Bibliography of the Reconstruction Era

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A political cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865, entitled "The Rail Splitter At Work Repairing the Union." The caption reads (Johnson): Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever. (Lincoln): A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended.

This is a selected bibliography of the main scholarly books and articles of Reconstruction, the period after the American Civil War, 1863–1877 (or 1865 to 1877).

Secondary sources[edit]

Surveys and reference[edit]

  • Brown, Thomas J., ed. Reconstructions: New Perspectives on Postbellum America (2006) essays by 8 scholars excerpt and text search
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880 (1935), 1998 edition reissued with introduction by David Levering Lewis ISBN 0-684-85657-3.) Counterpoint to Dunning School explores the economics and politics of the era from Marxist perspective
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. "Reconstruction and its Benefits," American Historical Review, 15 (July, 1910), 781—99 JSTOR
  • Dunning, William Archibald|William Archibald Dunning. Reconstruction: Political & Economic, 1865–1877 (1905). Blames Carpetbaggers for failure of Reconstruction. online edition
  • Fitzgerald, Miachael W. Splendid Failure: Postwar Reconstruction in the American South (2007), 224pp; excerpt and text search
  • Fleming, Walter L. The Sequel of Appomattox, A Chronicle of the Reunion of the States(1918). Written with prejudiced viewpoint of Dunning School[1].
  • Foner, Eric and Mahoney, Olivia. America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War. ISBN 0-8071-2234-3, short well-illustrated survey
  • Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (1988) ISBN 0-06-015851-4. Award-winning history and most detailed synthesis of original and previous scholarship.
  • Foner, Eric. "Reconstruction Revisited" in Reviews in American History, Vol. 10, No. 4, The Promise of American History: Progress and Prospects (Dec., 1982), pp. 82–100, review of the historiography, online in Project MUSE
  • Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. 2005. 268 pp.
  • Ford, Lacy K., ed. A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction. Blackwell, 2005. 518 pp.
  • Franklin, John Hope. Reconstruction after the Civil War (1961), University of Chicago Press, 280 pages. ISBN 0-226-26079-8. Explores the brevity of the North’s military occupation of the South, limited power of former slaves, influence of moderate southerners, flaws in constitutions drawn by Radical state governments, and reasons for downfall of Reconstruction.
  • Henry, Robert Selph. The Story of Reconstruction (1938).
  • Jenkins, Wilbert L. Climbing up to Glory: A Short History of African Americans during the Civil War and Reconstruction. SR Books, 2002. 285 pp.
  • Litwack, Leon. Been in the Storm So Long (1979). Pulitzer Prize
  • Milton, George Fort. The Age of Hate: Andrew Johnson and the Radicals. (1930). online edition
  • Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. A History of the United States since the Civil War. Vol 1 and vol 2 (1917). Based on Dunning School
  • Perman, Michael. Emancipation and Reconstruction (2003). 144 pp.
  • Randall, J. G. The Civil War and Reconstruction (1953). Long the standard survey, with elaborate bibliography
  • Rhodes, James G. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 6. (1920). 1865–72; Volume: 7. (1920). 1872–77; Highly detailed narrative by Pulitzer prize winner; argues was a political disaster because it violated the rights of white Southerners. vol 6 1865–1872 online; vol 7 online vol 6 online at Google.books vol 7 in Google.books
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. West from Appomattox: The Reconstruction of America after the Civil War (2007)
  • Richter, William L. The A to Z of the Civil War and Reconstruction (2009) excerpt and text search; earlier version was Historical Dictionary of the Civil War and Reconstruction (2004)
  • Schouler, James. History of the United States of America: Under the Constitution vol. 7. 1865–1877. The Reconstruction Period (1917) online
  • Stalcup, Brenda. ed. Reconstruction: Opposing Viewpoints (Greenhaven Press: 1995); uses primary documents to present opposing viewpoints.
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 (1967); short survey
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. and Leon M. Litwack, eds. Reconstruction: An Anthology of Revisionist Writings," (1969), essays by scholars
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction Greenwood (1991), 250 entries excerpt and text search
  • Williams, T. Harry. "An Analysis of Some Reconstruction Attitudes" The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 12, No. 4. (Nov., 1946), pp. 469–486. JSTOR
  • Wilson, Woodrow. The Reconstruction of the Southern States (1901); interpretive essay by Wilson, written before his election as President in 1912.
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction Greenwood (1991), 250 entries
  • Zuczek, Richard. Encyclopedia of the Reconstruction Era (2 vol. 2006)

National politics; constitutional issues[edit]

  • Beale, Howard K. The Critical Year: A Study of Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1930; reprint 1958); influential "revisionist" thesis argument that Reconstruction was controlled by Northern industrialists
  • Beale, Howard K. "The Tariff and Reconstruction," American Historical Review (1930) 35#2 pp. 276-294 in JSTOR; consice statement of Beale-Beard interpretation
  • Belz, Herman. Emancipation and Equal Rights: Politics and Constitutionalism in the Civil War Era (1978) pro-moderate. online edition
  • Belz, Herman. A New Birth of Freedom: The Republican Party and Freedman's Rights, 1861–1866 (2000) pro-moderate.
  • Belz, Herman. Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era, (1998) 268 pgs. online edition
  • Benedict, Michael Les. The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson (1999), pro-Radical. online edition
  • Benedict, Michael Les. A Compromise of Principle: Congressional Republicans and Reconstruction (1974) pro-Radical
  • Benedict, Michael Les. "Preserving the Constitution: The Conservative Bases of Radical Reconstruction," Journal of American History vol 61 #1 (1974) pp 65–90, online in JSTOR
  • Benedict, Michael Les. "Constitutional History and Constitutional Theory: Reflections on Ackerman, Reconstruction, and the Transformation of the American Constitution." Yale Law Journal Vol: 108. Issue: 8. 1999. pp 2011–2038. online edition
  • Blaine, James.Twenty Years of Congress: From Lincoln to Garfield. With a review of the events which led to the political revolution of 1860 (1886). By Republican Congressional leader
  • Blight, David. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (2000). Examines national memory of Civil War, Reconstruction, and Redemption, North-South reunion, and the retreat from equality for African Americans.
  • Blum, Edward J. "Reforging the White Republic: Race, Religion, and American Nationalism, 1865–1898" (2005).
  • Brandwein, Pamela; "Slavery as an Interpretive Issue in the Reconstruction Congresses" Law & Society Review. Volume: 34. Issue: 2. 2000. pp 315+ shows Democratic party history, grounded on white supremacy was crucial in legitimating the Court's narrow doctrinal interpretations of the Fourteenth Amendment. online edition
  • Burg, Robert W. "Amnesty, Civil Rights, And The Meaning Of Liberal Republicanism, 1862–1872". American Nineteenth Century History 2003 4(3): 29–60.
  • Dunning, William A. "The Constitution of the United States in Reconstruction" in Political Science Quarterly Vol. 2, No. 4 (Dec., 1887), pp. 558–602 JSTOR
  • Dunning, William A. "Military Government in the South During Reconstruction" Political Science Quarterly Vol. 12, No. 3 (Sep., 1897), pp. 381–406 JSTOR
  • Gambill, Edward. Conservative Ordeal: Northern Democrats and Reconstruction, 1865–1868. (1981). Political history of Democratic Party unable to shed its Civil War label of treason and defeatism, even as it successfully blocked a few elements of Radical Reconstruction.
  • Gillette, William. Retreat from Reconstruction, 1869–1879. Louisiana State University Press: 1979. Traces failure of Reconstruction to the power of Democrats, administrative inefficiencies, racism, and lack of commitment by northern Republicans.
  • Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997) portrays Lincoln as opponent of Radicals.
  • Hyman, Harold M. A More Perfect Union (1975), constitutional history of Civil War & Reconstruction.
  • Kaczorowski, Robert, The Politics of Judicial Interpretations: The Federal Courts, Department of Justice and Civil Rights, 1866–1876. Justice Department fight against KKK
  • McAfee, Ward. Religion, Race, and Reconstruction: The Public School in the Politics of the 1870s SUNY Press, 1998.
  • McLaughlin, Andrew. A Constitutional History of the United States (1935) Pulitzer Prize; ch 45–47 are on Reconstruction ISBN 978-1-931313-31-5
  • McKitrick, Eric L. Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1961) portrays Johnson as weak politician unable to forge coalitions.
  • McPherson, James M. The Abolitionist Legacy: From Reconstruction to the NAACP (1975) (ISBN 0-691-10039-X)
  • Mantell, Martin E. Johnson, Grant and the Politics of Reconstruction. Columbia University Press. 1973. online edition
  • Nicolay, John and John Hay, "First Plans for Emancipation," Century (Dec 1888): pp 276–94; Online Authors were Lincoln's top aides in the White House
    • Nicolay, John and John Hay, "The Wade-Davis Manifesto" Century (July 1889): pp 414–21 online version
  • Pildes, Richard H., "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, 17, (2000).
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren.The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865–1878 (1994)

National politics: biographies[edit]

  • Donald, David Herbert. Charles Sumner and the Rights of Man (1970), Pulitzer prize winning biography
  • Frantz, Edward O. ed. A Companion to the Reconstruction Presidents 1865-1881 (2014) 30 essays by scholars excerpt and text search; emphasis on historiography
  • Gienapp, William. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America Oxford U. Press, (2002), short biography
  • Hesseltine, William. Ulysses S. Grant: Politician. (1935). online edition.
  • Hyman, Harold M. and Benjamin P. Thomas. Stanton: The Life and Times of Lincoln's Secretary of War. 1962. online edition
  • McFeely, William S. Grant: A Biography (1981); Pulitzer Prize. online edition
  • Simpson, Brooks D. The Reconstruction Presidents (2009), on Lincoln, Johnson and Grant
  • Simpson, Brooks D. Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War and Reconstruction, 1861–1868 (1991).
  • Stryker, Lloyd Paul; Andrew Johnson: A Study in Courage 1929. pro-Johnson A Documentary Sourcebook. Praeger, 2002. 444 pp.
  • Moneyhon, Carl H. Texas after the Civil War: The Struggle of Reconstruction. Texas A. & M. U. Press, 2004. 237 pp.
  • Olsen, Otto H. ed., Reconstruction and Redemption in the South (1980), state by state, neoabolitionist
  • Patton; James Welch. Unionism and Reconstruction in Tennessee, 1860–1869 1934 online edition
  • Perman, Michael. The Road to Redemption: Southern Politics, 1869–1879 University of North Carolina Press. 1984. detailed state-by-state narrative of Conservatives
  • Rabinowitz, Howard N. editor. Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era (University of Illinois Press: 1982) ISBN 0-252-00929-0.
  • Ramsdell, Charles W., "Presidential Reconstruction in Texas ", Southwestern Historical Quarterly, (1907) v.11#4 277 – 317.
  • Ramsdell, Charles William. Reconstruction in Texas Columbia University Press, 1910. Dunning school
  • Reynolds, John S. Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865—1877, 1905; reprinted by Negro Universities Press, 1969 online free
  • Rose, Willie Lee . Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment (1967) Blacks given land in 1863 in coastal South Carolina
  • Rubin, Hyman III. South Carolina Scalawags (2006)
  • Russ, Jr., William A. "The Negro and White Disfranchisement During Radical Reconstruction" The Journal of Negro History Vol. 19, No. 2 (Apr., 1934), pp. 171–192 JSTOR
  • Russ, Jr., William A. "Registration and Disfranchisement Under Radical Reconstruction," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 21, No. 2 (Sep., 1934), pp. 163–180 JSTOR
  • Simkins, Francis Butler, and Robert Hilliard Woody. South Carolina during Reconstruction (1932), revisionist (Beardian) school
  • Smallwood, James M.; Crouch, Barry A.; and Peacock, Larry. Murder and Mayhem: The War of Reconstruction in Texas. Texas A. & M. U. Press, 2003. 182 pp.
  • Storey, Margaret M. Loyalty and Loss: Alabama's Unionists in the Civil War and Reconstruction. Louisiana State U. Press, 2004. 296 pp.
  • Taylor, Alrutheus A., Negro in Tennessee 1865–1880 (1974) ISBN 0-87152-165-2
  • Taylor, Alrutheus, Negro in South Carolina During the Reconstruction (AMS Press: 1924) ISBN 0-404-00216-1
  • Taylor, Alrutheus, The Negro in the Reconstruction Of Virginia (The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History: 1926)
  • Taylor, A. A. "The Negro in South Carolina During the Reconstruction" The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 9-11 (1924–1926) (multi-part article) JSTOR full text
  • Trelease, Allen W. White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction, (Louisiana State University Press: 1971, 1995). detailed treatment of the Klan, and similar groups.
  • Wiener, Jonathan M. Social Origins of the New South; Alabama, 1860–1885. (1978) new social history
  • Wharton, V. L. "The Race Issue in the Overthrow of Reconstruction in Mississippi," Phylon (1940–1956) Vol. 2, No. 4 (4th Qtr., 1941), pp. 362–370 in JSTOR
  • Wiggins, Sarah Woolfolk. The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, 1865–1881 (1991)

Social and economic history[edit]

  • Ash, Stephen V. A Year in the South: Four Lives in 1865. Palgrave, 2002. 289 pp.
  • Censer, Jane Turner. The Reconstruction of White Southern Womanhood, 1865–1895. Louisiana State U. Press, 2003. 316 pp.
  • Moore, A. B. "Railroad Building in Alabama During the Reconstruction Period" The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 1, No. 4. (Nov., 1935), pp. 421–441. JSTOR
  • Morrow, Ralph E. "Northern Methodism in the South during Reconstruction." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 41, No. 2. (Sep., 1954), pp. 197–218. in JSTOR
  • Ransom, Roger L. and Sutch, Richard. One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation. 2d ed. (original publ. 1977). Cambridge U. Press, 2001. 458 pp.
  • Ruef, Martin, and Kelly Patterson, “Organizations and Local Development: Economic and Demographic Growth among Southern Counties during Reconstruction,” Social Forces, 87 (June 2009), 1743–71. statistical analysis
  • Stover, John F. The Railroads of the South, 1865–1900: A Study in Finance and Control (1955)
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. Railroads, Reconstruction, and the Gospel of Prosperity: Aid Under the Radical Republicans, 1865–1877 (1984)
  • Whites, LeeAnn. Gender Matters: Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Making of the New South. Palgrave, 2005. 244 pp.
  • Williams, Heather Andrea. Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom (2006)
  • Wilson, Kirt H. The Reconstruction Desegregation Debate: The Politics of Equality and the Rhetoric of Place, 1870–1875. (2002). 276 pp.
  • R. H. Woody, "The Labor and Immigration Problem of South Carolina during Reconstruction" The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 18, No. 2 (Sep., 1931), pp. 195–212 JSTOR

South: regional, state & local studies[edit]

  • Abbott, Richard H. For Free Press and Equal Rights: Republican Newspapers in the Reconstruction South U of Georgia Press, 2004. 266 pp. online review
  • Baggett, James Alex. The Scalawags: Southern Dissenters in the Civil War and Reconstruction. Louisiana State U. Press, 2003. 323 pp.
  • Bradley, Mark. Bluecoats and Tar Heels: Soldiers and Civilians in Reconstruction North Carolina (University Press of Kentucky, 2009)
  • Brown, Canter Jr. Florida's Black Public Officials, 1867-1924
  • Campbell. Randolph B. Grass-Roots Reconstruction in Texas, 1865-1880 (1998)
  • Cisco, Walter Brian. Wade Hampton: Confederate warrior, conservative statesman (Potomac Books, 2004) on South Carolina politics
  • Coulter, E. Merton. The Civil War and Readjustment in Kentucky (1926)
  • Coulter, E. Merton. The South During Reconstruction, 1865-1877 (1947). Dunning School. region-wide history
  • Davis, William Watson. The Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida (Columbia University, 1913), Dunning School online
  • DeBlack, Thomas A. With Fire and Sword: Arkansas, 1861-1874. U. of Arkansas Pr., 2003. 307 pp.
  • Donald, David H. "The Scalawag in Mississippi Reconstruction," The Journal of Southern History Vol. 10, No. 4 (Nov., 1944), pp. 447-460 JSTOR
  • Fields, Barbara Jean, Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland (1985)
  • Fischer, Roger. The Segregation Struggle in Louisiana, 1862-1877. (University of Illinois Press: 1974) Study of free persons of color in New Orleans who provided leadership in the unsuccessful fight against segregation of schools and public accommodations.
  • Fitzgerald, Michael W. Urban Emancipation: Popular Politics in Reconstruction Mobile, 1860–1890. (Louisiana State University Press, 2002. 301 pp.
  • Fitzgerald, Michael R. "Radical Republicanism and the White Yeomanry During Alabama Reconstruction, 1865-1868." Journal of Southern History 54 (November 1988): 565-96. Online at JSTOR
  • Fleming, Walter L. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama 1905. the most detailed study; Dunning School full text online
  • Foner, Eric. Freedom's Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders During Reconstruction (Revised edition, LSU Press, 1996) biographies of more than 1,500 officeholders.
  • Garner, James Wilford. Reconstruction in Mississippi (1901), Dunning School online edition
  • Hahn, Steven. A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration (2003)
  • Hamilton, Peter Joseph. The Reconstruction Period (1906), full length history of era; Dunning School approach; 570 pp; chapters on each state
  • Harris, William C. The Day of the Carpetbagger: Republican Reconstruction in Mississippi (1979) online edition
  • Hogue, James Keith. Uncivil War: Five New Orleans Street Battles and the Rise and Fall of Radical Reconstruction (LSU Press, 2006)
  • Holt, Thomas. Black over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina During Reconstruction. (University of Illinois Press: 1977). Black elected officials, their divisions, and battles with white governors who controlled patronage and their ultimate failure.
  • Kantrowitz, Stephen David. Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy (University of North Carolina Press, 2000), on South Carolina politics after 1877
  • King, Ronald F. "Counting the votes: South Carolina's stolen election of 1876." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 32.2 (2001): 169-191. statistical
  • Kolchin, Peter. First Freedom: The Responses of Alabama's Blacks to Emancipation and Reconstruction. (Greenwood Press: 1972) Explores black migration, labor, and social structure in the first five years of Reconstruction.
  • Middleton, Stephen, ed. Black Congressmen during Reconstruction: A Documentary Sourcebook. Praeger, 2002. 444 pp.
  • Moneyhon, Carl H. Texas after the Civil War: The Struggle of Reconstruction. Texas A. & M. U. Press, 2004. 237 pp.
  • Olsen, Otto H. ed., Reconstruction and Redemption in the South (1980), state by state, neoabolitionist
  • Patton; James Welch. Unionism and Reconstruction in Tennessee, 1860-1869 1934 online edition
  • Perman, Michael. The Road to Redemption: Southern Politics, 1869-1879 University of North Carolina Press. 1984. detailed state-by-state narrative of Conservatives
  • Rabinowitz, Howard N. editor. Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era (University of Illinois Press: 1982) ISBN 0-252-00929-0.
  • Ramsdell, Charles W., "Presidential Reconstruction in Texas ", Southwestern Historical Quarterly, (1907) v.11#4 277 - 317.
  • Ramsdell, Charles William. Reconstruction in Texas Columbia University Press, 1910. Dunning school
  • Reynolds, John S. Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865—1877, Negro Universities Press, 1969
  • Rose, Willie Lee . Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment (1967) Blacks given land in 1863 in coastal South Carolina
  • Rubin, Hyman III. South Carolina Scalawags (2006)
  • Russ, Jr., William A. "The Negro and White Disfranchisement During Radical Reconstruction" The Journal of Negro History Vol. 19, No. 2 (Apr., 1934), pp. 171-192 JSTOR
  • Russ, Jr., William A. "Registration and Disfranchisement Under Radical Reconstruction," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 21, No. 2 (Sep., 1934), pp. 163-180 in JSTOR
  • Simkins, Francis Butler, and Robert Hilliard Woody. South Carolina during Reconstruction (1932), revisionist (Beardian) school
  • Smallwood, James M.; Crouch, Barry A.; and Peacock, Larry. Murder and Mayhem: The War of Reconstruction in Texas. Texas A. & M. U. Press, 2003. 182 pp.
  • Storey, Margaret M. Loyalty and Loss: Alabama's Unionists in the Civil War and Reconstruction. Louisiana State U. Press, 2004. 296 pp.
  • Taylor, Alrutheus A., Negro in Tennessee 1865-1880 (1974) ISBN 0-87152-165-2
  • Taylor, Alrutheus, Negro in South Carolina During the Reconstruction (AMS Press: 1924) ISBN 0-404-00216-1
  • Taylor, Alrutheus, The Negro in the Reconstruction Of Virginia (The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History: 1926)
  • Taylor, A. A. "The Negro in South Carolina During the Reconstruction" The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 9-11 (1924-1926) (multi-part article) JSTOR full text
  • Thompson, C. Mildred. Reconstruction In Georgia: Economic, Social, Political 1865-1872 (19i5; 2010 reprint) excerpt and text search; full text online free
  • Trelease, Allen W. White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction, (Louisiana State University Press: 1971, 1995). detailed treatment of the Klan, and similar groups.
  • Wiener, Jonathan M. Social Origins of the New South; Alabama, 1860-1885. (1978) new social history
  • Wharton, V. L. "The Race Issue in the Overthrow of Reconstruction in Mississippi," Phylon (1940-1956) Vol. 2, No. 4 (4th Qtr., 1941), pp. 362-370 in JSTOR
  • Wiggins, Sarah Woolfolk. The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, 1865-1881 (1991)
  • Zuczek, Richard. State of Rebellion: Reconstruction in South Carolina (U of South Carolina Press, 1996)

Compromise of 1877 and end of Reconstruction[edit]

  • Benedict, Michael L. "Southern Democrats in the Crisis of 1876–1877: A Reconsideration of Reunion and Reaction". Journal of Southern History 46 (November 1980): 489–524; Says the Compromise was reached before the Wormley hotel meetings discussed by Woodward (1951); in JSTOR
  • DeSantis, Vincent P. "Rutherford B. Hayes and the Removal of the Troops and the End of Reconstruction". In Region, Race and Reconstruction Ed. by Morgan Kousser and James McPherson. (1982). 417-50. Provides a more complex account of Hayes's decision.
  • De Santis, Vincent P. "President Hayes's Southern Policy." Journal of Southern History 1955 21(4): 476–494. in Jstor
  • Hoogenboom, Ari. The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes (1988)
  • King, Ronald F. "A Most Corrupt Election: Louisiana in 1876." Studies in American Political Development 2001 15(2): 123–137. Issn: 0898-588x Fulltext: online from Cambridge Journals
  • Peskin, Allan. "Was There a Compromise of 1877?" Journal of American History (1973) v 60#1, pp 63–75 in JSTOR; Admits that Woodward's interpretation is almost universally accepted but since not all terms were met it should not be called a compromise.
  • McPherson, James M. "Coercion or Conciliation? Abolitionists Debate President Hayes's Southern Policy." New England Quarterly 1966 39(4): 474–497. in JSTOR; Argues Hayes had been convinced since 1875 that Grant's approach toward the South had to be abandoned and hoped to substitute conciliation for coercion, believing that the good will of Southern upper class whites would provide better protection for Blacks than the hated Federal troops. A majority of abolitionists disagreed, but about 36% of abolitionists supported Hayes, thereby causing a decided division in their ranks.
  • Polakoff, Keith Ian. The Politics of Inertia: The Election of 1876 and the End of Reconstruction. Louisiana State University Press, 1973. Argues the Compromise reflected decentralized parties and weak national leaders
  • Simpson, Brooks D. "Ulysses S. Grant and the Electoral Crisis of 1876–1877." Hayes Historical Journal 1992 11(2): 5–22. Issn: 0364-5924. The compromise kept the White House in GOP control. It ended the promise of Reconstruction, as many scholars have argued, and more importantly it maintained the still fragile Union. Historians mostly ignored Grant's decisive role in engineering the compromise. He was not a lame duck but took a deep interest in the behind-the-scenes negotiations. His apparent inaction stemmed from the very real threat of violence that could once again divide the nation, and ultimately his quiet diplomacy was key to the final peaceful outcome.
  • Vazzano, Frank P. "President Hayes, Congress and the Appropriations Riders Vetoes." Congress & the Presidency 1993 20(1): 25–37. Issn: 0734-3469 Fulltext: at Ebsco. Shows Hayes vetoed Democratic bills intended to remove the last remaining Reconstruction-era restraints: federal marshals at Southern polling places and loyalty oaths for jurors.
  • Woodward, C. Vann. Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (1951), emphasizes the role of railroads.
  • Woodward, C. Vann. "Yes, There Was a Compromise of 1877" Journal of American History (1973) v 60#2, pp 215–23. in JSTOR. Rebuts Peskin; the main terms were indeed met.


Historiography and memory[edit]

  • Bilbija, Marina. "Democracy’s New Song: Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880 and the Melodramatic Imagination," Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science (2011) 637#1 pp 64-77; on DuBois, Black Reconstruction
  • Beale, Howard K. "On Rewriting Reconstruction History." American Historical Review (1940) 45#4 pp: 807-827. in JSTOR
  • Briley, Ron. "Hollywood's Reconstruction and the Persistence of Historical Mythmaking," History Teacher (2008) 41#4 pp 453-468. in JSTOR
  • Brown, Thomas J., ed. Reconstructions: New Perspectives on the Postbellum United States (2007), essays by scholars
    • Giggie, John M. "Rethinking Reconstruction," Reviews in American History (2007) 35#4 pp 545-555. in Project MUSE
  • Cimbala, Paul A. "Essay Review: Carpetbaggers, Freedmen, and the Unfinished Revolution: Reconstruction and the American Mind," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (1989) 113#2 pp. 265-275 in JSTOR
  • Davis, Robert Scott, “New Ideas from New Sources: Modern Research in Reconstruction, 1865–1876,” Georgia Historical Quarterly, 93 (Fall 2009), 291–306.
  • Ebner, David, and Larry Langman, eds. Hollywood's Image of the South: A Century of Southern Films Greenwood Press. 2001. Ch 9-10 on Reconstruction and KKK.
  • Foner, Eric. "Reconstruction Revisited," Reviews in American History (1982) 10#1 pp 82–100 in JSTOR
  • Franklin, John Hope. "Whither Reconstruction Historiography," Journal of Negro Education (1948) 17: 446–81 in JSTOR
  • Frantz, Edward O. ed. A Companion to the Reconstruction Presidents 1865-1881 (Wiley Blackwell Companions to American History) (2014), emphasis on historiography
  • Sneed, Edgar P. "A Historiography of Reconstruction in Texas: Some Myths and Problems," Southwestern Historical Quarterly (1969) 72#4 pp. 435-448 in JSTOR
  • Weisberger, Bernard A. "The Dark Ground of Reconstruction Historiography," Journal of Southern History (1959) 25#4 427–47. in JSTOR

Primary Sources[edit]

Newspapers and magazines[edit]

Freedman's Bureau[edit]

  • Bentley George R. A History of the Freedmen's Bureau (1955)
  • Carpenter, John A.; Sword and Olive Branch: Oliver Otis Howard (1999) full biography of Bureau leader
  • Cimbala, Paul A. The Freedmen's Bureau: Reconstructing the American South after the Civil War. Krieger, 2005. 220 pp., short survey
  • Cimbala, Paul A. and Trefousse, Hans L. (eds.) The Freedmen's Bureau: Reconstructing the American South After the Civil War. 2005. essays by scholars
  • W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, "The Freedmen's Bureau" (1901)
  • Foner Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (1988) general history
  • Litwack, Leon F. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. 1979. .
  • McFeely, William S. Yankee Stepfather: General O.O. Howard and the Freedmen. 1994.

Education[edit]

  • Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935 (1988)
  • Blum, Edward J. Reforging the White Republic: Race, Religion, and American Nationalism, 1865-1898 (2005)
  • Butchart, Ronald E. Northern Schools, Southern Blacks, and Reconstruction: Freedmen's Education, 1862–1875 (1980)
  • Crouch, Barry A. "Black Education in Civil War and Reconstruction Louisiana: George T. Ruby, the Army, and the Freedmen's Bureau" Louisiana History 1997 38(3): 287–308. Issn: 0024-6816
  • Goldhaber, Michael. "A Mission Unfulfilled: Freedmen's Education in North Carolina, 1865–1870" Journal of Negro History 1992 77(4): 199–210. Issn: 0022-2992
  • Jones, Jacqueline. Soldiers of Light and Love: Northern Teachers and Georgia Blacks, 1865–1873 U of North Carolina Press 1980
  • Morris, Robert C. Reading, 'Riting, and Reconstruction: The Education of Freedmen in the South, 1861–1870 1981.
  • Richardson, Joe M. Christian Reconstruction: The American Missionary Association and Southern Blacks, 1861–1890 U of Georgia Press, 1986
  • Span, Christopher M. "'I Must Learn Now or Not at All': Social and Cultural Capital in the Educational Initiatives of Formerly Enslaved African Americans in Mississippi, 1862–1869," The Journal of African American History, 2002 pp 196–222
  • Swint, Henry Lee. The Northern Teacher in the South: 1862–1870 (New York, 1967).
  • Williams, Heather Andrea; "'Clothing Themselves in Intelligence': The Freedpeople, Schooling, and Northern Teachers, 1861–1871" The Journal of African American History 2002. pp 372+.
  • Williams, Heather Andrea. Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom U of North Carolina Press, 2006

Specialized studies[edit]

  • Bethel, Elizabeth . "The Freedmen's Bureau in Alabama," Journal of Southern History Vol. 14, No. 1, Feb., 1948 pp. 49–92 online at JSTOR
  • Cimbala, Paul A. "On the Front Line of Freedom: Freedmen's Bureau Officers and Agents in Reconstruction Georgia, 1865–1868". Georgia Historical Quarterly 1992 76(3): 577–611. Issn: 0016-8297.
  • Cimbala, Paul A. Under the Guardianship of the Nation: the Freedmen's Bureau and the Reconstruction of Georgia, 1865–1870 U. of Georgia Press, 1997.
  • Click, Patricia C. Time Full of Trial: The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony, 1862–1867 (2001)]
  • Crouch, Barry. The Freedmen's Bureau and Black Texans (1992)
  • Crouch; Barry A. "The 'Chords of Love': Legalizing Black Marital and Family Rights in Postwar Texas" The Journal of Negro History, Vol. 79, 1994
  • Durrill, Wayne K. "Political Legitimacy and Local Courts: 'Politicks at Such a Rage' in a Southern Community during Reconstruction" in Journal of Southern History, Vol. 70 #3, 2004 pp 577–617
  • Farmer-Kaiser, Mary. "’Are They Not in Some Sorts Vagrants?’ Gender and the Efforts of the Freedmen's Bureau to Combat Vagrancy in the Reconstruction South” Georgia Historical Quarterly 2004 88(1): 25–49. Issn: 0016-8297
  • Faulkner, Carol. Women's Radical Reconstruction: The Freedmen's Aid Movement. U. of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. 208 pp.
  • Finley, Randy. From Slavery to Uncertain Future: the Freedmen's Bureau in Arkansas, 1865–1869 U. of Arkansas Press, 1996.
  • Gerteis, Louis S. From Contraband to Freedmen: Federal Policy toward Southern Blacks, 1861–1865 1973.
  • Kolchin, Peter. First Freedom: The Responses of Alabama's Blacks to Emancipation and Reconstruction 1972.
  • Lieberman, Robert C. "The Freedmen's Bureau and the Politics of Institutional Structure" Social Science History 1994 18(3): 405–437. Issn: 0145-5532
  • Lowe, Richard. "The Freedman's Bureau and Local Black Leadership" Journal of American History 1993 80(3): 989–998. Issn: 0021-8723
  • Morrow Ralph Ernst. "The Northern Methodists in Reconstruction". Mississippi Valley Historical Review 41 (September 1954): 197–218. in JSTOR
  • May J. Thomas. "Continuity and Change in the Labor Program of the Union Army and the Freedmen's Bureau". Civil War History 17 (September 1971): 245–54.
  • Oubre, Claude F. Forty Acres and a Mule: The Freedmen's Bureau and Black Land Ownership 1978.
  • Pearson, Reggie L. "'There Are Many Sick, Feeble, and Suffering Freedmen': the Freedmen's Bureau's Health-care Activities During Reconstruction in North Carolina, 1865–1868" North Carolina Historical Review 2002 79(2): 141–181. Issn: 0029-2494 .
  • Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the Civil War'. Russell & Russell. (1953)
  • Richter, William L. Overreached on All Sides: The Freedmen's Bureau Administrators in Texas, 1865–1868 1991.
  • Ransom, Roger L. Conflict and Compromise. Cambridge University Press. 1989. economic history
  • Oubre, Claude F. Forty Acres and a Mule. Louisiana State University Press. Baton Rouge and London. 1978.
  • Rodrigue, John C. "Labor Militancy and Black Grassroots Political Mobilization in the Louisiana Sugar Region, 1865–1868" in Journal of Southern History, Vol. 67 #1, 2001 pp 115–45
  • Schwalm, Leslie A. "'Sweet Dreams of Freedom': Freedwomen's Reconstruction of Life and Labor in Lowcountry South Carolina Journal of Women's History, Vol. 9 #1, 1997 pp 9–32
  • Smith, Solomon K. "The Freedmen's Bureau in Shreveport: the Struggle for Control of the Red River District" Louisiana History 2000 41(4): 435–465. Issn: 0024-6816
  • Williamson, Joel. After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction, 1861–1877 1965.

Primary sources[edit]