Recognition of same-sex unions in North America

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State recognition of same-sex relationships in North America & Hawaii.1
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Same-sex marriages recognized, but not performed
  Binding judicial ruling against a ban on same-sex marriage2
  Binding judicial ruling against a ban on recognizing out-of-state same-sex marriages
  Same-sex marriage banned2
1May include recent laws or court decisions which have created legal recognition of same-sex relationships, but which have not entered into effect yet.
2Some states in these categories also have a ban unions similar to marriage and binding judicial rulings against bans unions similar to marriage.
Homosexuality laws in Central America and the Caribbean Islands.
  Same-sex marriage
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Foreign same-sex marriages recognized
  No recognition of same-sex couples
  Same-sex marriage banned
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal but not enforced
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal only for males
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal for males and females
Legal status of
same-sex relationships
Marriage
Recognized
Previously performed and not invalidated
  1. Can be registered also in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  2. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage

*Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

Currently, Canada is the only country in North America that allows same-sex couples to marry anywhere within its boundaries. Same-sex marriages are also performed in thirty-two U.S. states (and the federal district), eight U.S. tribal jurisdictions, three Mexican states (although such marriages are recognized throughout the 31 states of Mexico), and in the Caribbean Netherlands. Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which register same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands. In addition, four Mexican states, three U.S. states and Greenland perform some sort of civil union and 21 Mexican states have won injunctions to have individual couple's marriages performed under court injunction.

Current situation[edit]

National level[edit]

Status Country Legal since
Marriage
(1 country)
Canada Canada 2005
Marriage recognized,
but not performed
(2 countries)
Mexico Mexico 2010
United States United States* 2013
Unregistered cohabitation
(1 country)
Costa Rica Costa Rica 2014
No recognition
(16 countries)
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda
The Bahamas Bahamas
Barbados Barbados
Belize Belize
Dominica Dominica
El Salvador El Salvador
Grenada Grenada
Guatemala Guatemala
Haiti Haiti
Jamaica Jamaica
Nicaragua Nicaragua
Panama Panama
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago
Constitutional ban on marriage
(3 countries)
Cuba Cuba
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
Honduras Honduras

*The U.S. federal government recognizes same-sex marriages performed in U.S. states and other countries, where legal.

Sub-national level[edit]

Status Jurisdiction Country Legal since
Marriage
(73 jurisdictions)
Alaska Alaska United States United States 2014
Arizona Arizona United States United States 2014
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands:
  • Bonaire Bonaire
  • Sint Eustatius Saint Eustatius
  • Saba Saba
Netherlands Netherlands 2012
California California United States United States 2013
Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes United States United States
Coahuila Coahuila Mexico Mexico 2014
Colorado Colorado United States United States 2014
Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation United States United States 2013
Connecticut Connecticut United States United States 2008
Coquille Indian Tribe United States United States 2009
Delaware Delaware United States United States 2013
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia United States United States 2010
France French departments (divisions of France):
  • Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
  • Martinique Martinique
France France 2013
Hawaii Hawaii United States United States 2013
Idaho Idaho United States United States 2014
Illinois Illinois United States United States 2014
Indiana Indiana United States United States 2014
Iowa Iowa United States United States 2009
Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe United States United States 2013
Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians United States United States 2013
Maine Maine United States United States 2012
Maryland Maryland United States United States 2013
Massachusetts Massachusetts United States United States 2004
Mexico City Mexico City (Mexican Federal District)

By Court injunction (amparo), individual same sex couples have been able to marry in

  • Aguascalientes Aguascalientes (2014)
  • Baja California Baja California (2014)
  • Campeche Campeche (2014)
  • Chihuahua (state) Chihuahua (2014)
  • Colima Colima (2013)
  • Durango Durango (2013)
  • Guanajuato Guanajuato (2014)
  • Jalisco Jalisco (2013)
  • State of Mexico México (2013)
  • Michoacán Michoacán (2014)
  • Morelos Morelos (2014)
  • Nayarit Nayarit (2014)
  • Nuevo León Nuevo León (2013)
  • Oaxaca Oaxaca (2013)
  • Querétaro Querétaro (2014)
  • San Luis Potosí San Luis Potosí (2014)
  • Sinaloa Sinaloa (2013)
  • Sonora Sonora (2014)
  • Tamaulipas Tamaulipas (2014)
  • Veracruz Veracruz (2014)
  • Yucatán Yucatán (2013)
Mexico Mexico 2010
Minnesota Minnesota United States United States 2013
Nevada Nevada United States United States 2014
New Hampshire New Hampshire United States United States 2010
New Jersey New Jersey United States United States 2013
New Mexico New Mexico United States United States 2013
New York New York United States United States 2011
North Carolina North Carolina United States United States 2014
Oklahoma Oklahoma United States United States 2014
Oregon Oregon United States United States 2014
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania United States United States 2014
Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians United States United States 2013
Quintana Roo Quintana Roo Mexico Mexico 2012
Rhode Island Rhode Island United States United States 2013
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy France France 2013
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin France France 2013
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre & Miquelon France France 2013
Santa Ysabel Tribe United States United States 2013
Suquamish Tribe United States United States 2011
Utah Utah United States United States 2014
Vermont Vermont United States United States 2009
Virginia Virginia United States United States 2014
Washington (state) Washington United States United States 2012
West Virginia West Virginia United States United States 2014
Wisconsin Wisconsin United States United States 2014
Wyoming Wyoming United States United States 2014
Marriage recognized,
but not performed
(11 jurisdictions)
Aruba Aruba (Dutch only) Netherlands Netherlands 2007
Curaçao Curaçao (Dutch only) Netherlands Netherlands 2007
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten (Dutch only) Netherlands Netherlands 2007
Mexico 8 Mexican states (Campeche, Coahuila, Colima and Jalisco offer Civil unions or partnerships, but must recognize marriages performed in the Federal District. Of the states that offer Civil Unions, only Coahuila, which also allows same-sex marriage, has not issued a marriage license via injunction.) Baja California Sur Baja California Sur, Chiapas Chiapas, GuerreroGuerrero, Hidalgo (state) Hidalgo, Puebla Puebla, Tabasco Tabasco, Tlaxcala Tlaxcala, and Zacatecas Zacatecas do not perform marriages. Mexico Mexico 2010
Other type of partnership
(4 jurisdictions)
Campeche Campeche Mexico Mexico 2013
Colima Colima Mexico Mexico 2013
Greenland Greenland Denmark Denmark 1996
Jalisco Jalisco Mexico Mexico 2013
No recognition
(10 jurisdictions)
Anguilla Anguilla
American Samoa American Samoa United States United States
Bermuda Bermuda
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands
Guam Guam United States United States
Montserrat Montserrat
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands United States United States
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands United States United States
Constitutional ban on marriage
(18 jurisdictions)
Alabama Alabama United States United States
Arkansas Arkansas United States United States
Florida Florida United States United States
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia United States United States
Kansas Kansas United States United States
Kentucky Kentucky United States United States
Louisiana Louisiana United States United States
Michigan Michigan United States United States
Mississippi Mississippi United States United States
Missouri Missouri United States United States
Montana Montana United States United States
Nebraska Nebraska United States United States
North Dakota North Dakota United States United States
Ohio Ohio United States United States
South Carolina South Carolina United States United States
South Dakota South Dakota United States United States
Tennessee Tennessee United States United States
Texas Texas United States United States

See also[edit]