Underworld

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For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation).
Yggdrasil, a modern attempt to reconstruct the Norse world tree which connects the heavens, the world, and the underworld.
The legs of the god Vishnu as the Cosmic Man depict earth and the seven realms of the Hindu underworld of Patala. The feet rest on cosmic serpent Shesha.

The underworld or netherworld is thought to be deep underground or beneath the surface of the world in most religions and mythologies.[1] Typically it is a place where the souls of the departed go, an afterlife or a realm of the dead. Chthonic is the technical adjective for things of the underworld.

Underworlds by mythology[edit]

This list includes underworlds in various mythology, with links to corresponding articles.

Albanian mythology Ferri
Aztec mythology Mictlan
Babylonian mythology Irkalla
Buddhist mythology Naraka (also Niraya)
Celtic mythology Annwn, Mag Mell
Chinese mythology / taoism Diyu 地獄
Christian mythology Hades, Hell, Sheol, Gehenna, Tártaros, Limbo, Purgatory
Egyptian mythology Aaru, Duat, Neter-khertet, Amenti
Estonian mythology Toonela
Fijian mythology see Melanesian mythology
Finnish mythology Tuonela
Germanic Hel, Niflheim
Greek mythology
Main article: Greek underworld
Elysium, Asphodel Meadows, Hadēs, Tártaros
Guanche mythology

Echeide, Guayota

Hindu mythology Naraka or Yamaloka, Patala
Hopi mythology Maski
Hungarian mythology Alvilág
Inca mythology Uku Pacha
Inuit mythology Adlivun
Islamic mythology Jahannam, Naar, Barzakh, Araf
Jain mythology Naraka, Adho Loka (the lower world)
Japanese mythology/Shinto Yomi 黄泉, Ne-no-Kuni 根の国, Jigoku 地獄
Jewish/Hebrew mythology Sheol, Gehenna, Abaddon
Korean mythology "Ji-Ok" 지옥 地獄
Latvian mythology Aizsaule
Malay mythology Alam Ghaib (The unseen realm)
Indonesian mythology
Māori mythology Hawaiki, Rarohenga
Mapuche mythology Pellumawida, Degin, Wenuleufu, Ngullchenmaiwe
Maya mythology Metnal, Xibalba
Melanesian mythology (includes Fijian) Bulu, Burotu, Murimuria, Nabangatai, Tuma
Norse mythology Gimlé, Hel, Niflheim, Vingólf
Oromo mythology Ekera
Persian mythology Duzakh
Philippine mythology Kasanaan
Polynesian mythology Avaiki, Bulotu, Iva, Lua-o-Milu, Nga- Atua, Pulotu, Rangi Tuarea, Te Toi-o-nga-Ranga, Uranga-o-Te-Ra
Pueblo mythology Shipap
Roman mythology Inferno, Avernus, Orcus/Hadēs, Pluto
Romanian mythology Tărâmul Celălalt
Slavic mythology Nav, Podsvetie, Peklo, Iriy
Sumerian mythology Dilmun, Kur, Irkalla, Hubur
Turko-Mongol Erlik
Vodou mythology Guinee
Wagawaga (New Guinea) mythology Hiyoyoa

Underworld figures[edit]

This list includes rulers or guardians of the underworld in various mythologies, with links to corresponding articles.

Aboriginal mythology Baiame (Kamilaroi), Eingana
Akkadian mythology Allu, Anu, Anunnaku, Ereshkigal, Etemmu, Gallu, Humbaba, Mamitu, Nergal, Utnapishtim
Albanian mythology E Bukura e Dheut
Turko-Mongol Erlik
Armenian mythology Spandaramat
Aztec mythology Mictlantecuhtli, Mictecacihuatl, Chalmecacihuilt, Chalmecatl
Babylonian mythology Erra, Nergal, Ninlil, Sursunabu, Ur-shanabi, Utnapishtim
Balinese mythology Batara Kala, Setesuyara
Bon mythology gNyan
Buddhist mythology Yama, Emma-O-, Yanluo
Canaanite mythology Mot
Celtic mythology Aed, Arawn, Cwn Annwn, Donn, Gwyn ap Nudd, Manannán mac Lir, Pwyll
Chinese mythology Gui, Yanluo
Christian mythology Satan, Lucifer, Beelzebub
Egyptian mythology Aken, Aker (strictly only the gatekeeper), Am-heh, Amunet, Ammit, Andjety, Anubis, Apep, Apis, Astennu, Ha, Imiut (if the Imiut was ever considered a god), Isis, Mehen, Naunet, Nehebkau, Nephthys, Nun, Nut, Osiris, Ptah, Seker, Thoth
Elamite mythology Jabru
Estonian mythology Vanapagan
Etruscan mythology Charun, Culsu, Februus, Mania, Mantus, Nethuns, Tuchulcha, Vanth
Finnish mythology Kalma, Kipu-Tyttö, Kivutar, Lovitar, Surma, Tuonen akka, Tuonetar, Tuoni, Vammatar
Greek mythology Cerberus, Charon, Hadēs, Pluto, Keres, Persephone, Thánatos
Georgian mythology sasuleti
Haida mythology Ta'xet, Tia
Hinduism Yama
Hopi mythology Maasaw
Ibo mythology Ala
Incan mythology Supay, Vichama
Indonesian mythology (ancient Javananese, Sundanese and Balinese) Batara Kala guardian for sinners souls' underworld, Dewi Sri guardess for the righteous souls' underworld
Inuit mythology Pana, Sedna
Islam mythology Maalik as the guardian of the jahannam hell's door, Iblis accompany the sinners in jahannam
Japanese mythology Hotoke, Izanami-no-Mikoto, Jikininki, Shikome, Shitidama, Shiryō, Susanoo-no-Mikoto, Yama
Kassite mythology Dur
Khmer mythology Preas Eyssaur
Latvian mythology Veļi, Velu mate, Zemes mate
Levantine mythology Mot
Lunda mythology Kalunga
Maori mythology Kewa
Maya mythology Xibalba
Melanesian mythology (includes Fijian mythology) Degei, Ratumaibulu, Samulayo
Narragansett mythology Chepi
Navaho mythology Estanatelhi
Niquiran mythology Mictanteot
Norse mythology Garmr, Hel, Ran
Orokolo mythology Kiavari
Persian mythology Angra Mainyu, Azhi Dahaka, Peri
Philippine mythology (Look to the Christian Mythology for more information) ""Bathala", Demonyo Demon, Lucifer, Dyablo Diablo, Satan
Phoenician mythology Horon
Phrygian mythology Men
Polynesian mythology Hikuleo, Hina, Hine-nui-te-Po, Kanaloa, Kiho-tumu, Makea Tutara, Mahiuki, Mahu-ike, Marama, Mauri, Merau, Milu, Miru, Rimu, Rohe, Whiro
Prussian mythology Picullus
Pueblo mythology Iyatiku
Roma (Gypsy) mythology Beng
Roman mythology Cerberus, Dea Tacita, Dis Pater, Egestes, Fames, Inferi Dii, Larenta, Letum, Libitina, Mors, Orcus, Pluto, Proserpina, Viduus
Romanian mythology Diavolu, Satana, Necuratu, Scaraoschi
Russian mythology Dyavol, Satanaya
Saami mythology Yambe-akka
Salish mythology Amotken
Siberian mythology Chebeldei, Kul
Slavic mythology Crnobog, Flins, Marzana, Nyia, Veles (god)
Sumerian mythology Edimmu, Ekimmu, Endukugga, Enmesarra, Ereshkigal, Gidim, Gula, Irkalla, Kur, Namtar, Nergal, Neti, Nindukugga, Ninlil, Urshanabi, Ziusudra
Syrian mythology Reshep
Tamil mythology Cur
Thracian mythology Heros
Turkic mythology Erlik
Vodou Baron Cimetière, Baron La Croix, Baron Samedi, Ghede, Maman Brigitte, Marassa Jumeaux
Wagawaga mythology Tumudurere
Yoruba mythology Esu
Yurak mythology Nga
Zuni mythology Uhepono

See also[edit]

  • Otherworld
  • World Tree — A tree that connects the heavens, the earth, and the underworld in a number of spiritual belief systems

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Underworld". The free dictionary. Retrieved 1 July 2010.