    (Romanian: Lunca Pomostului)
  • Moroasa made of Moroasa I and II
  • Romanian Reşiţa (Romanian: Reşiţa Română)
  • The Clear Glade Hill or The Clear Glade Colony
    (Romanian: Colonia Poiana Golului)
Old City Commuter belt
(Romanian: Muncitoresc)
Highland Reşiţa Old Reşiţa N/A
it has the oldest buildings of the city, mostly houses, and it contains the following zone areas:
  • New Driglovăț
    (Romanian: Driglovățul Nou)
  • Old Driglovăț
    (Romanian: Driglovățul Vechi)
  • Weir (Romanian: Stăvila)
  • Minda
  • Bașovăț
  • Lend, Marginea Lend or just Marginea

The Civic centre of the city has been partially renovated in 2006. An important point of attraction located in the City Centre is the impressive kinetic fountain designed by Constantin Lucaci, built in the communist era.

There are also important cultural points in Reșița that have been renewed in 2006, including the Concrete School (Şcoala de Beton), Downtown and the Polyvalent hall (Sala Polivalentă).

A locomotive museum featuring Romania's first locomotive built in Romania at Reșița, is located in Railroad yard (Romanian: Triaj) neighborhood.

An important iron and steel center, Reșița is the site of blast furnaces, iron foundries, and plants producing electrical appliances, chemicals and machinery (see Reșița works).

View of the Reșița's local factory in the early 20th century
Local factory in the early 20th century
Present time view of a small part of the Reșița Steelworks
Small part of the Reșița Steelworks
City Hall in the City Centre
City Hall in the City Centre
Museum of Highland Banat
Museum of Highland Banat
Community Centre
Community Centre

The city administers six villages: Câlnic (Kölnök), Cuptoare (Kuptore), Doman (Domány), Moniom (Monyó), Secu (Székul; Sekul) and Țerova (Krassócser).

Bocșa Ezeriș Caransebeș
Dognecea Neighbouring towns and villages Secu
Oreșe Carașova Văliug

Also, the city is a hub for leisure locations all around. Locations near Reșița include the ski resort at Semenic, Lake Gozna, Lake Secu, the Trei Ape Lake (Three Rivers Lake), Gărâna, Brebu, and Văliug.

Demographics[edit]

Census evolution:


At the last census, from 2011, there were 65,509 people living within the city of Reșița,[3] making it the 29th largest city in Romania. The ethnic makeup is as follows:

Census[4][5] Ethnic Structure
Year Population Romanians Germans Hungarians Serbians Croatians Slovaks Czechs Ukrainians Romany Other
1880 14.616 6557 5428 592 2039
1890 18.448 6876 8150 967 2455
1910 23.625 8465 10471 2814 1875
1930 19.868 5.851 10.637 2.127 36 36 191 191 797
1935 20.085
1966 55.752 39.760 9.846 4.008 289 289 239 712 610
1992 95.216 79.518 5.045 4.009 936 296 167 205 2.340
2002 84.026 74.584 2.696 3.034 580 535 102 140 2.355
2011 65.509 59,994
(90.02%)
1,323
(1.98%)
1,682
(2.52%)
365
(0.54%)
313
(0.47%)
714 1,019
(1.53%)
698
(1.06%)

Religion[edit]

Catholic Church in Reşiţa dedicated to Our Lady of the Snows.
Synagogue in Reşiţa.

According to the 1880 Austro-Hungarian census the residents were:

Today there are many of the old churches in service and new ones:

  • Orthodox cathedral
    • Adormirea Maicii D-lui (Old City)
    • Schimbarea la Faţă (Govândari)
  • Lutheran church (Old City) - build in the 19th century
  • Reformed church (Old City)
  • Eastern Catholic church (Govândari)
  • Synagogue (Old City)

Economy[edit]

The Banca Comercială Română's building in Reșița

Reșița has long been considered as the second-largest industrial center of Romania. It is an important center in manufacturing steel and vehicle manufacturing. C.S.R. (Combinatul Siderurgic Reșița) and U.C.M.R. (Uzina Constructoare de Mașini Reșița). The two are called as Reșița works and are the factories which sustained the city's life for more than 300 years. The first factories were built in 1771, during the reign of Maria Theresa. During the 19th century, the steel works were known as StEG. After the end of World War I, when Banat became part of Romania, they changed their name again, this time to Uzinele și Domeniile Reșița or UDR (Reșița Works and Domains). Only later, under the Communist regime, did the UDR split to CSR and UCMR.

The economy of Reșița has faced a drawback since 1989, but began recovering as investment is on the rise.[citation needed]

  • Industry: Automobile industry, Iron industry, texture industry, civilian constructions;
  • Agriculture: 1% of the labour force of the city works in agriculture;
  • Services: public alimentation, internal and international transport;
  • Tourism: 2 tourism societies (Tourist Semenic SA and BIRTA SA);

Shopping[edit]

Reșița currently has 6 supermarkets of which two Carrefour supermarkets, one Lidl supermarket, one Billa supermarket,one Lidl supermarket and one Kaufland near the road entrance from Bocşa. The Shopping Center of Reșița is called Nera Shopping Center located in the Centrul Civic. There are a variety of companies operating in Reșița, offering almost everything a normal consumer would need.

Transport[edit]

Public transport[edit]

The GT8 Tram used in Reșița
Boulevard crossing in downtown (2007).

Reșița's public transport relays on 6 bus lines, and is run by the Prescom company.

Buses[edit]

Reșița's bus fleet consists of about 25 buses running on 6 lines:

  • 1M/2:[6] Marginea – Minda – Mol/Mopar/Molizilor
  • 4: Moroasa II – Lend/Baraj (dam of Secu Lake) – CET – Molizilor – Moroasa II
  • 8: Intim – Moniom – Intim
  • 9: Intim – Țerova – Intim
  • 10: Nera – Doman – Nera
  • 11: P-ta Republici – Minda – Cuptoare – P-ta Republici

Reșița's bus fleet was to be upgraded sometime during 2009.

Trams[edit]

Trams have been decommissioned. As of 2008 the new mayor announced his intention to decommission all trams and replace them with modern buses complying with EU standards.

The 2 Tram Lines were Renk-Muncitoresc line (0), and Renk-Stavila line (DP) which was basically an expansion of the Renk-Muncitoresc line, but there were only 3 trams on this line. The full tram fleet was consisting of about 28 trams. The last trams were GT8 models imported from Germany, and fully replaced the former pre-89 trams in 2002.

Trains[edit]

Road transport[edit]

Reșița features a main 4 lane road that connects the neighbourhood Stavila to the neighbourhood of Calnic. This main road passes through almost all important neighbourhoods in Reșița. The rest of the neighbourhoods in Reșița are accessible via 2 lane secondary roads or single-lane roads. Roads of Reșița are usually well maintained, especially the main road, but there are occasional pot-holes on secondary roads. The road signs are usually well placed and well maintained, and traffic is usually friendly and traffic jams are a myth. Accidents are very rare and almost never lethal. Externally Reșița is connected by national roads to Caransebeș (Continued to Bucharest) and respectively Timişoara. There are also 3 county roads connecting Reșița to Oraviţa, Vama Năidaş and respectively Anina.

Notable people[edit]

Cristian Chivu during a match in 2011

Sport[edit]

Association football

Handball

Sister cities[edit]

 Canada, Moncton

 Italy, Pesaro

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Începuturile Reşiţei". istoriabanatului. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Historamic view over Resita downtown". History Pin. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2013. 
  3. ^ "Ethno-demographic Structure of Romania". The Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Center. Retrieved 2 January 2011. 
  4. ^ Țiglă, Erwin Joseph (2004) [2001]. "Resita Montana". In Konig, Waldermar. Biserici Romano-Catolice din Arhidiaconatul Montan (in română) (a doua ed.). Reșita: ColorPrint Reșita. p. 110. ISBN 973-97258-5-6. 
  5. ^ http://www.recensamantromania.ro/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/TS6.pdf
  6. ^ "Bus schedule". istoriabanatului. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 

External links[edit]