Recognition of same-sex unions in Mexico

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State recognition of same-sex relationships in Mexico
  Same-sex marriage (SSM) legalized at the state level
  Legalization required by 5+ court orders supporting SSM, but not implemented
  Partial precedent of 1–4 court orders supporting SSM
  Other type of partnership, with at least one court order supporting SSM as well
  No state law or court precedent, but recognition of SSM performed in other states due to federal law
Legal status of
same-sex relationships
Marriage
Performed
Recognized
  1. Can be registered also in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  2. Licensed in some counties in Kansas but same-sex marriage is not recognized by the state
  3. Only legal in St. Louis, Missouri
  4. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  5. Only if married in Michigan when same-sex marriage was legal

*Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

In Mexico, only civil marriages are recognized by the law, and all its proceedings fall under state legislation.[1] Same-sex marriage is legally performed in Mexico City and in the states of Quintana Roo and Coahuila, but explicitly banned in the state of Yucatán[2] (although the prohibition is limited to its performance within state boundaries, not its recognition, and it is still being challenged in the Mexican courts).[3] In addition, same-sex couples have been able to marry in individual cases in Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, State of Mexico, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Veracruz, and Yucatán. Same-sex civil unions are legally performed in Mexico City and in the states of Coahuila, Colima,[2] Jalisco,[4] and Campeche.[5] Since August 2010, same-sex marriages performed within Mexico are recognized by the 31 states without exception, and fundamental spousal rights (such as alimony payments, inheritance rights, and the coverage of spouses by the federal social security system) also apply to same-sex couples across the country.[6]

In late November 2009, the leading party at the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District (ALDF), the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), announced that it was fine-tuning an amendment to the civil code to legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico City, a project endorsed by the local head of government, Marcelo Ebrard, but strongly opposed by the second largest political force in the country, the right-of-center National Action Party (PAN) and the Roman Catholic Church. The bill found support from over 600 non-governmental organizations, including the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA) and Amnesty International (AI). On 21 December 2009, Mexico City became the first Latin American jurisdiction to legalize same-sex marriage. The law became effective on 4 March 2010.[7]

On 5 August 2010, the Supreme Court voted 8-2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law.[8] The Court later ruled on 10 August 2010, that Mexico City marriages are valid throughout the entire country.[9]

On 28 November 2011, the first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after discovering that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did not explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage,[10] but these marriages were later annulled by the governor of Quintana Roo in April 2012.[11] In May 2012, the secretary of state of Quintana Roo reversed the annulments and allowed for future same-sex marriages to be performed in the state.[12]

The 2012 Oaxaca case was pivotal in opening the door to legal same-sex marriage in every state in Mexico, through the injunction (amparo) process. Using international decisions, whose verdicts serve as legal precedent in Mexican courts, like the protections in the American Convention on Human Rights Karen Atala Riffo y Niñas v. Chile case,[13] the U.S. cases Loving v. Virginia and Brown v. Board of Education[14] and Mexico's own anti-discrimination ordinances, they ruled[15] 5 December 2012 that: 1) Laws limiting marriage to one man and one woman, or for the purposes of perpetuating the species, violated federal law requiring that they "correspond to all persons without any distinction" and 2) That such laws were unconstitutional on the basis of discrimination by sexual orientation and usurpation of the right, not only of the individual but also the couple's right, to form a family.[16] Barring legislative will to change State laws, a provision in the Mexican Code allows that five rulings in a state with the same outcome on the same issue override a statute and establish the legal jurisprudence to overturn it.[17] Thus, marriages obtained by injunction could be performed in any state, regardless of whether the state Civil Code had been changed.[18] It is also important to notice that a same sex marriage performed in any state is valid in all of the other states in Mexico, even if any particular state has no laws that allow it, according to federal law.

A landmark decision, issued on 29 January 2014, was the first injunction for marriage recognition in Puebla. The case involved a same-sex couple who legally married in Mexico City in 2012 and filed for spousal benefits with the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) in the state of Puebla, but were denied.[19] Because the complainant died during the injunction process, a lower court had dismissed the case, but the Supreme Court of the Nation, granted the injunction and ordered recognition of the marriage by both the state of Puebla and the IMSS. The injunction will require IMSS to extend benefits equal to married heterosexual couples' benefits to gays and lesbians who are married or have entered into civil unions throughout Mexico.[20][21]

Same-sex marriage[edit]

State recognition of same-sex relationships in North America & Hawaii.1
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Same-sex marriages recognized, but not performed
  Binding judicial ruling against a ban on same-sex marriage2
  Same-sex marriage banned2
1May include recent laws or court decisions which have created legal recognition of same-sex relationships, but which have not entered into effect yet.
2Some states in these categories also have a binding judicial rulings against bans on unions similar to marriage or ban unions similar to marriage.

Mexico City (Federal District)[edit]

On 24 November 2009, PRD assemblyman David Razú proposed a bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico City.[22] Luis González Plascencia, chairman of the Humans Rights Commission of Mexico City, backed the bill and said that it was up to the Legislative Assembly to consider LGBT adoption.[23] The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA), International Amnesty (AI), the AIDS Healthcare Foundation and over 600 non-governmental organizations supported the legalization of same-sex marriage in Mexico City.[24] The PAN has announced it will either go to the courts to appeal the law or demand a referendum.[25][26] However, a referendum on same-sex marriage was rejected by the Legislative Assembly in a 36-22 vote on 18 December 2009.[27] On 21 December 2009, the Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriage (39-20) in Mexico City. The bill changes the definition of marriage in the city's Civil Code from "a free union between a man and a woman" to "a free union between two people."[28] The law would grant same-sex couples the same rights as opposite-sex couples, including adopting children.[29] The PAN vowed to challenge the law in the courts.[29] On 29 December 2009, Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard signed the bill into law, which became effective on 4 March 2010.[7][30] On 5 August, the Supreme Court voted 8–2 to uphold the constitutionality of Mexico City's same-sex marriage law.[8] The Court ruled on 10 August 2010, that Mexico City marriages are valid throughout the country.[31]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
Party of the Democratic Revolution 34 34
National Action Party 15 15
Institutional Revolutionary Party 8 2 5 1
Labor Party 5 5
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 3 3
New Alliance Party 1 1
Total 66 39 20 5 2

Aguascalientes[edit]

In May 2014, a male same-sex couple requested an injunction against the Registry in Aguascalientes for refusing to allow them to marry and against the constitutionality of sections 143 and 144 of the Civil Code.[32][33] The injunction 1015/14 was approved 29 August 2014.[34] A lesbian couple also applied for an amparo in May[35] and received a favorable response 2 September 2014.[36] On 1 September 2014, Julián Elizalde Peña, coordinator of the organization, Collective SerGay of Aguascalientes, announced a third injunction had been requested.[37] 3 September 2014, the first same-sex wedding was held in Aguascalientes.[38] 13 October 2014 Elizalde Peña announced that a fourth individual amparo is pending and that a collective injunction is in process.[39]

In September 2014, Cuauhtemoc Escobedo Tejada, legislative member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced that a civil unions bill and possibly a same-sex marriage initiative were to be introduced by the Governor of the state for consideration. Escobeda Tejada further announced that if the Governor did not introduce a bill, the PRD would.[40] On 4 November 2014, Escobedo presented a Civil Unions initiative arguing that "marriage means protection to the mother, matrem, monium, protect, care for the mother," which is an insufficient concept for a civil contract which defines a partnership for "living together, forming a heritage, having children if they wish, and dealing with situations that arise for a couple." He acknowledged that a citizen's initiative on marriage equality had been presented a few weeks prior to his initiative.[41] Debate on three initiatives with different schemes for marriage and civil unions began on 21 November 2014.[42]

Baja California[edit]

On 13 November 2014, the Supreme Court of Mexico ruled that Baja California's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage was unconstitutional.[43][44] Because the legislature had made no efforts since 2011 to reform the civil code, a complaint was filed with the Comisión Ciudadana de Derechos Humanos del Noroeste (CCDH) on 27 November 2014. On 14 January 2015, Raúl Ramírez Baena, director of the CCDH, filed a petition with the governor and five municipal officers of the state requiring them to provide notification to the registrars throughout the jurisdiction on how to proceed with same-sex marriages in compliance with the Mexican constitution.[45]

On 18 March 2013, a male same sex couple applied to marry in Ensenada, Baja California. They were denied on the 21st and filed for an amparo 12 April 2014.[46] On 31 October 2014 the Seventh District Court ordered the City of Ensenada to allow their marriage,[47] which had been denied by the registrar a year and a half earlier.[48]

On 17 June 2013, a male same-sex couple were denied the right to marry in Mexicali and applied for an injunction.[49] The injunction was approved in October 2013,[50] but was appealed by the Registrar to the Supreme Court.[51] On 25 June 2014 the initial injunction was upheld and Mexico's Supreme Court deemed the state's marriage ban unconstitutional.[52] On 31 October 2014, the officer of civil registrar of Mexicali, Adriana Guadalupe Ramirez, notified the couple the decision would not be appealed, the refusal was withdrawn, and the marriage could proceed.[53] Though Ramirez scheduled the ceremony for 21 November 2014, when the couple appeared in the Wedding Hall to marry, the judge refused to perform the ceremony and the celebrants were evacuated after a bomb threat was received.[54][55] The Civil Registry claimed that discrepancies in documents had been rectified and announced a rescheduling of the wedding for 10 January 2015.[56] On 10 January 2015, the couple again returned to the registry for their marriage ceremony which was declined for the 4th time, under a citizen's allegation that the couple suffers from insanity. The citizen who made the allegation is an official who performs premarital counseling required by the city and who had refused to give the couple the certificate that they had completed the counseling.[57] In response to the ongoing controversy in Mexicali, the officials in Tijuana announced that they were willing to comply with an amparo and offer premarital counseling to LGBT couples.[58] Officials in Ensenada have also stated that they would honor an injunction and noted that though one was approved there, the couple did not ask for a ceremony.[59] Lawyers for the couple filed contempt of court proceedings against the mayor and registrar for failure to carry out the instructions of the Supreme Court. A hearing will be held before the Appellate Court and could result in the officials losing their positions or being disqualified from public office.[60] During a protest march scheduled by the LGBT community, officials in Mexicali announced that they were dismissing the accusation of "madness" and were ready to perform the marriage. On 17 January 2015, the first same sex male couple were married in Baja California.[61][62]

On 6 August 2013, a lesbian couple were denied marriage by the Civil Registrar in Mexicali and filed for an injunction. They received notice of their approval 524/2013 on 30 December 2013.[63] On 26 August 2014, the lesbian couple became the first same-sex couple to legally marry in the state.[64] On 22 January 2015, a lesbian couple applied to marry at the Civil Registry in Tijuana and were denied. The couple have vowed to fight the denial and insist that as federal law trumps local law, an injunction is unnecessary since the SCJN has declared Baja California's code unconstitutional.[65][66]

Three additional injunctions to create the jurisprudence for the law to be changed have been scheduled for filing in September 2014.[67]

A bill was introduced in the Baja California Congress on 12 February 2015 to fully legalise same-sex marriage in the state.[68]

Baja California Sur[edit]

On 9 April 2010, the organization La Comunidad Sudcaliforniana en Diversidad Sexual proposed reforms to the Civil Code to allow for same-sex marriage and adoption.[69] No action was taken by the legislature, as in both 2013[70] and 2014, local politicians deflected the issue saying that the public must be consulted.[71] Even after the granting of the collective amparo, the members of the local Congress advised that the issue of gay marriage had not been discussed and was not on the legislative agenda.[72]

In August 2014, 14 women and 4 men requested a collective injunction against Articles 330 and 150 of the Baja California Sur Civil Code, which bans same-sex marriage.[73] On 21 October 2014, the first amparo in Baja California Sur was granted declaring articles 330 and 150 of the Civil Code unconstitutional, according to the lawyer[74] who represented the couples.[75] On 27 November 2014, a group of 20 members of the LGBT community of BCS presented an injunction for equal marriage in La Paz.[76]

Campeche[edit]

On 31 March 2014, a lesbian couple applied for marriage in Campeche but were denied in April 2014 based on a decision that same-sex couples must join via the state's Civil Union provisions.[77] In July 2014, Mexico's Supreme Court denied them an injunction, but declared the current marriage laws were unconstitutional and told the local government that they must modify their Civil Code to allow same-sex marriages. It was later announced that the couple could marry after a district judge granted them an injunction, but the law must still be revised. PAN has said it will abide by the ruling.[78] The couple was married on 30 August 2014.[79] In September 2014 the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced that 16 persons, 10 from Campeche and 6 from Cuidad del Carmen have filed for injunctions and that analysis of changing the marriage statues is in progress.[80]

Chiapas[edit]

Various LGBT activist groups delivered documents to the executive and legislative branches of government and the State Board of Human Rights on 15 February 2012 recommending amendments to the marriage laws of Chiapas to comply with federal anti-discrimination provisions.[81] 29 November 2013, Diego Cadenas Gordillo, acting as a human rights activist, sent a bill to legalize same-sex marriage and reform the Civil Code and Civil Procedure for the state.[82][83] The proposal was rejected on 13 December 2013, citing that "popular initiatives" must be supported by 1.5% of the electorate, or 50,500 voters.[84] 3 January 2014[85] an injunction was filed before a federal judge because of the refusal of Congress to act on the initiative.[86] The judge denied the injunction against the Civil Code and an appeal was filed in the Twentieth Circuit Court.[85] In November 2014, the activist and lawyer Diego Cadenas Gordillo filed a request for formal intervention by the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (IACHR), claiming that the state legislature, the governor, nor the State Commission of Human Rights had responded to the discriminatory laws banning same-sex marriage in Chiapas.[87]

After January 2014 clashes between the mayor of Chilo, Chiapas[88] and religious groups, activists filed a complaint with the National Commission on Prevention of Discrimination (Conapred).[89] 27 March 2014, the Hon Alejandra Ruiz Soriano, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) filed an initiative to amend 19 articles of the Civil Code and 15 articles of the Code of Civil Procedure, to incorporate the concept of marriage as "the free union of two people for the community of life, where both respect, equality and mutual aid are sought." In addition, it also standardized the concept of cohabitation, disregarding a person's sexual preference.[90]

On 25 September 2014, a collective injunction was filed for marriage equality.[91]

Chihuahua[edit]

In December 2012, several human rights defenders and LGBT community agencies presented lawmakers with a proposal to amend Article 143 of the Civil Code of the State of Chihuahua, granting marriage equality.[92] After years with no legislative action, in July 2014, the PAN bloc announced that they would consider approving Civil Unions but not equal marriage, in the state. The LGBT community rejected the proposal because it does not provide the possibility for the spouses to share social security benefits or pensions, among other benefits of marriage.[93] In response to legislative inaction, a collective injunction was filed in July 2014 with the aim of having the Civil Code declared "unconstitutional."[94] 30 September 2014 PT Deputy América Aguilar Gil announced that legislation similar to that which passed in Coahuila had been introduced to Congress.[95] The collective injunction #3937-2014 was approved 13 November 2014 and declared Articles 134 and 135 of the Civil Code of the State of Chihuahua unconstitutional. It required reparations to the couples and the State Legislature to legislate for equal marriage.[96] In early February, 2015, the judge Cuenca Zamora ruled that the state of Chihuahua had an obligation to abide by the findings of the injunction. His legal opinion was forwarded to the Parliamentary Coordination Board to begin the legislative processes to implement change in the Civil Code.[97]

On 30 April 2013, a male same-sex couple asked the Civil Registrar of Chihuahua to marry. The Civil Registrar rejected it because the State Constitution defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman. On 7 May 2013, the couple appealed the decision of the Civil Registar and on 19 August, judge, José Juan Múzquiz Gómez, of the Tenth District Court of the Chihuahua State recognized that they have the right to marry. The Civil Registar had up to 3 September to appeal the decision.[98] The government of the state did not appeal the decision and allowed the deadline to pass, thereby allowing the couple to marry.[99] On 31 October 2013, the second couple in the state and first lesbian couple was awarded an injunction 389/2013 in the 7th District Court.[100] In February 2014, they married and were the first gay marriage in the city of Juárez.[101] On 22 November 2013 the eighth District Judge Ignacio Cuenca Zamora, granted the third injunction to a lesbian couple.[102] In December 2013, the fourth couple in Chihuahua were granted an injunction. They were first male couple to marry in Juárez and solemnized their marriage on 13 February 2014.[103] In February 2014, the fifth individual injunction to marry in Chihuahua was granted to Hiram Gonzalez, president of the Center for Humanistic Grouping Related to Sexual Orientation Studies (CHEROS).[104]

On 19 March 2014 seven lesbian couples applied for marriage at the 5th Civil Registry, were rejected, and applied for an injunction.[105] On 30 June 2014 six additional couples filed a collective complaint. In July 2014, a same-sex couple were granted the right to marry via injunction, but the judge gave no instructions for reform to the Congress, Civil Registry or the Governor of the State. Unsatisfied with the scope of the judgment, an appeal was launched on 16 July 2014. On 17 October 2014 the case was elevated to the Supreme Court and is the first hearing of an equality case from Chihuahua presented to the high court.[106] In mid-August 2014, the 6th same-sex marriage was held in Chihuahua.[107] On 20 August 2014 the seventh same-sex marriage occurred in the state. There have been four marriages in Cuidad Juárez and three in the City of Chihuahua in 2014.[108] However, as of July 2014, 33 amparos have been filed in the state, 22 in the capital and 11 in Ciudad Juárez, and nine have been approved.[109] On 13 December 2014, a mass wedding for same-sex four lesbian couples who had obtained injunctions was held in Cuidad Juárez,[110] which brought the total of same-sex weddings in the state to 14 for 2014.[111] In February 2015, it was announced that 25 amparos had been successful in the state, but no legislative action has resolved the unconstitutional articles of the Civil Code.[112]

Coahuila[edit]

On 5 March 2013, Congressman Samuel Acevedo Flores, Social Democratic Party, introduced a bill to the Congress of Coahuila to legalize same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples.[113] 11 February 2014, Congress approved adoptions by same-sex couples with a vote of 23 in favor and two against (National Action Party and Democratic Unity of Coahuila);[114] however, debate on marriage equality continued. On 8 August 2014, the Congress in Saltillo again began discussions regarding same-sex marriage.[115] The bill passed on 1 September 2014 making it the second state to reform its Civil Code and third district where a couple may marry without an injunction.[116] It took effect on 17 September,[117] and the first couple married on 20 September.[118]

Political party[119] Members Yes No Abstain Absent
PRI Party (Mexico).svg Institutional Revolutionary Party 15 12 3
PAN Party (Mexico).svg National Action Party 2 2
PVE Party (Mexico).svg Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 2 1 1
New Alliance Party 2 2
Coat of arms of Coahuila.svg Coahuila First Party 2 1 1
Social Democratic Party 1 1
Unidad Democrática de Coahuila.jpg Democratic Unity of Coahuila 1 1
Total 25 19 1 5

Colima[edit]

On 22 January 2013 the Civil Registry in Cuauhtémoc received a request from a gay couple to marry. After a team of lawyers reviewed the petition,[120] on 27 February 2013, basing the decision on the declaration of the unconstitutionality of discriminatory laws, mayor Vizcaíno Indira Silva, from the municipality of Cuauhtémoc, granted the first same-sex marriage license in Colima.[121] On 25 March 2013, the second same-sex marriage, and first lesbian union occurred.[122] A third same-sex marriage in Cuauhtémoc was held on 4 April 2013 for a lesbian couple and the registrar announced at that time there were 20 to 30 marriages scheduled on the calendar.[123] On 9 June 2013, a male gay couple was granted an injunction to marry in Colima, making the state the second in Mexico to win the right to marriage via "amparo" (injunction).[124]

On 14 June 2013, Rosa Lilia Vargas Valle, a judge of the Second District Court of the Colima State, ruled that the Colima Civil Code is unconstitutional in limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples.[125][126]

On 4 July 2013 the state congress approved an amendment to Article 147 of the constitution which formalized same-sex civil unions. Within 30 days, seven of Colima's ten municipalities approved the change to the civil code.[2][127] An appeal to the changes was filed and the Supreme Court of the Nation agreed in August 2014 to review it.[128] Deliberations began at the Supreme Court in September 2014 to determine whether the new Civil Code which provides only "wedlock" for same-sex couples and "marriage" to opposite-sex couples is discrimination via sexual orientation.[129]

Durango[edit]

In September 2013 PRD deputy in Durango, Israel Soto Peña, introduced a bill to legalize same sex marriage in the state. As no action had been taken on the bill, in February 2014, he requested that it be expedited.[130] On 10 April 2014, the bill was rejected claiming that it would not sufficiently address the legal changes necessary to correct the Civil Code.[131] In May, Soto Peña announced that he would revamp the initiative and resubmit it,[132] which he did on 1 November 2014.[133]

In December 2013 the first same-sex male couple was able to marry in Durango after obtaining an injunction. It was appealed and the Supreme Court of the Nation ruled in favor of the couple.[134] 13 November 2014 it was announced that 18 people had filed an injunction in Durango against the civil code defining marriage as only the union between a man and a woman.[135] A first hearing was scheduled for 27 November 2014.[136] On 28 November 2014, the State Congress and Government rejected the injunction stating that challenges to the Civil Code had to be made within 30 days of it being enacted thus were 66 years too late. In that regard, activists then escalated the injunction request to the Supreme Court of the Nation.[137][138]

Guanajuato[edit]

In response to the first amparo approval, on 21 February 2014, the PRD introduced a bill to the Congress to amend the Civil Code of the State so that marriages between same sex are allowed.[139] The plan was endorsed by the PRI on 26 February 2014.[140] A detailed plan to move the initiatives forward was introduced on 19 January 2015. The plan calls for review by area university law schools, the bar association, the state legislature, local officials in all municipalities and creation of a website for public input.[141]

On 14 February 2014, a lesbian couple who sued the state of Guanajuato was approved for an injunction to marry.[142] 19 March 2014,[143] the couple became the first same-sex couple to marry in the state.[144]

On 4 March 2014 Guillermo Romo Méndez, PRI deputy in Guanajuato, agreed to assist a group of 45 gay couples in submitting individual amparos to register their marriages in the state. 33 couples from Léon, 12 from Silao, 40 male same-sex couples and 5 lesbian couples made up the group of 45.[145] 19 March 2014 the first collective injunction for Guanajuato was filed for 30 couples in Léon.[146] On 3 July 2014, a male same-sex couple were denied marriage by the civil registry of Léon and filed for an injunction. On 25 November 2014, a judge in the first district ruled on amparo 02495/2014 and no appeal was filed by the state. The couple is planning to marry in January, 2015.[147] On 17 January 2015 the first male same sex couple to be married in the state were joined in Léon.[148]

16 September 2014, it was announced by the Association of Human Development and Sexuality in Irapuato that a collective amparo of 320 persons was to be filed.[149]

Guerrero[edit]

Gay rights legislation that could likely include civil unions was being debated in Guerrero in 2009,[150] but the legislation stalled.[151] In 2014, gay rights organizations were still pressing the legislature to approve same sex marriage and adoption.[152]

Though the couple announced they would marry on 28 September 2013,[153] the first same-sex marriage in the state of Guerrero, was held 5 June 2014 in the town of Teloloapan, witnessed by the mayor, Ignacio Valladares.[154] Valladares approved the couple's request for marriage based upon the Supreme Court of Justice's ruling that prohibiting same-sex marriage is unconstitutional.[155] However, Guerrero's Civil Code does not allow for same-sex marriage. Lawyers in the state declared the marriage was both illegal and void and indicated that the mayor could be prosecuted and an appeal filed with the Supreme Court for not following the injunction procedure.[156]

On 20 December 2014 the first same sex ceremony was held in the city of Chilapa de Álvarez, Guerrero, Mexico, though the civil marriage was conducted in Iztapalapa in Mexico City. The couple expressed that they felt it was important for them to have a celebration complete with rings from their godparents, vows, and a toast with their friends and families in the city where they live and work, to help other same-sex people gain societal acceptance.[157]

Hidalgo[edit]

A domestic partnership act was introduced in Hidalgo in 2007 [158] but stalled in the legislature as well as in successive congresses.[159] In October 2013, the legislature indicated there was not sufficient "maturity" in the society to accept marriage equality and that the legislature would instead consider a conjugal partnership bill.[160]

Due to the lack of legislative action, on 8 August 2014, a collective injunction for 6 LGBT people was presented to the twenty-ninth circuit of the Third District Court for the state of Hidalgo[161] to contest the constitutionality of Articles 8, 11 and 143 of the Family Code and secure the right to marry.[162]

Jalisco[edit]

In June 2014, PRI congressman Héctor Pizano Ramos introduced legislation to amend the Civil Code of Jalisco and endorse same-sex marriage.[163]

A female same-sex couple was able to become the first same-sex couple to marry in the state on 14 December 2013.[164] In December 2013, 12 couples of the same sex—eight women and four men—filed an injunction after being denied marriage. The injunction was granted 12 June 2014 and became the 2nd ruling invalidating the Civil Code of Jalisco.[165] In January 2014 a male couple went to the Civil Registry in Guadalajara and were denied marriage based on Article 258 of the State Civil Code, which limits marriage to one man and one woman. They filed for an injunction in the Fourth District Court.[166] On 8 January 2015 because the municipal government of Guadalajara challenged the right to an injunction, the case was elevated to the Supreme Court of the Nation.[167] On 24 March 2014, ten same-sex couples, went to the registry office in Guadelajara[168][169] and were denied their request for marriage. With the support of CLADEM they filed for an injunction.[170]

State of México[edit]

In 2008, an initiative for Civil Unions was launched in the State of México, but never advanced. In 2010, a citizen's initiative was presented to Congress for same-sex marriages. After 3 years, it had not been reviewed and thus in mid-2013 PRD deputy, Octavio Martinez, introduced a measure.[171] In January 2014 Martinez advised the PRD would continue to press for marriage equality and insist that it be discussed by Congress.[172] In January, 2015, Israfil Filós Real, president of the Civil Association of Vulnerable Groups called on the legislature of Edomex to act on proposals for marriage equality[173] and hate crimes as they have been pending without resolution for nine years.[174]

On 15 February 2013, four same-sex couples filed documents to marry at the Civil Registry of Toluca[175] and after their refusal, filed for an "amparo." On 24 June 2013, a federal judge granted the injunction ruling that the Civil Code of the state prohibiting their marriages was discriminatory,[176] but the state filed an appeal. The appellate Court on Administrative Matters of the Second Circuit in the State, declared itself unable to resolve the dispute in January 2014, whereupon it was escalated to the State Supreme Court.[177] Disposition of the case was set for 6 November 2014, however, the judge postponed the decision for an additional ten days.[178] On 25 February, 2015, the SCJN granted the injunction, and declared the Civil Code of the State to be unconstitutional and discriminatory, and contrary to the international treaties Mexico has signed.[179]

Michoacán[edit]

On 13 November 2006, it was announced that civil unions bill for Michoacán, would be formally proposed. However, as of August 2009, it stalled, meaning was not discussed by the local congress.[180] After marriage was passed in the Federal District, the PRD announced it would propose bills for equal marriage and same-sex adoption, along with same-sex civil unions (Law for Coexistence Partnerships) in 2010.[181] A bill was submitted in March 2010 by the Grupo de Facto Diversidad Sexual, which proposed both marriage and cohabitation, but did not mention same-sex adoption.[182] As with the previous proposal, it stalled.[183]

After 4 years of legal processes,[184] on 5 March 2014, a federal court ruled that a lesbian couple could marry. It was the first case in Mexico which was not elevated to the Supreme Court.[185] The couple married on 12 March 2014.[186] On 6 May 2014, it was announced that a second lesbian couple had obtained an injunction and seven more cases were pending.[187] They married on 16 May 2014 and subsequently on 15 August 2014 filed the registration of their twin children's birth, which registration also had been approved by an injunction. It was the first registration in the state of a child born to a same-sex couple.[188] Gerardo Herrera Pérez, leader of Grupo Facto de Diversidad Sexual en Michoacán, announced the collections of 100 signatures for a collective amparo in Michoacán in September 2014[189] and initiation of the first same-sex adoption in the state by a couple who are from Michoacán, but were married in Mexico City.[190]

Morelos[edit]

In Morelos, bills concerning same-sex marriage and adoption by same-sex couples were to be proposed by the Labor Party (PT) in mid-2010.[191] The proposal was rejected by PAN in February 2010.[192] A subsequent proposal was also rejected in March 2013.[193] On 30 July 2013 The Civil Partnership Equity and Community Participation asked a federal court to rule in favor of marriage equality in Morelos.[194] The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) announced in July 2014 that a vote on marriage equality will occur in September 2014.[195] On 19 September 2014, civil society organizations including members of the Lesbian and Gay Collective in Morelos launched impeachment procedures against the members of the Committee on Constitutional Issues for failure to follow Article 54 of the Internal Regulations of Congress. The impeachment proceeding declares the same-sex marriage initiative has been in committee for 20 months, but the committee is legally required to submit, to the full Congress within 60 days, their recommendations and analysis on initiatives.[196][197]

On 28 August 2013 a gay couple applied to marry in Morelos through an injunction.[198] In January 2014, the injunction 1202/2013-IV, was granted by the judge of the Second District in Morelos, who ordered the Civil Registry 1 Xochitepec, to process the marriage application. They planned to marry on 17 May 2014.[199] In January 2014, another gay couple began the process and in July were granted an injunction to marry.[200] An appeal was launched, but after losing the appeal,[201] the Registrar performed the marriage ceremony for the first same-sex marriage in the town of Ayala on 6 September 2014.[202] Marquez Edgar Ortega, director of Care for Sexual Diversity, announced at the wedding that six shelters have been requested in Moreos.[203] On 29 October 2014, a lesbian couple married in Cuernavaca.[204]

A lesbian couple has applied for an injunction in Cuernavaca[205] as the Civil Registry refused to recognize their same-sex marriage and allow them to divorce.[206]

Nayarit[edit]

In July 2014, a male same-sex couple was allowed to hold Nayarit's first gay wedding after a year of legal work.[207] On 8 July, a federal judge ruled the ban unconstitutional.[208] The couple married in the state's capital of Tepic. Four lesbian couples requested injunctions after being denied by the Civil Registry in early July 2014.[209] On 31 October 2014, it was announced by the Civil Association CODISE that nine couples were awaiting decisions on injunctions.[210] On 3 November 2014 a lesbian couple, the second marriage in the state, married in Tepic after being granted an injunction.[211] On 13 November 2014, the third same-sex marriage was held in Tepic for a lesbian couple who gained an amparo on 22 October 2014.[212] The 4th same-sex marriage in Nayarit took place in the second week of December, 2014, marking the third lesbian union in the state.[213] On 27 January 2015, the 5th same-sex marriage occurred in Tepic between lesbian partners. It was the first marriage in which the injunction had been approved by local authorities, rather than the federal district courts.[214][215]

Nuevo León[edit]

In September 2013, a federal judge ordered the Civil Registry of Nuevo León to register the marriage of a female same-sex couple.[216] Governor Rodrigo Medina said his administration would abide by the order, but only for that specific case.[217] On 13 November 2013 a male same-sex couple went to the Civil Registry Administrative Office 4 in San Pedro, Nuevo León, made an application for marriage [218] and were told to expect a response within one week. In December 2013, they filed a complaint at the headquarters of the Ombudsman in the State Commission on Human Rights against the Registry for failure to provide them with an official response.[219] In June 2014, Mariaurora Mota, the legal representative of Strategic Litigation, reported that nine injunctions have been filed in the state, but only one has been resolved.[220] The State Constitutional Court will hold a hearing on 12 September 2014, to rule on an "amparo" filed by 50 members of the LGBT community claiming discrimination against their human rights contained in Articles 147 and 291 of the Civil Code for the State of Nuevo León.[221] On 16 October 2014 the Supreme Court declared articles 147 and 219 of the Civil Code of the state unconstitutional and granted an injunction to 48 applicants for same-sex marriages.[222]

Oaxaca[edit]

As of 26 August 2012, a Mexican federal court judge has ordered the state of Oaxaca to perform same-sex marriages based on a recent constitutional amendment which bans discrimination based on sexual orientation. This ruling was reviewed by the Mexican Supreme Court and the Court issued a unanimous ruling overturning the ban on same-sex marriage.[223][224]

In August 2011 three same-sex couples, four women and two men, applied to be married and were denied by the Civil Registry in Oaxaca.[225] In January 2012 an injunction was sought, but was denied on 31 January. The couples appealed the judgment to the Collegiate Courts in Civil and Administrative Matters for the State.[226] On 9 April 2012, one of the lesbian couples was granted permission by a judge to marry in Oaxaca, thus becoming the first approval for same-sex marriage in the state. The case was appealed. On 5 December 2012 the three couples won their appeal from the Supreme Court,[227] but local officials refused to perform the marriages. The case returned to the Supreme Court and an additional ruling in favor of the couples was issued. The first lesbian couple received authorization to marry from the Civil Registrar on 25 February 2013.[225] They were the first same-sex couple married in Oaxaca and celebrated their marriage on 22 March 2013.[228] The male couple, received notice of their authorization on 3 June 2013[227] and on 5 June 2013, the third couple, the second injunction for a lesbian couple, was authorized.[229] On 23 April 2014, the Mexican Supreme Court set further precedent in the State of Oaxaca. The case brought before the Court involved 39 same-sex couples who sought the right to marry, and marked the fourth of five necessary decisions.[230] It was announced in November 2014 that a fourth same-sex marriage had been performed.[231]

Puebla[edit]

On 7 March 2013, a group of activists presented to the Legislature of Puebla a proposal, "The Law of Agnès Torres," which aimed at transforming Articles 831, 931, 932 and 935 of the Civil Code of Puebla and Article 751 of the Code of Civil Procedure to allow legal identity documents which are consistent with the personality and sex/gender identity of personal choice and protect LGBT citizens against discrimination.[232] 8 November 2014, a march was held by activists and supporters, urging the Congress to pass the law to protect identity and approve marriage equality.[233] The local Congress vetoed a Civil Unions bill in December 2014.[234] PRD, who backed the Civil Unions bill, have announced their intention to re-introduce the bill in 2015.[235]

There have been as of August 2014, no marriages performed in the state but an important recognition case was granted via injunction 29 January 2014. A gay couple, married in 2012 in Mexico City had filed an injunction after IMSS refused to register the partner of one of the men for spousal benefit. The landmark ruling from the Supreme Court of the Nation required the state and Social Security Institute IMSS to recognize the marriage.[236]

Equal Marriage Mexico, The Citizens Observatory of Sexual and Reproductive Rights, and El Taller AC began collecting signatures for a collective injunction in Puebla in early October 2014 with plans to submit the demand on 12 October.[237] On 15 October 2014, it was confirmed a collective injunction for same-sex marriage had been filed[238] by 36 people from throughout the state hoping to gain the right to same-sex marriage and have Article 294 of the Civil Code declared unconstitutional.[239]

Querétaro[edit]

On 28 February 2014, two same-sex couples filed for an injunction against the Civil Registry in Querétaro.[240] In August 2014, an injunction in favor of a lesbian couple was granted making them the first in the state to be allowed to marry.[241] On 25 August 2014, the second injunction was also approved.[242] As the officials did not object to the ruling within the 10 day period required by law, the first same-sex marriage was scheduled for October 2014.[243] The ceremony was held, at the same registry which had previously denied them permission, on 4 October 2014.[244] The third injunction in the state was requested in the first week of October 2014.[245] On 17 January 2015 the male same-sex couple who had applied for an injunction in February wed in Querétaro.[246][247] The third same-sex marriage in Querétaro was celebrated for a male couple on 28 January 2015 and it was announced that the fourth equal marriage for a lesbian couple will take place on 31 January 2015.[248]

10 September 2014, it was announced that the legislature would be considering, in the present session, a Civil Unions bill, as the two prior injunctions obtained were insufficient to require Congress to evaluate marriage equality.[249] 28 November 2014, Luis Bernardo Nava Guerrero, president of the Congressional Joint Commission, announced that the legislation would be postponed to 2015.[250]

Quintana Roo[edit]

Same-sex marriages can be performed in Quintana Roo after a decision by the state's Secretary of State.[12] In November 2011, some public officials in the state began performing same-sex marriages after reviewing the state's civil code. The Civil Code of Quintana Roo does not state sex or gender requirements for marriage, only specifying "people interested in getting married".[10] A same-sex couple filed for a marriage license in Cancún and Chetumal after discovering this legal quirk, but both cities rejected their applications, arguing that a man-woman marriage was implied. The couple then applied in Lázaro Cárdenas Municipality, where authorities accepted the application. Quintana Roo's first two same-sex marriages were held in the community of Kantunilkin on 28 November 2011.[251]

Cancún, Cozumel, and other resort areas in Quintana Roo planned to hold a same-sex group wedding in January 2012, but these weddings were suspended upon review by Luis González Flores,[11] the Secretary of State of Quintana Roo.[252][253] In April 2012, the two same-sex marriages performed in Kantunilkin were annulled by Quintana Roo Governor Roberto Borge Angulo,[11] but these annulments were later reversed by González Flores in a decision that allowed for future same-sex marriages to be performed in the state.[12]

In 2013, a lesbian couple were denied the right to marry and forced to obtain an injunction in Tulum. The Court concluded discriminatory acts had occurred and ordered the state to prevent further discrimination against homosexuals, requiring all Civil Registry offices in Quintana Roo to have marriage license applications for same sex couples.[254] After an initial approval, denial of acceptance by the Registry, and an appeal, the injunction was received on 29 July 2014 and the couple were wed on 12 August 2014.[255] A second lesbian couple were married in Tulum on 15 November 2014 and it was announced that the first male same-sex marriage was pending.[256]

In November 2014, it was announced that a bill to officially legalize same-sex marriage in the state would be introduced and voted on in the current legislative session, thereby replacing the loophole used by couples.[257]

San Luis Potosí[edit]

On 28 April 2014, a citizens initiative to change the laws in favor of same-sex marriage was submitted to the Congress of San Luis Potosí. On 8 August 2014, the Deputy Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights and Gender Equity, Miguel Maza Hernández said that analysis of the proposal would begin.[258]

In July 2013, a male same-sex couple applied under amparo 459/2014 for the right to marry. On 30 May 2014 the first district court found that Article 15 of the Family Code of San Luis Potosí was discriminatory and 3 June 2014[259] granted the couple an injunction to marry in the state.[260]

26 March 2014,[261] a male couple went to the registrar at San Luis Potosí, were refused marriage, and applied for an injunction 391/2014-III, which was approved 4 August 2014 by the 6th District Court.[262] On 7 August 2014, the First Official of the Civil Registry filed a counter-injunction to avoid recording the marriage.[263] In October 2014, the appeal was denied by the second Appellate Court of the Ninth Circuit and the registrar was ordered to conduct the marriage.[264] In November 2014 the State Commission of Human Rights (ECHR) announced that it was reviewing two complaints from parties who had received injunctions to marry but were being denied by the Civil Registry.[265]

In early September 2014, a lesbian couple applied for the first same-sex license in Ciudad Valles and were advised that state law forbids their union and the previous amparo granted applied only to the couple previously approved.[266]

Sinaloa[edit]

In January 2013, the Family Code of the state of Sinaloa was changed to limit marriage or cohabitation to couples consisting of a man and a woman. Three injunctions were filed to contest the changes, but two were dismissed.[267] On 12 July 2013, Seventh District Judge Teddy Abraham Torres López, of Los Mochis, granted injunction 262/2013/1 ruling that the Legislature of the state must comply with its obligations of equality and non-discrimination.[268] The case has been elevated to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation.[269] Within the state, 7 gay couples are seeking injunctions against the Civil Registry—3 in Culiacán, 2 in Mazatlán, and 2 in Los Mochis.[270] On 24 September 2014,[271] the Supreme Court granted the 3 injunctions sought in Culiacán and declared Articles 40 and 165 of the Civil Code unconstitutional.[272] In mid-October 2014, 70 people from Mazatlán applied for an injunction in the Ninth District Court, which is the fourth Sinaloan injunction requested in the state.[273]

On 23 November 2014, it was announced that for the first time, the Supreme Court of the Nation extended concubinage to same-sex couples in response to an injunction requested by a lesbian couple.[274]

On 2 September 2014, the deputy Sandra Lara, launched an initiative to amend articles 40 and 165 of the Family Code and allow for same-sex marriage in the state.[275] On 7 October 2014, the first reading of the proposal occurred.[276] On 5 November 2014, the Party of Social Encounter (PES) introduced an initiative into the Sinaloan Congress to prevent same-sex couples from adopting children.[277] In February, 2015, the conservative National Action Party (PAN) introduced a civil unions bill which bans children of same-sex partners from residing with their same-sex parents.[278]

Sonora[edit]

In the northwestern state of Sonora, an initiative to allow same-sex couples to marry was delivered to the state's Congress by former Labor Party candidate for governor, Miguel Angel Haro Moren, in January 2010.[279] The proposal was rejected in February 2010 and the state filed a constitutional challenge against imposing laws of the Civil Code of the Federal District, concerning same-sex marriage, upon Sonora.[280]

An important recognition case was filed in 2013. A male same-sex couple married in Mexico City in July 2012. They returned to Sonora and attempted to enroll as a couple in the Social Security program Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers Sonora. They were denied admittance on 8 October 2012 and filed for an injunction (amparo 2564/2013) with Court of Culiacan, Sinaloa. 9 October 2013 the court granted the injunction holding that the human right to form a family without discrimination had been violated.[281]

In early May, a female couple from municipality of Luis B. Sanchez were denied marriage by the Civil Registry. On 26 May 2014, they for filed an injunction in the Fifth District Court of the Fifteenth Circuit in Mexicali.[282] A hearing was held[283] on 17 September 2014[284][285] and the couple received a favorable ruling [286] on 22 October 2014.[287][288] The wedding was scheduled to take place at the Civil Registry for the municipality of Luis B. Sanchez on 13 February 2015,[289] but was held in a private home with the consent and participation of registry officials.[290]

A second lesbian couple applied for marriage on 11 August 2014 to begin the injunction process.[291] The injunction was granted in February, 2015.[292]

Tabasco[edit]

After Mexico City's Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriages and LGBT adoption in December 2009, debate resurged in states where civil unions had been previously proposed. In 2009 in the southeastern state of Tabasco, 20 same-sex couples sent a motion to the state legislature asking to allow them to marry.[293] The state's largest political parties, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), announced their support for same-sex marriage in the 2010 agenda.[294] Despite the support of political parties, there was no legislative will to change the law, so in April 2014 an initiative to reform Article 154 of the Civil Code of the State of Tabasco was presented by the organization Tabasqueños United for Diversity and Sexual Health (Tudysex) to legalize same-sex marriage in Tabasco.[295] In May 2014, the PRD announced that they would be willing to consider Civil Unions in Tabasco.[296]

According to a social media post by Alex Ali Mendez, lead attorney for Matrimonio Igualitario México, an amparo for Tabasco was prepared 20 January 2014.[297][298]

On 18 February 2015, the local newspaper announced that the first same-sex marriage had occurred on 13 February after a legal appeal to the Supreme Court of Justice.[299]

Tamaulipas[edit]

In 2011, a bill to provide "coexistence" for gay marriage and adoption was being promoted by local organizations in Tamaulipas.[300] In 2012, organizers presented legislators with 25,000 signatures in favor of marriage equality.[301] In 2013 the PRD agreed to bring the issue to the legislature and support the proposal.[302] As there appeared to be no legislative desire to act, activists in June 2014 planned to organize a group of LGBT community members to began the injunction process for marriage in Tamaulipas.[303] On 27 June 2014, an Indirect Collective Amparo challenging the constitutionality of the Civil Code Articles 124 and 43 of the State of Tamaulipas was filed in the Nineteenth Circuit Court.[304][305] 57 persons were granted the right to marry in Tamaulipas on 1 October 2014 by federal judges in both the Third District Court based in Nuevo Laredo and the Ninth District court, based in Tampico. The state has 10 days to file an appeal. This was the first time that an injunction has been sought for individuals rather than just couples. Should any of the single parties wish to marry, their partners will be covered.[306] It was also announced by the attorneys representing those seeking injunction, that an additional 68 persons had requested another collective injunction from Tampico.[307][308] 80 persons interested in a collective injunction in Matamoros filed in early October 2014.[309]

Tlaxcala[edit]

Two bills were presented to the Tlaxcala Congress on 2 October 2009 to legalize gay marriage and eliminate discrimination.[310] The initiative was blocked in 2010 by officials [311] and in fact, the state, along with officials from Guanajuato, Jalisco, Morelos and Sonora, sent a formal challenge to the acceptance of same-sex marriage passed by the Federal District.[312] In June 2011, activists questioned why no action had been taken and were told that the initiatives were still "climbing the roster."[313][314] In February 2014, a PRD deputy, Eréndira Montiel Jiménez, promised to present new initiatives to eradicate discrimination and for a law of coexistence.[315] The proposed law, introduced on 3 April 2014, outlined the legal framework to eliminate discrimination, to develop a form of coexistence "that has the purpose of marriage or concubinage," and to amend rules of adoption.[316] In June 2014, activists urged Congress to act in favor of same sex marriages and anti-discrimination ordinances which had been submitted by Montiel Jiménez.[317]

Veracruz[edit]

In March 2014, Cuauhtémoc Pola, deputy MP of "Citizens Movement," presented an initiative to introduce a Partnership of Coexistence law for Veracruz, but no legislative action occurred.[318] In July 2014 a federal judge deemed the current marriage law of Veracruz to be discriminatory.[319] Due to lack of action on the civil unions bill and the federal ruling, Cuauhtémoc Pola, introduced to Congress on 31 July 2014 a reform initiative for Article 75 of the Civil Code for marriage equality.[320] In September 2014 Pola confirmed that the bill was still awaiting review by committees.[321]

In February 2014, a male same-sex couple applied for marriage at the Civil Registry in Veracruz and were denied. They filed for an injunction[322] which was granted 22 July 2014.[323] Despite the approval the registrar in Veracruz refused to schedule a ceremony for the couple. After presenting their injunction to the registrar in Boca del Río, the wedding was scheduled for 6 December 2014.[322] The ceremony was conducted at the Civil Registry and it was announced that a second wedding for a lesbian couple is being planned.[324] On 29 January 2015, it was announced that a lesbian couple had won an injunction and would be married in the state on 4 April 2015.[325] It was also announced that there are 8 other pending amparos.[326]

Yucatán[edit]

In the southeastern state of Yucatán, the local Congress overwhelmingly approved a ban on same-sex marriage in a 24–1 vote on 21 July 2009. The law raised heterosexual marriage and families to the constitutional level via the approval of amendments to the state's Civil Code. The bill was promoted by right-wing organization Pro Yucatán Network to reject all efforts by people of the same sex to form a family and adopt children. PAN politicians justified the ban alleging that "there still aren't adequate conditions within Yucatán society to allow for unions between people of the same sex."[327] The event led to protests outside the local Congress by LGBT organizations, whose leaders were expected to appeal the case to the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation.[328]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
PRI Party (Mexico).svg Institutional Revolutionary Party 14 14
PAN Party (Mexico).svg National Action Party 9 9
PRD Party (Mexico).svg Party of the Democratic Revolution 1 1
PT Party (Mexico).svg Labor Party / CON Party (Mexico).svg Convergence 1 1
Total 25 24 1

On 26 March 2013, a male same-sex couple asked the Civil Registar of Yucatán to marry. The Civil Registar rejected the bid saying that the State Constitution defines marriage as the union of a man and a woman. The couple appealed the decision of the Civil Registar and on 1 July the Third District Court of the Yucatán State recognized that they have the right to marry. Since the Civil registrar did not appeal the District Court decision the order (amparo) will take effect.[329] [330]

Four male couples and two lesbian couples went to the civil registry office on 14 August 2013 to request to be married and were denied. They applied for individual injunctions and 3 of them were approved on 4 and 15 November and 17 December 2013 by the Courts in the First, Fourth and Third District. Both of the lesbian couples were approved and one male couple.[331] On 6 January 2014 the first lesbian marriage in Yucatán took place.[332] The second lesbian couple married on 25 January 2014.[333][334] On 18 February 2014, the male couple wed at the Civil Registry of Mérida.[335]

On 17 May 2014 a group of civil society organizations brought a legal action before the Constitutional Court of the State under the guise of "correcting a legislative omission." It was the first time a mechanism to correct an omission had been used in the nation as the basis of a suit. The organizations claimed 10 injunctions had been approved in the state without legislative action. The suit asked for Articles 49 and 94 of the Family Code which limits marriage to one man and one woman to be "considered in the broadest sense and that the gender of its members be undefined."[336] On 26 February, 2015, the Constitutional Court of the State of Yucatán announced that it will decide on 2 March whether state prohibitions against same sex marriage are in violation of the federal constitution and international agreements.[337] On 2 March, 2015, the constitutional court of Yucatán dismissed the appeal for constitutional action to change the the Civil Code. Supporters of amending the code have promised to appeal the decision.[338]

Civil unions[edit]

Mexico City[edit]

Being the seat of the Powers of the Union, Mexico City did not belong to any particular state but to all. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to directly elect the Head of Government of the Federal District and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly (ALDF) by popular vote in 1997. Ever since, the center-left Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) has controlled both political powers.

In the early 2000s, Enoé Uranga, an openly lesbian politician and activist, unsuccessfully pushed a bill that would have legalized same-sex civil unions in Mexico City under the name Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia (LSC; "Law for Coexistence Partnerships").[339] Despite being passed four times by legislative commissions, the bill repeatedly got stuck in plenary voting for its sensitive nature, which could be attributed to the widespread opposition from right-wing groups and then-Head of Government Andrés Manuel López Obrador's ambiguity concerning the bill.[340] Nonetheless, since new left-wing mayor Marcelo Ebrard was expected to take power in December 2006, the ALDF decided to take up the bill and approved it in a 43–17 vote on 9 November.[340]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
Party of the Democratic Revolution 34 33 1
National Action Party 17 16 1
Institutional Revolutionary Party 4 4
New Alliance Party 4 2 1 1
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 3 3
Social Democratic Party 2 2
Labor Party 1 1
Convergence 1 1
Total 66 43 17 5 1

The law was well received by feminist and LGBT groups, including Emilio Álvarez Icaza, then-chairman of the Federal District's Human Rights Commission, who declared that "the law was not a threat to anyone in particular and that it will be a matter of time before it shows positive consequences for different social groups." It was strongly opposed by right-wing groups such as the National Parents' Union and the Roman Catholic Church, which labeled the assemblymen who voted for the law as "sinners" and complained it was "vengeance against the Catholic Church from the more radical groups from the left, who felt it was a demand for justice."[340] The law officially took effect on 16 March 2007.[341] Mexico City's first same-sex civil union was between Jorge Cerpa, a 31-year-old economist, and Antonio Medina, a 38-year-old journalist.[341] As of December 2009, 736 same-sex civil unions have taken place in the city since the law became effective, of which 24 have been annulled (3%).[342]

In early September 2014, modifications to the Civil Union agreement were drafted to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and dissolution support. In essence, the law had provided that upon termination, domestic partners were only allowed support for a period equal to half the length of the partnership. The Supreme Court ruled that the provision was discriminatory as it accorded differential treatment in cases of partnership for cohabitation, marriage or concubinage.[343]

Year Unions Annulled
2007 257 10
2008 268 14
2009 211
Total 736 24

Campeche[edit]

11 April 2013 the Party of the Democratic Revolution introduced a measure to create a Civil Partnership of Coexistence for Campeche.[344] The bill was unanimously passed 20 December 2013, and while it covers both same-sex and opposite-sex couples, it specifically provides that it "shall not constitute a civil partnership of people living together in marriage and cohabitation." An additional distinction is that it is not filed with the Civil Registrar, but with the Public Registry of Property and Trade.[345]

Coahuila de Zaragoza[edit]

The legalization of same-sex civil unions in Coahuila had started to be discussed as early as November 2006.[346]

On 11 January 2007, in a 20–13 vote the congress of the northern state of Coahuila legalized same-sex civil unions under the name Pacto Civil de Solidaridad (PCS, Civil Pact of Solidarity), which gives property and inheritance rights to same-sex couples. Similar to France's Pacte Civil de Solidarité and Germany's Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft.[347][348]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
PRI Party (Mexico).svg Institutional Revolutionary Party 20 19 1
PAN Party (Mexico).svg National Action Party 9 9
PRD Party (Mexico).svg Party of the Democratic Revolution 2 1 1
Unidad Democrática de Coahuila.jpg Democratic Unity of Coahuila 2 2
PVE Party (Mexico).svg Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 1 1
PT Party (Mexico).svg Labor Party 1 1
Total 35 20 13 2

"The PCS represents a sensible response to the existence of citizens who traditionally have been victims of discrimination, humiliation and abuse. This does not have to do with morality. It has to do with legality. As human beings, we have to protect them as they are. It has to do with civil liberty," said congresswoman Julieta López, who pushed the bill, of the centrist Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), whose 19 members voted for the law.[348] Luis Alberto Mendoza, deputy of the center-right National Action Party (PAN), which opposed, said the new law was an "attack against the family, which is society's natural group and is formed by a man and a woman."[348] Other than that, the PCS drew little opposition. Bishop Raúl Vera, who heads the Catholic Diocese of Saltillo, declined to condemn the law. While Vera insisted that "two women or two men cannot get married," he also sees gay people as a vulnerable minority. "Today we live in a society that is composed in a different way. There are people who do not want to marry under the law or in the church. They need legal protection. I should not abandon these people."[347] Unlike Mexico City's law, once same-sex couples have registered in Coahuila, the state protects their rights no matter where they live in the country.[347] Twenty days after the law had passed, the country's first same-sex civil union took place in Saltillo, Coahuila. It was between 29-year-olds Karina Almaguer and Karla Lopez, a lesbian couple from Tamaulipas.[349] Since 2007, 196 same-sex couples have entered into a PCS, none of them have been annulled.[350]

Colima[edit]

In July 2009, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) introduced a formal initiative to legalize civil unions in the western state of Colima.[351] Nevertheless, the following month, the local legislature decided not to take up the initiative, following widespread opposition from right-wing groups.[352] In December 2009, Governor of Colima Mario Anguiano Moreno agreed to discuss the legalization of civil unions and adoption by same-sex couples in the current legislature.[353]

On 4 July 2013, the State Congress approved a new form of union, called "enlace conyugal" (conjugal bond) for same-sex couples, which according to PRI Deputy Martín Flores Castañeda grants the same rights and obligations as marriage, but it is doubtful whether such rights and obligations would be recognized outside the state.[354]

Jalisco[edit]

In 2013, deputies of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM), Citizens' Movement (MC) and an independent deputy presented the Free Coexistence Act (Ley de Libre Convivencia).[355] In it is established that same-sex civil unions can be applied in the state, as long as they are not considered as marriages, there is no adoption and they are performed with a civil law notary.[355][356] On 31 October 2013, Jalisco congress approved the Act in a 20–15 vote,[4] one abstained and three were absent.[356]

Political party Members Yes No Abstain Absent
PRI Party (Mexico).svg Institutional Revolutionary Party 17 15 1 1
PAN Party (Mexico).svg National Action Party 13 11 2
PRD Party (Mexico).svg Party of the Democratic Revolution 2 2
PVE Party (Mexico).svg Ecologist Green Party of Mexico 1 1
Movimiento Ciudadano.svg Citizens' Movement 5 1 3 1
     Independent 1 1
Total 39 20 15 1 3

Other states[edit]

Similar bills have been proposed by the PRD in at least six states.[150] On 7 December 2006, a similar bill to that of Mexico City was proposed in Puebla, but it faced strong opposition and criticism from deputies of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the National Action Party (PAN), who declared that "the traditional family is the only social model, and there cannot be another one."[357] On 15 March 2011, the Law of Society for Coexistence was first proposed.[358] After five reviews in the ensuing years,[359] on 8 June 2014 the law was postponed until a later session.[360] 29 September 2014, the legislature announced that there would be no discussion in this term.[361]

A proposal for civil unions was submitted to the legislature of Zacatecas on 30 June 2011 [362] and lawmakers admitted in 2013 that it was not prioritized.[363] In March 2014, legislators again refused to approve the measure.[364]

Public opinion[edit]

In a Parametría poll, conducted from 17 to 20 November 2006, 1,200 Mexican adults were asked if they would support a constitutional amendment that would legalize same-sex marriage in Mexico. 17% responded yes, 61% said no and 14% had no opinion. The same poll showed 28% in support of same-sex civil unions, 41% were opposed and 28% had no opinion.[365] From 27 to 30 November 2009, major Mexican newspaper El Universal polled 1,000 Mexico City citizens concerning the legalization of same-sex marriage in the city. 50% supported it, 38% were against it and 12% had no idea. The same poll showed that support was stronger among the youngest population (age: 18–29), 67%, and weaker among the oldest (age: 50-onwards), 38%. With 48% the most cited reason was "right of choice" for the supporters, followed by "everybody is equal" with 14%. 39% of the opposers cited "it is not normal" as the main reason to not support same-sex marriage, followed by "we lose values" with 18%.[366]

Guillermo Bustamante Manilla, a PAN member and president of UNPF, as well as the father of Guillermo Bustamante Artasánchez, a law director of the Secretary of the Interior, opposes abortion and same-sex civil unions[367] and has called the latter as "anti-natural."[368] He has publicly asked voters not to cast votes for "abortionists" parties and those who are in favor of homosexual relationships.[369]

A study conducted by Vanderbilt University in 2010 concluded that 37.8% of Mexicans support same-sex marriage.[370]

A poll conducted in July 2013 found a significant increase in support for same-sex marriage, with 52% of Mexicans in favour of legalising same-sex marriage. When broken down by religion, support was 52% among Roman Catholics and 62% among non-religious people. However, in the same poll, only 24% of respondents supported same-sex adoption.[371]

According to Pew Research Center survey, conducted between October 30 and November 12, 2013, 49% of Mexicans supported same-sex marriage, 43% were opposed.[372][373]

In early 2014 the Strategic Communication Cabinet, a statistical consulting services company, published a report called "Social Intolerance In Mexico",[374] in which polls that covered several social issues were conducted in the 45 largest cities and municipalities. The study found that the strongest support for same-sex marriages was registered in Mexico City, Tijuana, San Luis Potosí, Colima and La Paz; whereas it was the weakest in Durango, Ciudad Victoria, Aguascalientes, Chihuahua and Monterrey. Additionally, adoption by same-sex couples was more widely accepted in Mexico City, the border cities of Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, as well as Xalapa and Cancun; meanwhile the least support was found in Chihuahua, Guadalajara, Aguascalientes, Durango and Campeche.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  5. ^ "Legalizan bodas gays en Campeche". SDP Noticias. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2014. 
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  20. ^ [1](Spanish)
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  23. ^ Anodis (11 December 2009). "Preparan dictamen de matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
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  28. ^ a b "Mexico City assembly legalizes same-sex marriage". Associated Press. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
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  35. ^ "Realizarían en octubre doble boda ‘gay’ en Querétaro". Edomex.quadratin.com.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  36. ^ "Matrimonio gay Será un Hecho en el Estado: Colectivo SerGay | Página 24". Pagina24.com.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  37. ^ 04 Sep, 2014 Print this article Font size -16+ (2013-10-17). "Ya se Podrá Realizar la Primera Boda Homosexual en Aguascalientes". La voz de la nacion. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  38. ^ "Confía comunidad gay de Aguascalientes en la viabilidad de matrimonios entre parejas del mismo sexo". Aguasdigital. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  39. ^ Itzel Acero (2015-02-17). "Se debe legislar en cuanto a las sociedades de convivencia y matrimonio igualitario". LJA.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  40. ^ "Presentará PRD iniciativa de unión civil para parejas del mismo sexo". Galatvaguascalientes.tv. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  41. ^ Carlos Alonso López (2014-11-18). "Tiene el Poder Legislativo tres iniciativas sobre matrimonio igualitario". LJA.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  42. ^ "Mexico's Supreme Court backs gay marriage in Baja California". UTSanDiego.com. 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  43. ^ "Listado de Comunicados". .scjn.gob.mx. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  44. ^ comScore (2012-02-07). "Demanda de amparo contra gobernador y alcaldes por matrimonios gays - Baja California". Unimexicali.com. Retrieved 2015-02-27. 
  45. ^ Sin fecha de matrimonio segunda pareja homosexual
  46. ^ Ordena juzgado al ayuntamiento de Ensenada permitir boda gay
  47. ^ Ensenada también permitirá matrimonio entre dos hombres que se ampararon ante la SCJN
  48. ^ Víctor y Fernando los primeros en casarse en Baja California
  49. ^ Víctor y Víctor: Primer matrimonio gay en Baja California
  50. ^ Víctor y Fernando en la primera boda gay
  51. ^ "Mexican Supreme Court Rules Against Same-Sex Marriage Ban". Washington Blade. 25 June 2014. 
  52. ^ Registro Civil de Mexicali acepta casar a pareja gay
  53. ^ Amenaza de bomba y 'desacato' impiden boda gay
  54. ^ UPDATED! Chaos ensues when Baja California's first gay marriage is denied
  55. ^ [2]
  56. ^ Por cuarta vez impiden primera boda gay en Baja California; “estĂĄn locosâ€?, los denuncian
  57. ^ Prevén los matrimonios gay, si llenan requisitos
  58. ^ Pareja gay ya puede casarse en Ensenada
  59. ^ Demandan al alcalde de Mexicali por impedir la primera boda gay pese a un fallo de la Suprema Corte
  60. ^ Mexicali y la democracia que quisieron frenar
  61. ^ Celebra Baja California su primer matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo
  62. ^ Dan amparo a pareja gay; tiene aún recurso autoridad
  63. ^ Autorizan boda gay de mujeres en Mexicali
  64. ^ Niegan en Tijuana boda a una pareja de mujeres
  65. ^ Pareja gay intenta casarse en Ayuntamiento
  66. ^ Presentarán tres amparos más para lograr jurisprudencia en bodas gay
  67. ^ "Mexico: Baja California Congress may legalize gay marriage". San Diego Gay & Lesbian News. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  68. ^ Activistas de Baja California Sur proponen matrimonio gay en la entidad
  69. ^ BCS, lejos del matrimonio gay
  70. ^ No debe tomarse a la ligera la aprobación de los matrimonios gay
  71. ^ Matrimonio igualitario no está en agenda del Congreso local
  72. ^ Se amparan 18 personas por el matrimonio gay en BCS; buscan la adopción
  73. ^ Sentencian a favor del matrimonio igualitario en BCS
  74. ^ SCJN permite el matrimonio gay en Baja California Sur
  75. ^ InsistirĂĄn en legalizar el matrimonio igualitario en BCS
  76. ^ Campeche dice "no" a su primera boda gay
  77. ^ "Aprueban matrimonio gay en Campeche PAN dice que está bien". SDP Noticias. 17 July 2014. 
  78. ^ Tiene Campeche primera boda gay
  79. ^ 16 PAREJAS LÉSBICO-GAY, INTERESADAS EN FORMALIZAR UNIÓN
  80. ^ Homosexuales en Chiapas dicen no al matrimonio del mismo sexo
  81. ^ Piden organizaciones al Congreso aprobar matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo
  82. ^ Turnan al Congreso de Chiapas iniciativa para legalizar los matrimonios gay
  83. ^ Rechaza Congreso de Chiapas iniciativa ciudadana para legalizar matrimonio homosexual
  84. ^ a b Interpondrán recurso de revisión ante magistrados por caso de matrimonio igualitario
  85. ^ Gays de Chiapas meterán amparo pro Matrimonio Igualitario
  86. ^ Denuncian ante la CIDH negativa de autoridades de Chiapas para legalizar bodas gay
  87. ^ Alcalde de Chiapas hace campaña contra bodas gay y el aborto - gobierno
  88. ^ Campaña contra matrimonio gay en Chiapas
  89. ^ A unos pasos de legalizar los matrimonios "gay" en Chiapas
  90. ^ http://snag.gy/H2TUY.jpg
  91. ^ Segunda pareja gay gana amparo para boda en Ciudad Juárez
  92. ^ Gays de Chihuahua buscarán legalizar Matrimonio Igualitario vía amparo colectivo
  93. ^ Gays de Chihuahua buscarán legalizar el Matrimonio Igualitario vía amparo colectivo
  94. ^ [3][dead link]
  95. ^ Gana comunidad gay amparo a favor de matrimonio igualitario
  96. ^ Juez del Estado mexicano de Chihuahua ordena legalizar el matrimonio igualitario
  97. ^ "Seremos el quinto estado en celebrar uniones entre el mismo sexo". El Heraldo de Chihuahua. 23 August 2013. 
  98. ^ "Acepta el Estado que Registro Civil case a pareja gay". elpueblo.com. 4 September 2013. 
  99. ^ Otorgan segundo amparo a pareja gay en Chihuahua
  100. ^ Se casa la primera pareja del mismo sexo en Cd. Juárez - Estados
  101. ^ Matrimonio gay avanza en Chihuahua
  102. ^ First same-sex marriage takes place in Juárez
  103. ^ Ganan amparo para casarse cinco parejas del mismo sexo
  104. ^ Mas personas del mismo sexo buscan casarse en Juárez
  105. ^ [4][dead link]
  106. ^ Ya son 6 matrimonios gays en Chihuahua; todos gracias a un amparo
  107. ^ Se consuma la séptima boda gay en Chihuahua
  108. ^ Amparos para matrimonios gay costaron 30 mil pesos
  109. ^ [5][dead link]
  110. ^ Celebran primera boda gay colectiva bajo amparo
  111. ^ Mexico's Quiet Marriage Equality Revolution
  112. ^ Congreso de Coahuila inicia discusión sobre matrimonio gay
  113. ^ Aprueban adopción gay en Coahuila
  114. ^ Congreso en discusión del matrimonio homosexual en Coahuila
  115. ^ "Aprueban matrimonios gay en Coahuila". Vangardia.com.mx. 1 September 2014. 
  116. ^ "Legales desde hoy matrimonios entre homosexuales en Coahuila". Vanguardia. 17 September 2014. 
  117. ^ "First Gay Couple Marries In Coahuila, Mexico". On Top Magazine. 21 September 2014. 
  118. ^ Hilda Hernández (1 September 2014). "Aprueba Congreso local bodas gays en Coahuila" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  119. ^ Colima abre las puertas al matrimonio gay
  120. ^ Alcaldesa aprueba matrimonio gay en Colima amparada en la Constitución
  121. ^ Celebran segundo matrimonio gay en Cuauhtémoc
  122. ^ Se realiza la tercera boda gay en Colima
  123. ^ Abogado oaxaqueño logra que se consume matrimonio gay en Colima
  124. ^ "Abogado oaxaqueño logra que se consume matrimonio gay en Colima". Proceso.com.mx. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  125. ^ [6]
  126. ^ "Congreso de Colima aprueba uniones civiles entre personas del mismo sexo". CNN México. 4 July 2013. 
  127. ^ SCJN analizará amparo sobre unión gay en Colima; podrían ‘tumbar’ enlaces conyugales
  128. ^ Revisarán normas sobre uniones homosexuales y heterosexuales
  129. ^ Matrimonio gay sigue "congelado" en Durango
  130. ^ "No acepto"; dicen legisladores de Durango al matrimonio gay
  131. ^ 'Sin fondo' iniciativa para matrimonios gay en Durango
  132. ^ Promoverán matrimonios igualitarios en Durango
  133. ^ Se celebra en Durango la primera boda gay - Periódico Contexto de Durango
  134. ^ Se amparan 18 personas contra el Congreso para que se permitan uniones personas del mismo sexo
  135. ^ Durango se une contra las leyes "homofóbicas"
  136. ^ Ahora Diario – Rechazan amparo de matrimonio igualitario con “Argumentos homófogos”: Comunidad Gay
  137. ^ Responden a amparo de comunidad gay
  138. ^ PRD propone que Guanajuato permita matrimonios gay
  139. ^ PRI se suma a matrimonios gay en Guanajuato
  140. ^ Ahora Congreso de Guanajuato va por “matrimonio” homosexual
  141. ^ Amparo despierta interés en comunidad gay
  142. ^ Primera boda gay en #Guanajuato
  143. ^ "Lesbian Couple Marries In Mexican State Of Guanajuato". On Top Magazine. 20 March 2014. 
  144. ^ PRI apoyará a 45 parejas gays para que se casen en Guanajuato
  145. ^ Asi Sucede Guanajuato - Page 55
  146. ^ Periódico Correo Pareja ‘gay’ obtiene amparo para casarse
  147. ^ Impiden a pareja gay casarse en plaza de León; lo hacen en pizzería
  148. ^ Promueven amparo para legalizar bodas gay en Guanajuato
  149. ^ a b Christine Delsol (26 November 2008). "Mexico's top destinations for gay vacations". San Francisco Gate. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  150. ^ Primer matrimonio gay en Guerrero, pese a que no hay ley de convivencia
  151. ^ Pide Marcha Legalizar Matrimonios Gay
  152. ^ Se consuma el primer matrimonio gay en Acapulco; se casa Igor Petit
  153. ^ Celebran la primera boda gay en Guerrero
  154. ^ Mientras tanto, en Guerrero se llevó a cabo primera unión civil entre gays
  155. ^ Ilegal y nulo, primer matrimonio gay en Guerrero
  156. ^ Contrae matrimonio civil la primera pareja homosexual radicada en Chilapa - El Sur de Acapulco I Periódico de Guerrero
  157. ^ Presentan iniciativa de Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia para Hidalgo
  158. ^ Hidalgo no legislarα bodas gay
  159. ^ Matrimonios gay dependen de “madurez”
  160. ^ [7][dead link]
  161. ^ Se amparan en Hidalgo para realizar bodas gay
  162. ^ Buscan avalar matrimonios gay en Jalisco
  163. ^ TolucaGarcia, Michelle (15 December 2013). "Lesbian Couple First to Marry in Mexican State". Advocate.com. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  164. ^ Otra pareja gay obtiene amparo federal para contraer matrimonio
  165. ^ Pareja de hombres busca segundo matrimonio civil en Jalisco
  166. ^ Con amparo, buscan matrimonio parejas del mismo sexo
  167. ^ Video: Luchan por matrimonio gay en México
  168. ^ Cladem: ayuntamiento de Guadalajara negó casar a 10 parejas del mismo sexo, pese al precedente legal
  169. ^ Parejas lésbico-gay inician lucha jurídica para casarse
  170. ^ Plana Mayor - Periodismo que se Escribe
  171. ^ PRD insistirá en legalizar matrimonio gay en Edomex
  172. ^ Políticos solo hablan de la diversidad sexual en tiempos de campaña
  173. ^ Denuncian “limbo” judicial de la PGJ del Edomex en crímenes contra gays
  174. ^ Parejas gays sueñan con casarse - Toluca
  175. ^ [8]
  176. ^ Persiste lucha de la comunidad LGBT por derecho al matrimonio
  177. ^ Aplazan 10 días amparo de cuatro parejas gay de Toluca para casarse
  178. ^ Reconoce SCJN matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo en Edomex; ordena modificar legislación
  179. ^ Edgar Raziel Ramirez Avila (15 August 2009). "Sociedad de convivencia en Michoacán" (in Spanish). Cambio en Michoacán. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  180. ^ Nicolás Casimiro (25 December 2009). "Matrimonios gay y despenalización del aborto, en la agenda del PRD para 2010" (in Spanish). Quadratín. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 
  181. ^ Recibe Michoacán propuesta para legalizar bodas gay
  182. ^ Matrimonios gay, tema pendiente en el Congreso en Morelia
  183. ^ Primera boda del mismo sexo, en Michoacán | Estados
  184. ^ El politico de cordoba - Michoacán tendrá su primer matrimonio gay
  185. ^ Confirman validez constitucional del primer matrimonio gay en Michoacán
  186. ^ En puerta segundo matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo en Michoacán
  187. ^ [9][dead link]
  188. ^ Preparan amparo colectivo para realizar enlaces nupciales entre personas del mismo sexo
  189. ^ Pareja gay de Michoacán inicia trámites para adoptar a menor
  190. ^ José Luis Garcitapia and Dulce Maya (22 January 2010). "Iniciativa del PT a favor de los matrimonios gay" (in Spanish). La Jornada Morelos. Retrieved 23 January 2010. 
  191. ^ Los gobiernos de Jalisco y Morelos se unen contra los matrimonios gay
  192. ^ Por el "orden natural", PAN rechaza matrimonio igualitario en Morelos
  193. ^ "Va amparo para unión igual sexo". Diario De Morelos. 31 July 2013. 
  194. ^ [10][dead link]
  195. ^ Demandan juicio político contra la Comisión de Puntos Constitucionales
  196. ^ [11][dead link]
  197. ^ El Regional
  198. ^ Primera boda gay en Xochi
  199. ^ "Sí habrá boda gay en Ayala". Diario De Morelos. 16 July 2014. 
  200. ^ [12][dead link]
  201. ^ [13][dead link]
  202. ^ Se casan dos hombres, tras ganar un amparo en Morelos
  203. ^ Pareja del mismo sexo se casa en Cuernavaca bajo amparo - Nota - Estados
  204. ^ Avala Barud que se legisle sobre los matrimonios gay
  205. ^ [14]
  206. ^ "Se consumó en Tepic matrimonio gay que había quedado pendiente". Periodico Avance. 1 July 2014. 
  207. ^ "Tribunales confirman validez del matrimonio gay en Nayarit". El Economista. 8 July 2014. 
  208. ^ 4 parejas de mujeres solicitan casarse en Tepic
  209. ^ Nueve parejas gay buscan casarse en Nayarit
  210. ^ Legalizan matrimonio de dos mujeres en Nayarit
  211. ^ Segunda boda entre mujeres en Nayarit
  212. ^ Realidades de Nayarit
  213. ^ Celebra Registro Civil Matrimonio Monoparental Entre Mujeres
  214. ^ Se Formalizó Matrimonio De Personas del Mismo Sexo
  215. ^ Amparo abre puerta al matrimonio gay en NL
  216. ^ Aquí va a pasar algo
  217. ^ Pareja homosexual pide apoyo a CEDH para casarse en NL
  218. ^ Registro Civil incumple con respuesta oficial a pareja gay en Nuevo León, México
  219. ^ Sí hay bodas gay en NL
  220. ^ Con amparo luchan por matrimonios igualitarios
  221. ^ Juzgado abre la puerta a 48 bodas gay en NL
  222. ^ "Mexican judge orders state to perform homosexual 'marriages'". Lifesitenews.com. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  223. ^ "Mexico Supreme Court Rules In Favor Of Marriage Equality". ThinkProgress. 5 December 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  224. ^ a b Todo listo para el primer matrimonio homosexual en Oaxaca
  225. ^ Abren puerta al matrimonio universal en Oaxaca
  226. ^ a b Notifica Corte segundo amparo sobre matrimonio universal en Oaxaca
  227. ^ Oaxaca celebra su primer matrimonio gay tras un amparo de la Suprema Corte
  228. ^ Suprema Corte avala segundo matrimonio gay en Oaxaca
  229. ^ "La SCJN declara inconstitucional prohibición del matrimonio gay en Oaxaca" (in Spanish). CNN México. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  230. ^ Al menos cuatro parejas gay se han casado en Oaxaca
  231. ^ Presentan propuesta de Reforma de Ley Agnes Torres
  232. ^ Marchan en Puebla para exigir legislación que proteja los derechos de la población LGBTT
  233. ^ Bloquea el Congreso durante cuatro legislaturas la despenalización del aborto
  234. ^ PRD propondrá legalizar aborto y sociedades de convivencia en Puebla
  235. ^ Gay Couples In Mexico To Access Social Security, Health Benefits
  236. ^ Van por el matrimonio igualitario en Puebla
  237. ^ Homosexuales en Puebla iniciarán proceso jurídico para casarse
  238. ^ Interponen amparo para que se reconozcan matrimonios gay en Puebla
  239. ^ Amparo a parejas gay
  240. ^ "Amparo logra otro matrimonio gay en México esta vez en Querétaro". SDPNoticias. 22 August 2014. 
  241. ^ Ordenan segunda boda gay en Querétaro
  242. ^ Primera boda gay será en octubre entre Fernanda y Mariana
  243. ^ Primera boda gay
  244. ^ En trámite, amparo para tercera boda gay
  245. ^ Celebran primera boda entre dos hombres en Querétaro
  246. ^ Pareja de hombres contrae matrimonio en Querétaro
  247. ^ Celebran hoy tercera boda gay
  248. ^ [15][dead link]
  249. ^ [16][dead link]
  250. ^ Brisa Muñoz (30 November 2011). "Sin hacer una reforma legal, Quintana Roo realiza sus primeras bodas gay" (in Spanish). CNN México. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  251. ^ "Gay Marriage In Cancun, Mexico Suspended". On Top Magazine. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  252. ^ Brisa Muñoz (2 December 2011). "Dos matrimonios homosexuales se casaron en un municipio conservador" (in Spanish). CNN México. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 
  253. ^ First gay marriage is celebrated in Tulum
  254. ^ Alistan primera boda gay en Tulum
  255. ^ Se casa la segunda pareja gay en Tulum
  256. ^ (Spanish) Ingresan al Congreso uniones gay
  257. ^ En análisis iniciativa del matrimonio igualitario –
  258. ^ Más homosexuales pueden casarse en SLP
  259. ^ "Adecuarán la ley para bodas gay". PulsoSLP. 7 June 2014. 
  260. ^ Pareja gay de SLP busca amparo para casarse
  261. ^ Conceden primer amparo a pareja gay en San Luis Potosí; se prevé cascada de nuevas demandas
  262. ^ Registro Civil trata de impedir boda gay en SLP San Luis Potosí, SLP
  263. ^ Justicia federal se pronuncia a favor del matrimonio homosexual, EL EXPRÉS, San Luis Potosí
  264. ^ Emitiría CEDH recomendación al Registro Civil
  265. ^ Primer pareja gay Vallense busca contraer matrimonio Civil
  266. ^ Suprema Corte decidirá si prohibir matrimonio gay en Sinaloa es constitucional
  267. ^ Avanza matrimonio igualitario en Sinaloa
  268. ^ Listado de Comunicados
  269. ^ Pareja del mismo sexo logra casarse en Sinaloa
  270. ^ Periódico Noroeste
  271. ^ Avala la SCJN matrimonios del mismo sexo en Sinaloa
  272. ^ Buscan en Mazatlán unión igualitaria
  273. ^ Corte protege concubinato homosexual
  274. ^ Personas del mismo sexo podrían casarse en Sinaloa
  275. ^ Se Pronuncia El Pas Por Analizar En Profundidad Propuesta Sobre Matrimonios Entre Personas Del Mismo Sexo
  276. ^ Busca el PES evitar que parejas del mismo sexo adopten niños
  277. ^ Proponen panistas ley de convivencia
  278. ^ Ulises Gutiérrez (13 January 2010). "Proponen matrimonio homosexual en Sonora" (in Spanish). La Jornada. Retrieved 16 January 2010. 
  279. ^ Sonora tambiйn rechaza matrimonios gay
  280. ^ Sonora Ciudadana
  281. ^ A un paso de ser realidad, primer boda gay en SLRC
  282. ^ Avanza amparo para boda civil
  283. ^ Otra pareja homosexual interesada en matrimonio en SLRC
  284. ^ Esperan resolución de matrimonio gay
  285. ^ Autorizan boda gay en SL
  286. ^ Logran sentencia para "matrimonio gay"
  287. ^ Juez da “luz verde” a primer boda gay
  288. ^ El 13 celebrarán la primera boda homosexual
  289. ^ First same-sex marriage in Mexican state of Sonora performed today
  290. ^ Surge nuevo caso de matrimonio “gay”
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  312. ^ Marcha comunidad gay de Tlaxcala en demanda de ley
  313. ^ Demanda comunidad gay de Tlaxcala ley contra discriminación
  314. ^ Anuncia diputada agenda legislativa que permita el respeto a la diversidad sexual en Tlaxcala
  315. ^ Presentan en Tlaxcala iniciativa para crear Ley de Sociedades de Convivencia
  316. ^ Comunidad gay de Tlaxcala no cejará en su lucha por defender derechos; dicen que también pagan impuestos
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  323. ^ ¡Lo lograron! Celebra Veracruz primer matrimonio gay
  324. ^ Se efectuará segundo patrimonio gay con amparo en Veracruz
  325. ^ Gana pareja del mismo sexo juicio en Veracruz y se casará en abril
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  333. ^ Libertad de Expresión Yucatán: Celebran tercera boda gay en Yucatán
  334. ^ 4 "bodas gays" en Yucatán y contando
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  336. ^ Bajo análisis una demanda en contra del Congreso estatal
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  360. ^ Congreso de Puebla no abordará despenalización del aborto y sociedades de convivencia
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  363. ^ Rehúyen diputados tema de matrimonio gay
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