Recognition of same-sex unions in North America

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State recognition of same-sex relationships in North America & Hawaii.
  Same-sex marriage1
  Same-sex marriages recognized, but not performed1
  Other type of partnership1
  No recognition, only same-sex marriage banned
  No recognition, marriage and civil unions banned
1May include recent laws or court decisions which have created legal recognition of same-sex relationships, but which have not entered into effect yet.
Legal recognition of
same-sex relationships
Marriage
Recognized
  1. Can be registered also in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  2. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage

Commencement dates:
  1. To be determined
  2. June 1, 2014 for statewide
LGBT portal

Currently, Canada is the only country in North America that allows same-sex couples to marry anywhere within its boundaries. Same-sex marriages are also performed in seventeen U.S. states, eight U.S. tribal jurisdictions, two Mexican states (although such marriages are recognized throughout the 31 states of Mexico), and in the Caribbean Netherlands. Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten register same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands. In addition, five U.S. states and four Mexican states perform some sort of civil union.

Current situation[edit]

National level[edit]

Status Country Legal since
Marriage
(1 country)
Canada Canada 2005
Limited recognition
(2 countries)
Mexico Mexico 2010
United States United States* 2013
No recognition
(18 countries)
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda
The Bahamas Bahamas
Barbados Barbados
Belize Belize
Costa Rica Costa Rica
Dominica Dominica
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
El Salvador El Salvador
Grenada Grenada
Guatemala Guatemala
Haiti Haiti
Jamaica Jamaica
Nicaragua Nicaragua
Panama Panama
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago
Constitutional ban on marriage
(2 countries)
Cuba Cuba
Honduras Honduras

*The U.S. federal government recognizes same-sex marriages performed in U.S. states and other countries, where legal.

Sub-national level[edit]

Status Jurisdiction Country Legal since
Performing marriages
(33 jurisdictions)
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands:
  • Bonaire Bonaire
  • Sint Eustatius Saint Eustatius
  • Saba Saba
Netherlands Netherlands 2012
California California United States United States 2013
Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes United States United States
Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation United States United States 2013
Connecticut Connecticut United States United States 2008
Coquille Indian Tribe United States United States 2009
Delaware Delaware United States United States 2013
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia United States United States 2010
France French departments (divisions of France):
  • Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
  • Martinique Martinique
France France 2013
Hawaii Hawaii United States United States 2013
Illinois Illinois United States United States 2014*
Iowa Iowa United States United States 2009
Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe United States United States 2013
Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians United States United States 2013
Maine Maine United States United States 2012
Maryland Maryland United States United States 2013
Massachusetts Massachusetts United States United States 2004
Mexico City Mexico City Mexico Mexico 2010
Minnesota Minnesota United States United States 2013
New Hampshire New Hampshire United States United States 2010
New Jersey New Jersey United States United States 2013
New Mexico New Mexico United States United States 2013
New York New York United States United States 2011
Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians United States United States 2013
Quintana Roo Quintana Roo Mexico Mexico 2012
Rhode Island Rhode Island United States United States 2013
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy France France 2013
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin France France 2013
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre & Miquelon France France 2013
Santa Ysabel Tribe United States United States 2013
Suquamish Tribe United States United States 2011
Vermont Vermont United States United States 2009
Washington (state) Washington United States United States 2012
Recognizing marriages,
but not performing them
(33 jurisdictions)
Aruba Aruba (Dutch only) Netherlands Netherlands 2007
Curaçao Curaçao (Dutch only) Netherlands Netherlands 2007
Oregon Oregon United States United States 2013
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten (Dutch only) Netherlands Netherlands 2007
Mexico 29 Mexican states (all but Mexico City
and Quintana Roo, which do perform it).
Mexico Mexico 2010
Other type of partnership
(9 jurisdictions)
Campeche Campeche Mexico Mexico 2013
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico 2007
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico 2013
Colorado Colorado United States United States 2009
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark 1996
Jalisco Jalisco Mexico Mexico 2013
Nevada Nevada United States United States 2009
Oregon Oregon United States United States 2008
Wisconsin Wisconsin United States United States 2009
No recognition
(11 jurisdictions)
Anguilla Anguilla
American Samoa American Samoa United States United States
Bermuda Bermuda
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands
Guam Guam United States United States
Montserrat Montserrat
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands United States United States
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico United States United States
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands United States United States
Constitutional ban on marriage
(29 jurisdictions)
Alabama Alabama United States United States
Alaska Alaska United States United States
Arizona Arizona United States United States
Arkansas Arkansas United States United States
Colorado Colorado United States United States
Florida Florida United States United States
Georgia (country) Georgia United States United States
Idaho Idaho United States United States
Kansas Kansas United States United States
Kentucky Kentucky United States United States
Louisiana Louisiana United States United States
Michigan Michigan United States United States
Mississippi Mississippi United States United States
Missouri Missouri United States United States
Montana Montana United States United States
Nebraska Nebraska United States United States
Nevada Nevada United States United States
North Carolina North Carolina United States United States
North Dakota North Dakota United States United States
Ohio Ohio United States United States
Oklahoma Oklahoma United States United States
Oregon Oregon United States United States
South Carolina South Carolina United States United States
South Dakota South Dakota United States United States
Tennessee Tennessee United States United States
Texas Texas United States United States
Utah Utah United States United States
Virginia Virginia United States United States
Wisconsin Wisconsin United States United States

* Not yet in effect

See also[edit]