Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Unrecognized
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples

Includes laws that have not yet gone into effect.
Legal status of
same-sex relationships
Marriage
Performed
Recognized
  1. Can be registered also in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  2. Licensed in some counties in Kansas but same-sex marriage is not recognized by the state
  3. Only legal in St. Louis, Missouri
  4. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  5. Most counties in Alabama issued same-sex marriage licenses for several weeks after a federal court found that state's ban unconstitutional, but all stopped by 4 March 2015 following an order by the state supreme court
  6. Only if married in Michigan when same-sex marriage was legal

*Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

Debate has occurred throughout Europe over proposals to legalize same-sex marriage as well as same-sex civil unions.

Currently 24 of the 50 countries and 4 of the 6 dependent territories in Europe recognize some type of same-sex unions, among them a majority of members of the European Union. Eleven European countries legally recognize same-sex marriage, namely Belgium, Denmark,[nb 1] France, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,[nb 2] Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.[nb 3] An additional twelve countries have a form of civil union or unregistered cohabitation, as do four dependent territories. San Marino only allows immigration and cohabitation of a citizen's partner. Several countries are currently considering same-sex union recognition.

The constitutions of Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine define marriage as a union between a man and a woman, banning same-sex marriage.[citation needed]

Current situation[edit]

Marriage[edit]

Jurisdiction entry into force notes
[1] European UnionBelgium Belgium 1 June 2003
[2] European UnionDenmark Denmark 15 June 2012
  • The law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
[3] European UnionFinland Finland 1 March 2017
  • In order that the provisions of the framework law would be fully implementable further legislation has to be passed.
[4] European UnionFrance France 18 May 2013
[5] Iceland Iceland 27 June 2010
[6] European UnionLuxembourg Luxembourg 1 January 2015
[7][8] European UnionNetherlands Netherlands 1 April 2001
  • On 10 October 2012 the law's scope was expanded to include the Caribbean Netherlands.
  • In Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten marriages performed in the other parts of the Netherlands can be registered.
[9] Norway Norway 1 January 2009
[10] European UnionPortugal Portugal 5 June 2010
[11] European UnionSpain Spain 3 July 2005
European UnionSweden Sweden 1 May 2009
[12][13] European UnionUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 13 March 2014
  • In England and Wales a law came into force on 13 March 2014.
  • In Scotland a law came into force on 16 December 2014.
  • Same-sex marriage is not recognised in Northern Ireland, Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories.

Non-marital partnership[edit]

Jurisdiction entry into force amended
(to the effect that civil unions
may not be registered
anymore)
notes
[14] Andorra Andorra 23 March 2005
  • "Stable Union"
[15] 25 December 2014
  • "Civil Union"
[16] European UnionAustria Austria 1 January 2010
  • "Registered Partnership"
[17] European UnionBelgium Belgium 1 January 2000
  • "Legal Cohabitation"
[18] European UnionCroatia Croatia 5 August 2014
  • "Life Partnership"
[19] European UnionCzech Republic Czech Republic 1 July 2006
  • "Registered Partnership"
[2] European UnionDenmark Denmark 1 October 1989 15 June 2012
  • "Registered Partnership"
  • Partnerships registered domestically before 15 June 2012 and certain partnerships registered abroad are still recognized as such.
[20] European UnionEstonia Estonia 1 January 2016
  • "Cohabitation Agreement"
  • In order that the provisions of the framework law would be fully implementable further legislation has to be passed.
[21] European UnionFinland Finland 1 March 2002
  • "Registered Partnership"
[22] European UnionFrance France 16 November 1999
  • "Civil Solidarity Pact"
  • On 28 May 2009 the law's scope was expanded to include New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna.
  • It does not apply to French Polynesia.
[23] European UnionGermany Germany 1 August 2001
  • "Registered Life Partnership"
[24] European UnionGibraltar Gibraltar
(British Overseas Territory)
28 March 2014
  • "Civil Partnership"
Greenland Greenland
(constituent country of Denmark)
26 April 1996
  • "Registered Partnership"
[25] European UnionHungary Hungary 1 July 2009
  • "Registered Partnership"
[5] Iceland Iceland 27 June 1996 27 June 2010
  • "Registered Partnership"
  • Partnerships registered domestically before 27 June 2010 and certain partnerships registered abroad are still recognized as such.
[26] 27 June 2006
  • "Registered Cohabitation"
[27] European UnionRepublic of Ireland Ireland 1 January 2011
  • "Civil Partnership"
[28] Isle of Man Isle of Man
(British Crown Dependency)
6 April 2011
  • "Civil Partnership"
[29] Jersey Jersey
(British Crown Dependency)
2 April 2012
  • "Civil Partnership"
[30] Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 1 September 2011
  • "Registered Partnership"
[31] European UnionLuxembourg Luxembourg 1 November 2004
  • "Partnership"
[32] European UnionMalta Malta 14 April 2014
  • "Civil Union"
[33][8] European UnionNetherlands Netherlands 1 January 1998
  • "Registered Partnership"
  • On 10 October 2012 the law's scope was expanded to include the Caribbean Netherlands.
  • It does not apply to Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
[9] Norway Norway 1 August 1993 1 January 2009
  • "Registered Partnership"
  • Partnerships registered domestically before 1 January 2009 and certain partnerships registered abroad are still recognized as such.
[34] European UnionSlovenia Slovenia 23 July 2006
  • "Registered Partnership"
European UnionSweden Sweden 1 January 1995 1 May 2009
  • "Registered Partnership"
  • Partnerships registered domestically before 1 May 2009 and certain partnerships registered abroad are still recognized as such.
[35] Switzerland Switzerland 1 January 2007
  • "Registered Partnership"
[36] European UnionUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 5 December 2005
  • "Civil Partnership"

Unregistered cohabitation[edit]

Jurisdiction entry into force repealed notes
[37] European UnionAustria Austria 2003
[38] European UnionCroatia Croatia 22 July 2003 5 August 2014
  • "Union"
[18] 5 August 2014
  • "Informal Life Partnership"
[39] European UnionCzech Republic Czech Republic 2001
[40][41][42] European UnionDenmark Denmark 21 June 1986 1 October 1989
[43] European UnionFrance France 16 November 1999
  • "Concubinage"
[44][45] European UnionHungary Hungary 1996
[26] Iceland Iceland 27 June 2006
  • "Cohabitation"
[27] European UnionRepublic of Ireland Ireland 1 January 2011
  • "Relationship"
[46] European UnionNetherlands Netherlands 1979
  • "Joint Household"
[47] Norway Norway 1991
[48] European UnionPortugal Portugal 2001
  • "De Facto Union"
[49] San Marino San Marino 2012
[42][50] European UnionSpain Spain 1 January 1995
[51][52][53] European UnionSweden Sweden 1 January 1988
  • "Cohabiting Relationship

Future legislation[edit]

Marriage[edit]

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority[edit]

Greenland: A bill aiming for the adoption of parts[54] of Denmark's marriage law, as supported by the government of Greenland, was planned to be considered by parliament in the spring of 2014, but postponed to the autumn of 2014.[55] However, because of early parliamentary elections held in November 2014, consideration of the bill has been delayed. It had its first reading on 25 March 2015.[56] A second reading is planned to be held on 15 May 2015.[57] If passed, the law will come into effect on 1 October 2015.

Ireland: The government announced plans to hold a referendum on the legalisation of same-sex marriage in May 2015.[58] It was announced on 20 February that the vote will be held on 22 May 2015.

Jersey: On 28 May 2014 the deputy Sam Mezec of the Reform Jersey party submitted a proposition asking the Assembly of the States of Jersey to support, in principle, the legalisation of same-sex marriage and to request the Chief Minister to prepare the necessary draft legislation to give effect to the proposal.[59][60][61] On 8 July 2014, the Assembly voted for the amendment to the proposal, introduced by Senator Ian Le Marquand, to request the Chief Minister to present a detailed study into the effects of allowing same-sex marriage by 31 December 2014. The amendment was passed by 24 votes to 18 and the amended proposition by 39 to 1.[62][63][64] On 26 November 2014, the Chief Minister Ian Gorst published a report, which includes a commitment to introduce legislation to legalise same-sex marriage by the end of 2017 at the latest.[65][66]

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority[edit]

Austria: The opposition party The Greens – The Green Alternative submitted a bill to the National Council on 20 November 2013. It was sent to the Judiciary Committee on 17 December 2013. On 25 June 2014 the Judiciary Committee postponed consideration of the bill.[67]

Germany: The opposition party The Left submitted a bill to the Federal Diet on 23 October 2013. It had its first reading on 19 December 2013.[68]

Italy: Two bills were submitted to the Senate on 15 March 2013. A third bill was submitted on 5 April 2013. On 18 June 2013 the examination of those bills by several committees started.[69][70][71]

Slovenia: On 15 December 2014 members of the opposition party United Left introduced a bill into parliament. It had its first reading on 16 January 2015.[72] On 10 February 2015 the Committee on Labour, Family, Social Affairs and the Disabled recommended to approve the bill.[73] On 3 March 2015 the National Assembly passed the bill 51 votes to 28.[74] On 10 March 2015, the National Council rejected a motion to require the Assembly to vote on the bill again, in a 14-23 vote.[75] Opponents of the bill launched a petition for a referendum. After collecting 80,000 signatures, the petition was filed with the parliament on 10 March 2015.[76] On 26 March 2015, the National Assembly voted to block the referendum.[77] The bill awaits promulgation by the President.

Switzerland: The Green Liberal Party of Switzerland submitted a parliamentary initiative aiming for a constitutional amendment allowing couples to enter into a marriage or civil union "irrespective of gender or sexual orientation" to the National Council on 5 December 2013. On 20 February 2015 the lower house's Justice Committee recommended to approve the proposal.[78]

Non-marital partnership[edit]

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majority[edit]

France: In April 2014 a proposal for an amendment to the civil solidarity pact law, for it to apply to French Polynesia, was presented to the National Assembly.[79]

Greece: On 9 February 2015, the SYRIZA-led coalition government, sworn in on 27 January 2015, has promised to extend cohabitation agreements to same-sex couples.[80][81]

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majority[edit]

Italy: On 26 March 2015, the Senate's Judiciary Committee approved a bill, proposed by Senator Monica Cirinnà from the Democratic Party, that would establish same-sex civil unions and gender-neutral cohabitation agreements.[82]

Lithuania: On 25 March 2015, nine members of parliament from the Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Movement introduced a partnership bill.[83] Algirdas Butkevičius, Prime Minister and leader of the Social Democratic Party, expressed his opposition to the bill.[84]

Mutual recognition[edit]

European Union: Debate has occurred in the European Union over a proposal which would require each member to legally recognize each other's same-sex marriages as well as any member's civil unions and registered partnerships to ensure the right of freedom of movement for citizens' family members.[85]

Public opinion[edit]

Public support for same-sex marriage from EU member states as measured from a 2006 poll is the greatest in the Netherlands (82%), Sweden (71%), Denmark (69%), Spain (66%), Belgium (65%), Luxembourg (58%), Finland (54%), Germany (52%) and the Czech Republic (52%).[86] However, other polls have also placed Germany and France between 54% to 65%,[87] the UK at 61%.[88]

After the approval of same-sex marriage in Portugal in January 2010, 52% of the Portuguese population stated that they were in favor of the legislation.[89] In 2008 58% of the Norwegian voters supported the Marriage Act, which was introduced in the same year, and 31 percent were against it.[90] In January 2013 54.1% of Italians respondents supported same-sex marriage[91] In a late January 2013 survey 77.2% of Italians respondents supported the recognition of same-sex unions.[92]

In Ireland, a 2008 survey revealed 84% of people supported civil unions for same-sex couples (and 58% for same-sex marriage),[93] while a 2010 survey showed 67% supported same-sex marriage[94] by 2012 this figure had risen to 73% in support.[95]

A March 2013 survey by Taloustutkimus found that 58% of Finns supported same-sex marriage.[96]

In Croatia, a poll conducted in November 2013 revealed that 59% of Croats think that marriage should be constitutionally defined as a union between a man and a woman, while 31% do not agree with the idea.[97]

In Poland a 2013 public poll revealed that 70% of Poles reject the idea of registered partnerships.[98] Another survey in February 2013 revealed that 55% were against and 38% of Poles support the idea of registered partnerships for same-sex couples.[99]

In comparison, support tends to be the lowest in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Latvia, and Romania. The average percentage of support for same-sex marriage in the European Union as of 2006 when it had 25 members was 44%, which had descended from a previous percentage of 53%. The change was caused by more socially conservative nations joining the EU.[86]

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polls for same-sex marriage
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer
 Austria Market/ORF 2014 73%[100][101] 24%[100][101] 3%[100][101]
 Belgium Ipsos 2013 67%[102] 21%[102] 12%[102]
 Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 15%[103] 65%[103] 20%[103]
 Croatia Pilar's barometer 2014 17%[104] 61%[104] 1% – no answer; 21% – Neutral[104]
 Cyprus SIGMALIVE 2014 39%[105] 58%[105] 2%[105]
 Czech Republic CVVM 2014 45%[106] 48%[106] 7%[106]
 Denmark YouGov 2012 79%[107] 16%[107] 6%[107]
 Estonia ASi 2012 34%[108] 60%[108] 6%
 Finland Taloustutkimus 2014 65%[109] 27%[109] 8%
 France Ifop 2014 68%[110] 32%[110] 0%[110]
 Germany TNS Emnid 2013 74%[111] 23%[111] 3%[111]
 Greece A Kapa Research 2010 39%[112][113] 52%[112][113] 9%[112][113]
 Hungary Ipsos 2013 30%[102] 47%[102] 23%[102]
 Ireland RedC 2014 76%[114] 19%[114] 5%[114]
 Italy Demos 2014 55%[115] 42%[115] 3%[115]
 Latvia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[103] 77%[103] 7%[103]
 Lithuania RAIT 2013 8%[116] 82%[116] 10%[116]
 Luxembourg Politmonitor 2013 82%[117] 17%[117] 1%[117]
 Malta MaltaToday 2012 46%[118] 51%[118] 3%
 Netherlands Ifop 2013 85%[119] - -
 Norway Ipsos 2013 78%[102] 17%[102] 4%[102]
 Poland CBOS 2013 26%[120] 68%[120] 6%[120]
 Portugal Eurosondagem 2010 52%[121] 43%[121] 5%[121]
 Romania Eurobarometer 2006 11%[103] 79%[103] 10%[103]
 Russia Levada Public Opinion Center 2013 5%[122] 85%[122] 10%
 Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 19%[103] 81%[103] 0%[103]
 Slovenia Delo 2015 59%[123] 37%[123] 4%[123]
 Spain Ipsos 2013 76%[102] 18%[102] 6%[102]
 Sweden Ipsos 2013 81%[102] 14%[102] 4%[102]
  Switzerland Ifop 2013 63%[119] - -
 Ukraine Gay Alliance of Ukraine 2013 26%:

9% support same-sex marriage, 17% support some exceptions to allow same-sex marriages to be recognized depending on each individual cases.[124]

62%[124] 12%
 United Kingdom BBC Radio 5 2014 68%[125] 26%[125] 6%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Excluding the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
  2. ^ Excluding Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.
  3. ^ Excluding Northern Ireland, Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories.

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Dutch) Wet tot openstelling van het huwelijk voor personen van hetzelfde geslacht en tot wijziging van een aantal bepalingen van het Burgerlijk Wetboek
  2. ^ a b (Danish) Lov om ændring af lov om ægteskabs indgåelse og opløsning, lov om ægteskabets retsvirkninger og retsplejeloven og om ophævelse af lov om registreret partnerskab
  3. ^ (Swedish) Lag om ändring av äktenskapslagen
  4. ^ (French) LOI n° 2013-404 du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe
  5. ^ a b (Icelandic) Lög um breytingar á hjúskaparlögum og fleiri lögum og um brottfall laga um staðfesta samvist (ein hjúskaparlög)
  6. ^ (French) Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014
  7. ^ (Dutch) Wet openstelling huwelijk
  8. ^ a b (Dutch) Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba
  9. ^ a b (Norwegian) Lov om endringer i ekteskapsloven, barnelova, adopsjonsloven, bioteknologiloven mv. (felles ekteskapslov for heterofile og homofile par)
  10. ^ (Portuguese) Lei n.º 9/2010 de 31 de Maio
  11. ^ (Spanish) Ley 13/2005, de 1 de julio, por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio
  12. ^ Marriage (Same-sex couples) Act 2013
  13. ^ Marriage and Civil Partnership (Scotland) Act 2014
  14. ^ (Catalan) Llei 4/2005, del 21 de febrer, qualificada de les unions estables de parella
  15. ^ (Catalan) Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995
  16. ^ (German) Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz
  17. ^ (German) Gesetz zur Einführung des gesetzlichen Zusammenwohnens
  18. ^ a b (Croatian) Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola
  19. ^ (Czech) 115/2006 Sb. o registrovaném partnerství a o změně některých souvisejících zákonů
  20. ^ "Kooseluseadus" (in Estonian). Riigikogu. 9 October 2014. 
  21. ^ (Swedish) Lag om registrerat partnerskap
  22. ^ (French) Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité
  23. ^ (German) Gesetz über die Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft
  24. ^ CIVIL PARTNERSHIP ACT 2014
  25. ^ (Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
  26. ^ a b (Icelandic) Lög um breytingu á lagaákvæðum er varða réttarstöðu samkynhneigðra (sambúð, ættleiðingar, tæknifrjóvgun)
  27. ^ a b Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010
  28. ^ Civil Partnership Act 2011
  29. ^ Civil Partnership (Jersey) Law 2012
  30. ^ (German) Gesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (Partnerschaftsgesetz; PartG)
  31. ^ (French) Loi du 9 juillet 2004 relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats
  32. ^ AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto
  33. ^ Aanpassingswet geregistreerd partnerschap
  34. ^ (Slovene) 2840. Zakon o registraciji istospolne partnerske skupnosti
  35. ^ (German) Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
  36. ^ Civil Partnership Act 2004
  37. ^ CASE OF KARNER v. AUSTRIA
  38. ^ (Croatian) ZAKON O ISTOSPOLNIM ZAJEDNICAMA
  39. ^ Prague
  40. ^ (Danish) Lov om ændring af lov om afgift af arv og gave (Lempelse af arveafgiften for samlevende søskende og samlevende personer af samme køn)
  41. ^ (Danish) Nr BTL 117 Betænkning over I. Forslag til lov om registreret partnerskab Nr L 117 1988-89, 1. samling
  42. ^ a b International trends in legal recognition of same-sex couples
  43. ^ Code civil - Article 515-8
  44. ^ (Hungarian) 1996. évi XLII. törvény a Magyar Köztársaság Polgári Törvénykönyvéről szóló 1959. évi IV. törvény módosításáról
  45. ^ HUNGARY RECOGNISES COMMON-LAW GAY MARRIAGE
  46. ^ Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in the Netherlands
  47. ^ Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in Norway
  48. ^ (Portuguese) Lei n. 7/2001 de 11 de Maio
  49. ^ San Marino axes medieval law to let gay couples live together
  50. ^ (Spanish) Ley 29/1994, de 24 de noviembre, de Arrendamientos Urbanos
  51. ^ (Swedish) Lag (1987:813) om homosexuella sambor
  52. ^ (Swedish) Lag (1987:813) om homosexuella sambor
  53. ^ (Swedish) Sambolag (2003:376)
  54. ^ [1]
  55. ^ (Danish) Aleqa: Der er forskelsbehandling på homo og heteroseksuelle par
  56. ^ (Danish) [2]
  57. ^ (Danish) [3]
  58. ^ Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution (Marriage Equality) Bill 2015
  59. ^ "CIVIL MARRIAGES: SAME SEX COUPLES". States of Jersey. 28 May 2014. 
  60. ^ "Additional information for P.102/2014". States of Jersey. 28 May 2014. 
  61. ^ "Gay marriage proposition lodged by Reform Jersey". BBC. 28 May 2014. 
  62. ^ "CIVIL MARRIAGES: SAME SEX COUPLES (P.102/2014) – SECOND AMENDMENT". States of Jersey. 8 July 2014. 
  63. ^ "Same sex marriage law delayed in Jersey". BBC. 8 July 2014. 
  64. ^ "Gay marriage decision rejected by the States". Jersey Evening Post. 8 July 2014. 
  65. ^ Commitment to allow same sex marriage
  66. ^ Jersey equal marriage paper published
  67. ^ (German) Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Änderung
  68. ^ (German) Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts
  69. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 15
  70. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 204
  71. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 393
  72. ^ (Slovene)Zakon o spremembah in dopolnitvah Zakona o zakonski zvezi in družinskih razmerjih
  73. ^ (Slovene) Redefinicija družine v smer enakosti dobila zeleno luč
  74. ^ Slovenian parliament votes to legalise same-sex marriage
  75. ^ (Slovene) Državni svet ni izglasoval veta na zakon o družinskih razmerjih
  76. ^ [4]
  77. ^ (Slovene) Poslanci so zavrnili razpis referenduma o zakonu o zakonski zvezi
  78. ^ (German) 13.468 – Parlamentarische Initiative – Ehe für alle
  79. ^ (French) MODERNISATION ET SIMPLIFICATION DU DROIT DANS LES DOMAINES DE LA JUSTICE ET DES AFFAIRES INTÉRIEURES - (N° 1808)
  80. ^ "New Greek govt vows to back gay partnership law, following intl court decision and criticism". Associated Press (StarTribune). 9 February 2015. 
  81. ^ Pike, Molly Rose (9 February 2015). "Greece to grant legal recognition to same-sex couples". Pink News. 
  82. ^ (Italian) Primo sì in Senato alle unioni civili con una nuova maggioranza: asse Pd-M5s
  83. ^ 9 MPs register bill on same-sex partnership
  84. ^ PM against legalisation of same-sex partnerships
  85. ^ Report on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on measures facilitating the exercise of rights conferred on workers in the context of freedom of movement for workers
  86. ^ a b "EU Public Opinion: SSM" (PDF). Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  87. ^ "Couples homosexuels: Les Français sont pour l'adoption" [Gay Couples: The French are for adoption]. Le Journal du Dimanche (in French). 27 June 2008. 
  88. ^ Church 'out of touch' as public supports equal rights for homosexuals, The Times, 27 June 2009
  89. ^ "New England's largest GLBT newspaper". Bay Windows. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  90. ^ AVJonathan Tisdall  . "Support for gay marriage". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  91. ^ (Italian) [5] Datamonitor, 7 January 2013
  92. ^ (Italian) Il Rapporto Italia 2013 | L'Italia del presentismo Eurispes, 31 January 2013
  93. ^ "Increased support for gay marriage – Survey". BreakingNews.ie. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 5 November 2010. 
  94. ^ "Yes to gay marriage and premarital sex: a nation strips off its conservative values". Irish Times. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010. 
  95. ^ Poll finds Irish support for gay marriage at 73%
  96. ^ Poll: Over half of Finns favour same-sex marriage law
  97. ^ "Anketa za HRT: 59 posto građana ZA promjenu Ustava" (in Croatian). Slobodnadalmacija.hr. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  98. ^ (Polish) Polacy: Związki partnerskie? Niepotrzebne! [SONDAŻ TOK FM]
  99. ^ (Polish) Sondaż: Polacy przeciwko związkom partnerskim. [SONDAŻ TNS OBOP]
  100. ^ a b c "Österreich, ein Hafen der Ehe". Wiener Zeitung. 21 May 2014. 
  101. ^ a b c "Einstellung zur gleichgeschlechtlichen Ehe". Market/ORF/Tinypic. 7 January 2015. 
  102. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Detailed Tables". Ipsos. 18 June 2013. p. 13. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  103. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "EUROBAROMETER 66 FIRST RESULTS". TNS. European Commission. December 2006. p. 80. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  104. ^ a b c "Pilarov Barometar Hrvatskog Društva – Same-sex marriages". Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar. June 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  105. ^ a b c http://www.sigmalive.com/news/local/101742/dimoskopisi-apodoxi-i-oxi-tis-omofylofilias-stin-kypro
  106. ^ a b c "Postoje veřejnosti k právům homosexuálů – červen 2014". CVVM. CVVM. 11 July 2013. p. 3. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  107. ^ a b c "Le mariage et l’adoption pour tous, un an après". YouGov. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  108. ^ a b Teder, Merike (13 September 2012). "Uuring: eestlased pole samasooliste kooselu registreerimise vastu". Postimees.ee. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  109. ^ a b "Survey finds rising support for gay marriage". Yle. Yle. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  110. ^ a b c "68% des Français désormais favorables au mariage pour tous et 53% à l'adoption par les couples homosexuels". Ifop. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  111. ^ a b c "Most Germans support gay marriage, poll shows". Reuters. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  112. ^ a b c "Δεν αρκεί το σύμφωνο ελεύθερης συμβίωσης". Tanea. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  113. ^ a b c . Tanea. 20 September 2010 http://images.tanea.gr/assetservice/Image.ashx?c=15881978&r=0&p=0&t=0&q=100&v=1&s=1&w=800. Retrieved 18 August 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  114. ^ a b c Raidió Teilifís Éireann (20 February 2014). "Poll finds strong support for same-sex marriage". RedC. RTÉ News. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  115. ^ a b c "Nozze gay, per la prima volta oltre la metà degli italiani dice sì". La Repubblica. October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  116. ^ a b c "Support for same-sex partnership in Lithuania doubles over one year". BNS. Delfti. 19 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  117. ^ a b c Politmonitor. Luxemburger Wort. 10 March 2013 Politmonitor: Breite Mehrheit für Homo-Ehe http://www.wort.lu/de/lokales/politmonitor-breite-mehrheit-fuer-homo-ehe-518cc284e4b0778eec2894d1 Politmonitor: Breite Mehrheit für Homo-Ehe. Retrieved 15 August 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  118. ^ a b Vella, Matthew (5 June 2012). "Heartening change in attitudes to put gay unions on political agenda". MaltaToday. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  119. ^ a b http://www.ifop.com/media/poll/2255-1-study_file.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  120. ^ a b c "STOSUNEK DO PRAW GEJÓW I LESBIJEK ORAZ ZWIAZKOW PARTNERSKICH" (in Polish). CBOS. 2013. p. 8. Retrieved 9 December 2014. 
  121. ^ a b c "Portuguese Split on Same-Sex Marriage". Eurosondagem. Angus Reid Global. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  122. ^ a b "Vast majority of Russians oppose gay marriage and gay pride events – poll". Levada Public Opinion Center. Russia Today. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  123. ^ a b c "Večina podpira istospolne poroke, do posvojitev je zadržana". 
  124. ^ a b http://upogau.org/ru/inform/ournews/ournews_606.html
  125. ^ a b "Gay weddings: 'Fifth of Britons would turn down invitation'". BBC Radio 5. BBC. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014.