International recognition of Israel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Recognition of Israel)
Jump to: navigation, search
  Countries that have never recognized Israel
  Countries that have retracted recognition

The international recognition of Israel refers to the diplomatic recognition of the State of Israel, which was established by the Israeli Declaration of Independence on 14 May 1948. 160 of the 192 other UN member states (83%) currently recognize Israel.

History[edit]

On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending a plan to partition Mandatory Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state with a common currency, common market and joint coordinating political authorities. Jerusalem was to become an international city. The next day, a civil war erupted in Mandatory Palestine. In the evening just before the end of the British Mandate for Palestine which was to terminate at midnight on 14/15 May 1948,[1] David Ben-Gurion accepted the partition and declared the establishment of a Jewish state in the Land of Israel to be known as the State of Israel.[2] Neighbouring Arab States were opposed to any partition of Palestine. In a cablegram[3] the Arab League maintained:-

  • the Arab states find themselves compelled to intervene in order restore law and order and to check further bloodshed
  • the Mandate over Palestine has come to an end, leaving no legally constituted authority
  • the only solution of the Palestine problem is the establishment of a unitary Palestinian state.

Over the next few days, armies of Egypt, Trans-Jordan, Iraq, and Syria entered the former Mandate territory.

On the declaration of independence, a Provisional government of Israel was established; and while the 1948 Arab–Israeli War was still in progress, the Provisional government was promptly recognised by the United States as the de facto authority of Israel,[4][5] followed by Iran (which had voted against the UN partition plan), Guatemala, Iceland, Nicaragua, Romania, and Uruguay. The Soviet Union was the first country to recognise Israel de jure on 17 May 1948,[6] followed by Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Ireland, and South Africa.[citation needed] The United States extended de jure recognition after the first Israeli election,[7] on 31 January 1949.[8]

On 15 May 1948, one day after the declaration of its establishment, Israel applied for membership of the United Nations, but the application was not acted on by the Security Council. Israel's second application was rejected by the Security Council on 17 December 1948 by a 5 to 1 vote, with 5 abstentions. Syria was the sole negative vote; the U.S., Argentina, Colombia, the Soviet Union and Ukraine voted in favor; and Belgium, Britain, Canada, China and France abstained. The application was renewed in 1949, after the Israeli elections. The Security Council on 4 March 1949 voted 9 to 1 in favour of membership, with Egypt voting no and Great Britain abstaining.[9]

On 11 May, the General Assembly by the requisite two-thirds majority approved the application to admit Israel to the UN by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 273.[10][11] The vote in the General Assembly was 37 to 12, with 9 abstentions.[13]

From 1948 to the late 1960s, Israel established diplomatic relations with almost all countries of Western Europe, North and South America, as well as much of Africa. Some states recognise Israel as a state, but have no diplomatic relations.

In the wake of the Six-Day War, to put additional diplomatic and military pressure on Israel, Arab oil-producing countries threatened to impose an oil embargo on countries with international relations with Israel. As a result, many African and Asian countries broke ties with Israel. On 1 September 1967, the eight members of the Arab League issued the Khartoum Resolution, which included a pledge not to recognise Israel. Similar pressure was exerted after the Arab-Israeli War of 1973. Several countries once had diplomatic relations with Israel, but have since broken or suspended them (Bolivia, Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela in Latin America; Mauritania in the Arab League; Chad, Guinea, Mali and Niger in non-Arab Africa; and Iran until the Islamic revolution).

Following Israel's recognition of and entering into negotiations with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) many African, Asian and even Arab countries restored diplomatic relations with Israel. The Vatican entered into diplomatic relations with Israel in 1994. Some countries broke or suspended relations as a result of the 2006 Israeli-Lebanese War and the blockade of the Gaza Strip.

At present, a total of 32 United Nations member states do not recognise the State of Israel: 18 of the 22 members of the Arab League: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen; a further 11 members of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brunei, Chad, Guinea, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Mali, Niger, and Pakistan. Other countries which do not recognise Israel include Bhutan, Cuba, and North Korea.[14] in 2002, the Arab League proposed the recognition of Israel by Arab countries as part of the resolution of the Palestine-Israel conflict in the Arab Peace Initiative.

Some countries that do not recognise Israel have also questioned the legitimacy of Israel. Some do not accept Israeli passports and some also do not accept passports of other countries whose holder has an Israeli visa endorsed in it.

List by country[edit]

Legend:[inconsistent][dubious ]

= States that do not formally recognise Israel.
= States that have withdrawn recognition.
= States that recognise Israel

UN member states[edit]

State Date of de facto recognition Date of de jure recognition Notes
 Afghanistan[15] Does not accept Israeli passports.[citation needed]
1  Albania 16 April 1949[16] Diplomatic relations established on 20 August 1991.[17]
 Algeria[18][19] Does not accept Israeli passports.[20]
2  Andorra 13 April 1994[21]
3  Angola 16 April 1992[22] Date diplomatic relations established
4  Antigua and Barbuda 22 June 1983[23] Date diplomatic relations established
5  Argentina 14 February 1949[24]
6  Armenia 4 April 1992[25] Date diplomatic relations established
7  Australia 29 January 1949[26]
8  Austria 15 March 1949[27] 8 May 1956 Date diplomatic relations established. Prior to that, the two countries had maintained consular relations since 1950. Delegations were upgraded to embassy status in 1959.[28]
9  Azerbaijan 7 April 1992[29] Date diplomatic relations established.
10  Bahamas 24 September 1974[30] Date diplomatic relations established
 Bahrain[31] Israel maintained a representative mission in Manama from 1996 until it was closed in 2000.[32] In October 2009, parliament ruled that any form of relations with Israel or its people (government, business or private) was illegal, and banned the government from establishing diplomatic relations.[33]
 Bangladesh[34][35] Does not accept Israeli passports.[36]
11  Barbados 29 August 1967[37] Date diplomatic relations established
12  Belarus 11 May 1949[38] 26 May 1992[39] Date diplomatic relations established
13  Belgium 15 January 1950[40]
14  Belize 6 September 1984[41] Date diplomatic relations established
15  Benin 5 December 1961[42] Date diplomatic relations established. Relations severed in October 1973, and resumed in July 1992.[43][44]
 Bhutan[14]
16  Bolivia 22 February 1949[45] 24 February 1949[46] Bolivia cut ties with Israel in January 2009.[47]
17  Bosnia and Herzegovina 26 September 1997[48] Date diplomatic relations established
18  Botswana [when?] [when?] Broke off relations on November 1973, restored in December 1993.
19  Brazil 7 February 1949[49]
 Brunei[14] Does not accept Israeli passports and Brunei passports are not valid for travel to Israel[50]
20  Bulgaria 4 December 1948 Relations severed on 10 June 1967, and restored on 3 May 1990.[51]
21  Burkina Faso 5 July 1961[42] Date diplomatic relations established. Relations severed in October 1973, and re-established in October 1993.[43][44][52]
22  Burundi [when?] [when?] Relations severed in May 1973,[44] and restored in March 1995.
23  Cambodia 30 August 1960 Date diplomatic relations established. Cambodia broke off relations in 1975; they were restored on 5 October 1993.[53][54]
24  Cameroon 15 September 1960[55] Date diplomatic relations established. Relations severed in October 1973 and restored in August 1986.[44][56]
25  Canada 11 May 1949[38][57]
26  Cape Verde 17 July 1994[58] Date diplomatic relations established
27  Central African Republic [when?] [when?] Relations were broken in October 1973,[44] were resumed in January 1991.
 Chad 10 January 1961 Relations were established in 1961, but severed on 28 November 1972.[44][59] Chad currently does not recognise Israel.[60] In 2005, reports emerged of a mutual intention to renew diplomatic relations.[61]
28  Chile 5 February 1949[45]
29  People's Republic of China 24 January 1992 The Republic of China granted de jure recognition to Israel on 1 March 1949.[45] The two states maintained diplomatic relations until Israel's recognition of the People's Republic of China on 8 January 1950. The PRC, however, did not formally reciprocate until the eventual establishment of diplomatic relations in 1992.[62]
30  Colombia 1 February 1949[45]
 Comoros[14]
31  Republic of the Congo 9 November 1960 Date diplomatic relations established. Broke relations on 31 December 1972, resumed in August 1991.
32  Democratic Republic of the Congo 26 June 1960 Date diplomatic relations established. Ties severed on 4 October 1973, and restored on 13 May 1982.[44][63]
33  Costa Rica 19 June 1948[64]
34  Ivory Coast 15 February 1961 24 May 1961[42] Date diplomatic relations established. Prior to this date, it had maintained trade relations since 15 February 1961. Relations severed in November 1973, and resumed in February 1986.[43][44]
35  Croatia 4 September 1997[65] Date diplomatic relations established
 Cuba 14 January 1949 18 April 1949[66] Cuba severed relations in September 1973, and the current government does not recognise it.[14]
36  Cyprus 21 January 1961 Date diplomatic relations established. They had been agreed to on 17 August 1960, but final establishment was postponed due to pressure from Arab nations.[67]
37  Czech Republic 18 May 1948[68] Recognition extended under Czechoslovakia. Relations under Czechoslovakia were severed between June 1967 and February 1990. Diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic were established 1 January 1993.[69]
38  Denmark 2 February 1949[45] 12 July 1950[70]
 Djibouti[14]
39  Dominica January 1978[69] Date diplomatic relations established
40  Dominican Republic 29 December 1948[71]
41  Ecuador 2 February 1949[45]
42  Egypt 26 March 1979[72] Signatory to the Khartoum Declaration.[19] Later became the first Arab state to recognise Israel, with the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.
43  El Salvador 11 September 1948[73]
44  Equatorial Guinea [when?] [when?] Relations severed in October 1973,[44] and resumed in January 1994.[74]
45  Eritrea 6 May 1993[54][75] Date diplomatic relations established
46  Estonia 9 January 1992[76] Date diplomatic relations established
47  Ethiopia 24 October 1961[77] Prior to de jure recognition, Ethiopia maintained consular relations with Israel since 1956. Relations were broken in October 1973,[44] and resumed in November 1989.
48  Fiji August 1970[69] Date diplomatic relations established
49  Finland[78] 11 June 1948[79] 18 March 1949
50  France 24 January 1949[80]
51  Gabon[53] 29 September 1993[81] Relations severed in October 1973,[44] and resumed in September 1993.
52  Gambia [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[44] and resumed in September 1992
53  Georgia 1 June 1992[82] Date diplomatic relations established
54  Germany 10 September 1952[83] 12 May 1965[84] Date diplomatic relations established. Prior to this, Germany signed the Reparations agreement with Israel.
55  Ghana [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[44] and resumed in August 1994
56  Greece[77] 15 March 1949 21 May 1990[85] Date diplomatic relations established
57  Grenada January 1975[69] Date diplomatic relations established
58  Guatemala 19 May 1948[68]
 Guinea[14] [when?] Broke relations with Israel on 12 June 1967.[44]
59  Guinea-Bissau March 1994[69] Date diplomatic relations established
60  Guyana [when?] Broke off relations in March 1974, restored in March 1992.
61  Haiti 26 February 1949[45] January 1950[69] Date diplomatic relations established
62  Honduras[71][86] 11 September 1948 8 November 1948[81]
63  Hungary[87] 24 May 1948 1 June 1948[79] Relations broken in 1967, and restored on 19 September 1989.[88]
64  Iceland 11 February 1949[45] [when?]
65  India 17 September 1950[89]
 Indonesia[35] Can only travel to Indonesia with an invitation from the Department of Immigration of Indonesia. General Israeli citizens are prohibited from entering the country.[90]
 Iran[91] 14 March 1950[92] [when?] Voted against UN Partition Plan, recognised Israel, but voted against admission of Israel to membership of UN. Relations severed in late 1979. Does not accept Israeli passports[93] and the holders of Iranian passports are "not entitled to travel to the occupied Palestine"[94]
 Iraq[95] Does not accept Israeli passports.[citation needed]
66  Ireland[96] 12 February 1949 May 1963[96]
67  Italy[45] 8 February 1949 [when?]
68  Jamaica[81] January 1962[contradictory]
69  Japan 15 May 1952[97]
70  Jordan 26 October 1994[98] Signatory to the Khartoum Declaration.[19] Recognise Israel in the Israel–Jordan peace treaty.
71  Kazakhstan 10 April 1992[99] Date diplomatic relations established
72  Kenya December 1963[81][100] Severed relation in November 1973,[44] resumed in December 1988.
73  Kiribati 21 May 1984[101] Date diplomatic relations established
 North Korea[102]
74  Republic of Korea 10 April 1962[103] Date diplomatic relations established
 Kuwait[19] Does not accept Israeli passports.[104]
75  Kyrgyzstan March 1992[81]
76  Laos February 1957 Date diplomatic relations established. Laos broke off relations in 1973, and restored them on 6 December 1993.[105]
77  Latvia 6 January 1992[106] Date diplomatic relations established
 Lebanon[19] Does not accept Israeli passports. Holders of passports containing any Israeli visa or stamp will be refused entry.[107]
78  Lesotho [when?]
79  Liberia 11 February 1949[87] [when?] Relations severed in November 1973, and resumed in August 1983.[43][44]
 Libya[19] Does not accept Israeli passports.[108]
80  Liechtenstein January 1992[81]
81  Lithuania 8 January 1992[109] Date diplomatic relations established
82  Luxembourg 11 May 1949[38] 16 January 1950[110]
83  Macedonia 7 December 1995[69] Date diplomatic relations established
84  Madagascar [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[44] and resumed in January 1994.
85  Malawi July 1964[69] Date diplomatic relations established
 Malaysia[35] Does not admit Israeli passport holders without written permission from the government.[111]
86  Maldives 25 September 2009[112] Date diplomatic relations established
 Mali[14] [when?] Relations severed on 5 January 1973.[44]
87  Malta January 1965[81] December 1965[69] Date diplomatic relations established
88  Marshall Islands 16 September 1987[113]
89  Mauritania 28 October 1999[114] Relations were suspended on 6 March 2009,[115] severed on 21 March 2010[116]
90  Mauritius[53] [when?] Severed relation in July 1976, restored in September 1993.
91  Mexico 11 May 1949[38] 4 April 1952[117]
92  Federated States of Micronesia[118] 23 November 1988 Date diplomatic relations established
93  Moldova[119] 22 June 1992
94  Monaco January 1964[69]
95  Mongolia[120] 2 October 1991
96  Montenegro[121] 12 July 2006
 Morocco[14][19] 1 September 1994[122]
97  Mozambique[53][54] 23 July 1993
98  Burma[123] 13 July 1953 Date full diplomatic relations established
99  Namibia[54][124] 11 February 1994
100  Nauru[69] December 1994
101    Nepal[125] 1 June 1960 Date diplomatic relations established
102  Netherlands 11 May 1949[38] 16 January 1950[110]
103  New Zealand 29 January 1949[45] [when?]
104  Nicaragua 18 May 1948[71] In June 2010, Nicaragua suspended diplomatic ties with Israel.[126]
 Niger[14] Relations severed on 4 January 1973.[42][44]
105  Nigeria[127] 1960 [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[44] were resumed in May 1992.
106  Norway 4 February 1949[128]
 Oman[14] 28 January 1996[129] Does not accept Israeli passports.[130]
 Pakistan[131] Does not accept Israeli passports and Pakistani passports are not valid for travel to Israel.[132]
107  Palau[53][54] 2 October 1994
108  Panama 19 June 1948[64]
109  Papua New Guinea [when?]
110  Paraguay 6 September 1948[71] 7 September 1948[133]
111  Peru 9 February 1949[45]
112  Philippines 11 May 1949[38] 13 May 1957[134]
113  Poland 18 May 1948[68] Relations were broken in 1967, restored in February 1990.[135]
114  Portugal[136] 12 May 1977 [when?]
 Qatar[14] April 1996[69] In April 1996, Qatar and Israel agreed to exchange trade representation offices.[137] Trade offices closed in February 2009.[69]
115  Romania[138] 11 June 1948 12 June 1948[79]
116  Russia 17 May 1948[68][139][140] Recognition extended as the Soviet Union. Relations broken in 1967, restored on 19 October 1991.[141]
117  Rwanda [when?] Relations severed in October 1973,[44] and restored in October 1994.
118  Saint Kitts and Nevis January 1984[69] Date diplomatic relations established
119  Saint Lucia January 1979[69] Date diplomatic relations established
120  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines January 1981[69] Date diplomatic relations established
121  Samoa June 1977[69] Date diplomatic relations established
122  San Marino[142] 1 March 1995
123  São Tomé and Príncipe November 1993[69] Date diplomatic relations established
 Saudi Arabia[19] Does not accept Israeli passports.[143]
124  Senegal 1960[81] Relations broken in October 1973,[44] and resumed in August 1994.
125  Serbia 18 May 1948 19 May 1948[144] Recognition extended as Yugoslavia. Diplomatic relations established 9 October 1991.[69][145]
126  Seychelles September 1992[69] Date diplomatic relations established
127  Sierra Leone [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[44] and resumed in May 1992.
128  Singapore[146] 11 May 1969 Date diplomatic relations established
129  Slovakia 18 May 1948[68] Recognition extended under Czechoslovakia. Relations under Czechoslovakia were severed between June 1967 and February 1990. Diplomatic relations with Slovakia were established 1 January 1993.[147]
130  Slovenia[148] 28 April 1992
131  Solomon Islands January 1989[69]
 Somalia[149] Does not accept Israeli passports.[citation needed]
132  South Africa 24 May 1948[68] 14 May 1949[150][151]
133  South Sudan[152] 28 July 2011 Date given is the date full diplomatic relations were established.[153]
134  Spain[154] 17 January 1986 [when?]
135  Sri Lanka[155] 16 September 1950 [when?]
 Sudan[19] Does not accept Israeli passports.[156]
136  Suriname February 1976[69]
137  Swaziland September 1968[69]
138  Sweden[45] 15 February 1949 13 June 1950[70]
139   Switzerland[157] 28 January 1949 18 March 1949[158]
 Syria[19] Does not accept Israeli passports.[159]
140  Tajikistan April 1992[69]
141  Tanzania [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[44] and resumed in February 1995.
142  Thailand 26 September 1950[160] [when?]
143  East Timor[161] 29 August 2002
144  Togo [when?] Relations severed in September 1973,[44] and restored in June 1987.[43]
145  Tonga June 1977[69] Date diplomatic relations established
146  Trinidad and Tobago[69] January 1962[contradictory]
 Tunisia[19] 3 October 1994[54][162] [163]
147  Turkey 28 March 1949[164] 12 March 1950[165] In September 2011, Turkey downgraded ties with Israel to second secretary level.[166]
148  Turkmenistan[167] 6 October 1993 Date diplomatic relations established
149  Tuvalu July 1984[69] Date diplomatic relations established
150  Uganda [when?] Broke relations on 30 March 1972,[44] and restored in July 1994.
151  Ukraine 11 May 1949[38] 26 December 1991[168]
 United Arab Emirates[169] Accept Israeli passports for transit only, does not accept for admission.[170]
152  United Kingdom 13 May 1949[171] 28 April 1950[110]
153  United States[172] 14 May 1948 31 January 1949[173]
154  Uruguay 19 May 1948[68]
155  Uzbekistan[174] 21 February 1992 Date full diplomatic relations established
156  Vanuatu[53][54] 16 December 1993 Date diplomatic relations established
157  Venezuela 27 June 1948[71] Relations severed in January 2009.
158  Vietnam[175] 12 July 1993 Date diplomatic relations established
 Yemen[19] Does not accept Israeli passports.[176]
159  Zambia [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[44] and resumed in December 1991.
160  Zimbabwe[53][54] 26 November 1993 Date diplomatic relations established

Non-UN member states[edit]

State Date of recognition Notes
 Cook Islands[177] 2008
 State of Palestine[178] 1993 Signatory to the Khartoum Declaration.[19] Recognised Israel as part of the Oslo I Accord.
 Republic of China[179] 1 March 1949
  Vatican City[180] 15 June 1994

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Communication dated 11 May 1948 from J. Fletcher-Cooke of the United Kingdom delegation to the United Nations Commission on Palestine to Dr. Ralph J. Bunche, Principal Secretary to the Commission: Retrieved 15 December 2013
  2. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affirs: Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel: 14 May 1948: Retrieved 15 December 2013
  3. ^ PDF copy of Cablegram from the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States to the Secretary-General of the United Nations: S/745: 15 May 1948: Retrieved 15 December 2013
  4. ^ End of Palestine mandate, The Times, 15 May 1948
  5. ^ Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. "The Recognition of the State of Israel". Retrieved 25 November 2011. 
  6. ^ Hashim S. H. Behbehani‏ (1986). The Soviet Union and Arab nationalism, 1917-1966. Routledge. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7103-0213-7. 
  7. ^ Press Release, 31 January 1949. Official File, Truman Papers Truman Library
  8. ^ The Recognition of the State of Israel: Introduction Truman Library
  9. ^ JTA The Global Jewish Resource Global Jewish Resource
  10. ^ Israeli War of Independence
  11. ^ Neff, Donald. "Third Time's a Charm: Israel Admitted as U.N. Member in 1949". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (American Educational Trust) (July 2011): 24. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  12. ^ Official record of the 207th Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly, 11 May 1949
  13. ^ Those that voted for were: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Byelorussia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic,Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Ukraine, South Africa, Soviet Union, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia.
    Those that voted against were: Afghanistan, Burma, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen.
    The abstainers were: Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, El Salvador, Greece, Siam, Sweden, Turkey and United Kingdom.[12]
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l United States Congress (5 June 2008). "H. RES. 1249".  Since the publication of this document, Maldives has recognized Israel.
  15. ^ Staff writers (9 January 2006). "Kabul will forge Israel ties if Palestinians form State: Karzai". Pak Tribune (Pakistan News Service). Retrieved 2011-08-05. 
  16. ^ Govrin, Yosef (2005). "Annals of Israeli-Albanian Contacts on Establishing Diplomatic". Jewish Political Studies Review 17 (3-4). Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  17. ^ "Albania and Israel in Accord To Establish Diplomatic Ties". The New York Times. 20 August 1991. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  18. ^ Lederer, Edith M. (14 December 2007). "Israel signs condolence book to Algeria bombing victims despite no diplomatic relations". The Associated Press.  "Ambassador Dan Gillerman told ... 'Algeria does not recognize Israel and has not even made any steps towards normalizing its relations with Israel'."
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Khartoum Declaration (1 September 1967), League of Arab States.
  20. ^ "Visa Information for Algeria: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). Retrieved 2011-09-25. 
  21. ^ Government of Andorra. "Asia". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  22. ^ Zionist Organization of America; Jewish Agency for Israel (1993). Israel yearbook and almanac 47. IBRT Translation/Documentation Ltd. 
  23. ^ Permanent Representative of Antigua and Barbuda to the United Nations. "Chronology of Antigua and Barbuda's bilateral relations". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  24. ^ Roth, Cecil (ed.). Encyclopaedia Judaica (1972), Volume 3, p. 426.
  25. ^ Government of Armenia. "Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  26. ^ Danny Ben-Moshe, Zohar Segev (2007). Israel, the Diaspora, and Jewish identity. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-84519-189-4. 
  27. ^ Af Thomas Albrich; Ronald W. Zweig (2002). Escape through Austria: Jewish refugees and the Austrian route to Palestine. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-5213-9. 
  28. ^ Government of Austria. "Bilateral Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  29. ^ Government of Israel. "15th anniversary of Israel-Azerbaijan diplomatic relations". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  30. ^ Jewish currents 28. Morning Freiheit Association. 1974. p. 13. 
  31. ^ Staff writers (8 April 2011). "Bahrain-Mossad ties uncovered". Press TV. Retrieved 2011-10-16.  "Bahrain does not recognize Israel and traditionally supports the creation of an independent Palestinian state."
  32. ^ Gedalyahu, Tzvi Ben (27 June 2010). "Bahrain Red-Faced for ‘Kissing Camel’ Toy with Name ‘Israel’". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 2011-10-16.  "Bahrain does not recognize Israel as a state, but Israel maintained a diplomatic mission in Bahrain before it was closed in 2000 at the start of the Second Intifada."
  33. ^ Mohammed al-A'ali (28 October 2009). "Bahrain: MPs ban Israel links". Bilaterals.org. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  34. ^ Freund, Michael (21 September 2006). "Bangladeshi Muslim editor faces death penalty for moderate views". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  35. ^ a b c Staff writers (21 August 2006). "Israeli troops shoot Hezbollah militants". Cable News Network. Retrieved 2011-10-16.  "Israel has rejected the participation of three nations that have offered troops -- Indonesia, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Israel noted that the three do not recognize the existence of Israel."
  36. ^ "Visa Information for Bangladesh: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  37. ^ Government of Barbados. "List of countries with which Barbados has established diplomatic relations". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g "A/RES/273(III): Admission of Israel to membership in the United Nations". United Nations Bibliographic Information System. Retrieved 2011-09-25. 
  39. ^ Embassy of Belarus in Tel Aviv. "Belarus and Israel relations" (in Russian). Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  40. ^ Government of Belgium. "Diplomatic relations between Belgium and Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  41. ^ Encyclopaedia Judaica year book. 1986. On September 6 the Foreign Ministry announced that Israel and Belize were establishing diplomatic relations. 
  42. ^ a b c d Yitzhak Oron (1961). Middle East Record 2. Moshe Dayan Center. p. 335. 
  43. ^ a b c d e "Bilateral Relations: Historical Overview" (in French). Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Curtis, Michael; Gitelson, Susan Aurelia (1976). Israel in the Third World. Transaction Publishers. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-87855-603-8. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Palestine affairs 4. American Zionist Emergency Council. 1949. 
  46. ^ Facts on file yearbook. Facts on File Inc. 1950. 
  47. ^ Staff writers (15 January 2009). "Bolivia cuts Israel ties over Gaza". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  48. ^ Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. "Lista zemalja koje su priznale Bosnu i Hercegovinu i datumi uspostavljanja diplomatskih odnosa" (in Bosnian). Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  49. ^ Vigevani, Tullo; Kleinas, Alberto (1999). "Brasil-Israel: da partilha da Palestina ao reconhecimento diplomático (1947-1949)" (in Portuguese). CEDEC. ISSN 0101-7780. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  50. ^ "Visa Information for Brunei Darussalam: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). Retrieved 2011-09-25. 
  51. ^ Government of Bulgaria. "Diplomatic relations between Bulgaria and Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  52. ^ "Burkina Faso Fact File". Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  53. ^ a b c d e f g Israel yearbook and almanac, 38-39. IBRT Translation/Documentation Ltd. 1994. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h Breakthrough: Israel in a changing world. Gad Yaacobi. 1996. p. 215. Retrieved 2011-08-05. 
  55. ^ Middle East Record Volume 1, 1960. Yitzhak Oron, Ed. 1960. p. 309. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  56. ^ Times Wire Services (27 August 2011). "Israel, Cameroon Restore Ties After 13-Year Break". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  57. ^ Government of Canada (2009). Canada Israel Diplomatic Relations. 
  58. ^ "Chronology of events, June 1992–December 1994". Retrieved 2011-08-05. 
  59. ^ University of Dar es Salaam (1980). "Taamuli" 10 (2). Department of Political Science, East African Literature Bureau. p. 12. 
  60. ^ IBP USA (2011). Chad Foreign Policy and Government Guide. International Business Publications. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4330-0641-8.  "In 1988, Chad recognized the State of Palestine, which maintains a mission in N'Djamena. Chad has not recognized the State of Israel."
  61. ^ See the following:
  62. ^ Abadi, Jacob (2004). Israel's quest for recognition and acceptance in Asia. Psychology Press. pp. 54–62. ISBN 978-0-7146-5576-5. 
  63. ^ Emizet F. Kisangani; F. Scott Bobb (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Scarecrow Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8108-5761-2. 
  64. ^ a b "Today in Costa Rica History". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  65. ^ "List of international treaties and international acts signed between the Republic of Croatia and the State of Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  66. ^ Levinson, Jay (2006). Jewish Community of Cuba: The Golden Age, 1906-1958. Westview Publishing Co. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-9776207-0-8. 
  67. ^ Yitzhak Oron (1960). Middle East Record Volume 1, 1960. The Israel Oriental Society. p. 181. 
  68. ^ a b c d e f g "AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK", 1950, p.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad: Status of relations". Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  70. ^ a b The Jewish Agency's digest of press and events, 2,Oplag 40–51. 1950. p. 1697. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  71. ^ a b c d e Israel of tomorrow, 2. Herald Square Press. 1949. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  72. ^ "Camp David Accords". Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  73. ^ "Jews in El Salvador". Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  74. ^ Africa research bulletin: Political, social, and cultural series, 31. Blackwell. 1994. p. 1348. Equatorial Guinea re-established diplomatic relations with Israel on January 6th. 
  75. ^ "Calling a state a state: Somaliland and international recognition". Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  76. ^ "Estonia and Israel". Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  77. ^ a b Government of Israel. "Greece's Relations with Israel, 1961–1967". Prime Minister's Office, Israel State Archives. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 
  78. ^ "Finland and Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  79. ^ a b c Palestine affairs, 3. American Zionist Emergency Council. 1948. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  80. ^ Frédérique Schillo, La France et la création de l'État d'Israël: 18 février 1947-11 mai 1949, Artcom, 1997, ISBN 978-2-912741-02-8
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h "International Recognition of Israel". 
  82. ^ "Relations between Georgia and the State of Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  83. ^ "Reparations agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany". JSTOR 2195023. 
  84. ^ "Germany's relations with Israel". 
  85. ^ Fred Skolnik, Michael Berenbaum (2007). Encyclopaedia Judaica 8. Macmillan Reference USA in association with the Keter Pub. House. p. 845. ISBN 978-0-02-865928-2. 
  86. ^ Palestine affairs. American Zionist Emergency Council. 1948. 
  87. ^ a b Amos Jenkins Peaslee (1950). Constitutions of Nations: France to Poland. Rumford Press. p. 269. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  88. ^ "Hungary Restores Ties With Israel". 
  89. ^ Ibrahim A. Abu-Lughod (1971). The Transformation of Palestine: essays on the origin and development of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Northwestern University Press. p. 456. 
  90. ^ "Visa Information for Indonesia: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  91. ^ Brandenburg, R (2010). "Iran and the Palestinians". The Iran Primer. United States Institute of Peace. ISBN 978-1-60127-084-9. 
  92. ^ "Shah Censors Israel Relations". Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  93. ^ "Visa Information for Iran, Islamic Republic of: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  94. ^ Moaveni, Azadeh (1 June 2009). "Roxana Saberi and How Journalism Works in Iran". Time. Time Inc. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010. Israel also figures into the peculiar regulations Iranian journalists must contend with. The fine print of my Iranian passport clearly states that the bearer of this passport is forbidden from traveling to occupied Palestine." 
  95. ^ Guttman, N (12 June 2008). "Bill Presses Iraq To Recognize Israel". Forward (The Jewish Daily). Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  96. ^ a b Shulamit Eliash, The harp and the shield of David: Ireland, Zionism and the State of Israel, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-35035-8, p.73
  97. ^ "Japan recognizes Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  98. ^ "Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty". 
  99. ^ "Kazakhstan–Israeli relations". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  100. ^ "Israel & Kenya: A History of Friendship". Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  101. ^ Keesing's record of world events, 33. Longman. 1987. Retrieved 5 August 2011. On May 21, 1984, diplomatic relations were established between Kiribati and Israel 
  102. ^ Haggard, M (1965). "North Korea's International Position". Asian Survey (California: University of California Press) 5 (8): 375–388. doi:10.2307/2642410. ISSN 0004-4687. OCLC 48536955. 
  103. ^ "Bilateral relations between Republic of Korea and Israel". 
  104. ^ "Visa Information for Kuwait: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  105. ^ Government of Laos (2 November 2007). "List of states which the Lao PDR has established diplomatic relations since 1950". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  106. ^ "The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Latvia". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  107. ^ "Visa Information for Lebanon: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  108. ^ "Visa Information for Libyan Arab Jamahiriya: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  109. ^ Russia & Eurasia facts & figures annual, Volume 1. Academic International Press. 1993. p. 36. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  110. ^ a b c "Modern Israel & the Diaspora". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  111. ^ Yusof, Husna (2 November 2011). "Israelis allowed into Malaysia with conditions". The Sun Daily (The Sun). 
  112. ^ Israel renews diplomatic ties with the Maldives
  113. ^ "Countries with which the Marshall Islands has Diplomatic Relations". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  114. ^ "Israel and Mauritania to Establish Diplomatic Relations". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 27 October 1999. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  115. ^ "Israel closes Mauritania embassy". 
  116. ^ "Mauritania formally severs diplomatic ties with Israel". 
  117. ^ "Mexico", in Encyclopaedia Judaica (2008)
  118. ^ "The FSM SUPPORTED ISRAEL IN THE APPROVAL OF RED CRYSTAL AS THIRD EMBLEM FOR THE RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES". Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  119. ^ "Israel and Moldova". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  120. ^ "Diplomatic relations of Mongolia". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  121. ^ "Dates of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  122. ^ "Israel and Morocco: A Special Relationship". Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  123. ^ "List of Countries having Diplomatic Relations with the Union of Myanmar". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  124. ^ Gad Yaacobi (1994). Breakthrough: Israel in a changing world. Longman. Retrieved 5 August 2011. Israel and Namibia established diplomatic relations on Feb. 11. Namibia was the 12th country to establish relations with Israel since 1993 
  125. ^ "Diplomatic relations between Denmark and Nepal". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  126. ^ "Nicaragua suspends diplomatic ties with Israel - Israel News, Ynetnews". Ynet. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2010.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  127. ^ "Bilateral Relations: Israeli-Nigerian Bilateral Relations". Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  128. ^ Norway: Country Study Guide, Volume 149 of World Country Study Guide Library, Int'l Business Publications, 2002, ISBN 0-7397-4398-8 p. 78
  129. ^ "Israel, Oman sign pact to exchange trade reps". Jerusalem Post. 28 January 1996. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  130. ^ "Visa Information for Oman: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  131. ^ Staff writers (13 September 2005). "Musharraf says Pakistan not to recognize Israel". The People's Daily. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  132. ^ "Pakistan K1 Fiancee Visa Processing Times". Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  133. ^ Israel digest: a bi-weekly summary of news from Israel, Part 1. srael Office of Information. 1950. 
  134. ^ "The ties that bind: Filipinos and Jews, the Philippines and Israel". 4 February 2007. Retrieved 4 August 2011. Full diplomatic relations were established on May 13, 1957 
  135. ^ "Poland Resumes Full Diplomatic Ties With Israel". 
  136. ^ David Allen and Alfred Pijpers (1984). European foreign policy-making and the Arab-Israeli conflict. p. 235. ISBN 90-247-2965-3. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  137. ^ Political risk yearbook: Middle East & North Africa, 2. Frost & Sullivan. Political Risk Services, Political Risk Services (IBC USA (Publications) Inc.). 1998. p. 56. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  138. ^ Ambasada României la Tel Aviv
  139. ^ Yoram Dinstein, Israel Yearbook on Human Rights 1977, Volume 7; Volume 1977, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1989, p. 273
  140. ^ Recognition of Israel JSTOR - The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 4, No. 3, July 1948.
  141. ^ "Israel and Soviets Restore Full Relations". 
  142. ^ "San Marino: Bilateral Conventions - Bilateral agreements with other States". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  143. ^ "Visa Information for Saudi Arabia: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  144. ^ Edvard Kardelj, Yugoslavia's foreign policy: address delivered during the debate on the budget in the Federal Assembly on December 29th, 1948, 1949 p. 35
  145. ^ Daily report: East Europe, 192–201. The Service. 1991. p. 33 & 39. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  146. ^ "Diplomatic missions of Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  147. ^ "Slovakia and Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  148. ^ "Slovene embassy in Tel Aviv". Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  149. ^ American Universities Field Staff (1966). AUFS reports: Northeast Africa series. p. 5: "Somalia does not recognise Israel, and generally sides with the Arab cause in the Near Eastern controversy."
  150. ^ Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin. The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and Why, 1988. Page 109-111.
  151. ^ Shimoni, Gideon. Community and conscience: the Jews in apartheid South Africa. p. 23.
  152. ^ "Israel announces full diplomatic ties with South Sudan". Haaretz. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011. 
  153. ^ "PM Netanyahu's Remarks at the Start of the Weekly Cabinet Meeting". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  154. ^ Norman Berdichevsky, "Spain and Israel - A Tale of Many Turns", New English Review, February 2009
  155. ^ Current history 33-34. Current History, inc. 1957. p. 311. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  156. ^ "Visa Information for Sudan: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  157. ^ "Bilateral relations between Switzerland and Israel". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  158. ^ HLS - http://www.hls-dhs-dss.ch/textes/d/D3411.php
  159. ^ "Visa Information for Syrian Arab Republic: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  160. ^ The Jewish Agency's digest of press and events. Jewish Agency for Israel, Zionist Organisation, Jewish Agency for Israel. Information Dept. 1950. 
  161. ^ "Accredited Embassies to Timor-Leste from overseas". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  162. ^ The Middle East: Abstracts and index. Library Information and Research Service. 1999. Retrieved 5 August 2011. Tunisia and Israel announced on 10/3/1994 the establishment of low-level diplomatic relations, a move that both countries described as the first step in the normalization of ties. The two countries will establish economic liaison. 
  163. ^ Larry Luxner (18 November 2010). "Envoy Determined to Protect Tunisia Against Extremism". The Washington Diplomat. Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  164. ^ Bülent Aras, Palestinian Israeli peace process and Turkey, Nova Science Publishers, 1998, ISBN 978-1-56072-549-7, p. 115
  165. ^ The Jewish Agency's digest of press and events 8. Jewish Agency for Israel, Zionist Organisation, Jewish Agency for Israel. Information Dept. 1950. Retrieved 28 August 2011. 
  166. ^ Turkey downgrades ties with Israel, Aljazeera, 2 September 2011
  167. ^ "Israel firms ties with Turkmenistan". High Beam. 6 October 1993. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  168. ^ "Political relations between Israel and Ukraine". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  169. ^ Helem Chapin Metz (ed.) (1993) Persian Gulf States: A Country Study. Government of the United States, GPO for the Library of Congress.
  170. ^ "Visa Information for United Arab Emirates: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  171. ^ Abraham Mayer Heller, Israel's odyssey: a survey of Israel's renaissance, achievements, and problems, Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1959, p.83
  172. ^ Michael J. Devine, Robert P. Watson, & Robert J. Wolz, eds., "Israel and the Legacy of Harry S. Truman", Truman State University Press
  173. ^ The Recognition of the State of Israel Harry S. Truman Library & Museum
  174. ^ "List of States with which the Republic of Uzbekistan established diplomatic relations". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  175. ^ "List of countries that maintain diplomatic relations with the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  176. ^ "Visa Information for Yemen: Holders of Normal Passports from Israel". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA). 
  177. ^ "Israeli Ambassador visits the Cook Islands". Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  178. ^ Enhancement of Palestine’s Status at the UN Position Paper (October 25, 2012): "The Palestinian step is consistent with the formal Palestinian recognition of Israel in 1993"
  179. ^ Efraim Karsh. Israel in the International Arena. p. 239. ISBN 0-203-58254-3. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  180. ^ Britannica book of the year: 1995. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1995. p. 928. Retrieved 6 August 2011.