Recreational Demonstration Area

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The Recreational Demonstration Area program (also known as the Recreation Demonstration Area program) was a National Park Service program during the 1930s and early 1940s that built forty-six public parks in twenty-four states on 397,000 acres (1,606.6 km2), chiefly near urban areas in the United States.[1] The NPS used labor from a variety of Great Depression federal relief programs, chiefly the Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration, to build Recreational Demonstration Areas. By the end of World War II, the Recreational Demonstration Areas had all either become National Park Service units or been given to their states for use as state parks.

The goals of the Recreation Demonstration Area program were typically threefold: 1) to develop land as a park; 2) to provide employment; and 3) to create new parks near urban areas. For the first goal, in some cases the land developed was purchased from sub-optimal farmers, providing some of the poorest farmers with relief. In other cases, state lands (in state forests or parks) were developed. In the second case, the CCC and WPA laborers received payment, and in the CCC, room and board. Finally, the residents of nearby urban areas benefited from new nearby recreation areas.

List[edit]

The following is a list of the forty six former Recreational Demonstration Areas.[1]

Recreational Demonstration Area Name   U.S. state   Now   Current Name(s)   Remarks  
Acadia Recreational Demonstration Area[1][2] Maine Federal Acadia National Park
Alexander H. Stephens Recreational Demonstration Area[3] Georgia State A.H. Stephens State Historic Park State park extension
Badlands Recreational Demonstration Area[4] North Dakota Federal Badlands National Park
Beach Pond Recreational Demonstration Area Rhode Island State
Bear Brook Recreational Demonstration Area New Hampshire State Bear Brook State Park
Blue Knob Recreational Demonstration Area[5] Pennsylvania State Blue Knob State Park
Blue Ridge Recreational Demonstration Area North Carolina, Virginia Federal Blue Ridge Parkway
Bull Run Recreational Demonstration Area[1][6] Virginia Federal Manassas National Battlefield Park
Camden Hills Recreational Demonstration Area Maine State Camden Hills State Park
Catoctin Recreational Demonstration Area[1][7] Maryland Both Cunningham Falls State Park, Catoctin Mountain Park, Camp David near Baltimore and Washington D.C., part became a retreat for the U.S. President
Cheraw Recreational Demonstration Area South Carolina State Cheraw State Park
Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area[1][8] Virginia Federal Prince William Forest Park In the greater Washington D.C. area. Four camps are separately listed on the National Register of Historic Places:
Crabtree Creek Recreational Demonstration Area[9] North Carolina State William B. Umstead State Park
Cuivre River Recreational Demonstration Area Missouri State Cuivre River State Park
Custer Recreational Demonstration Area South Dakota State Custer State Park State park extension
Falls Creek Recreational Demonstration Area[10] Tennessee State Fall Creek Falls State Park State park extension
French Creek Recreational Demonstration Area[1][2][5] Pennsylvania Both Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, French Creek State Park
Hard Labor Creek Recreational Demonstration Area Georgia State Hard Labor Creek State Park
Hickory Run Recreational Demonstration Area[5] Pennsylvania State Hickory Run State Park
Kings Mountain Recreational Demonstration Area South Carolina Both Kings Mountain National Military Park, Kings Mountain State Park
Lake Guernsey Recreational Demonstration Area Wyoming State Guernsey State Park State park extension
Lake Murray Recreational Demonstration Area"[11] Oklahoma State Lake Murray State Park
Lake of the Ozarks Recreational Demonstration Area".[12] Missouri State Lake of the Ozarks State Park
Laurel Hill Recreational Demonstration Area[5] Pennsylvania State Laurel Hill State Park
Mendocino Woodland Recreational Demonstration Area[13] California State Mendocino Woodlands State Park National Historic Landmark
Montgomery Bell Recreational Demonstration Area[10] Tennessee State Montgomery Bell State Park
Montserrat Recreational Demonstration Area[14] Missouri State Knob Noster State Park
Oak Mountain Recreational Demonstration Area Alabama State Oak Mountain State Park
Otter Creek Recreational Demonstration Area Kentucky Local Otter Creek Park
Pere Marquette Recreational Demonstration Area Illinois State Pere Marquette State Park
Pine Mountain Recreational Demonstration Area[15] Georgia State Franklin Roosevelt State Park (western half) Franklin D. Roosevelt visited the park often during its construction (his Little White House at Warm Springs is in the eastern half of the modern park). State park extension
Raccoon Creek Recreational Demonstration Area[5] Pennsylvania State Raccoon Creek State Park
Shelby Forest Recreational Demonstration Area[10] Tennessee State Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park
Shenandoah Recreational Demonstration Area[1][2] Virginia Federal Shenandoah National Park
Silver Creek Recreational Demonstration Area Oregon State Silver Falls State Park
St. Croix Recreational Demonstration Area[16] Minnesota State St. Croix State Park Now a National Historic Landmark
Swift Creek Recreational Demonstration Area[17] Virginia State Pocahontas State Park
Roosevelt Recreational Demonstration Area[1] North Dakota Federal Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Unit
Roosevelt Recreational Demonstration Area[1] North Dakota Federal Theodore Roosevelt National Park, South Unit
Versailles Recreational Demonstration Area Indiana State Versailles State Park
Waterloo Recreational Demonstration Area Michigan State Waterloo State Recreation Area
Waysides, South Carolina Recreational Demonstration Area South Carolina
Waysides, Virginia Recreational Demonstration Area Virginia
White Sands Recreational Demonstration Area[1][2] New Mexico Federal White Sands National Monument
Winamac Recreational Demonstration Area[18] Indiana State Winamac Fish and Wildlife Area, Tippecanoe River State Park
Yankee Springs Recreational Demonstration Area Michigan State Yankee Springs Recreation Area

History[edit]

There are five former Recreational Demonstration Areas in Pennsylvania, which became part of one unit of the National Park Service, and five state parks in 1945 and 1946. There are five former Recreational Demonstration Areas in Virginia, four of which are now part of the National Park Service. Two Recreational Demonstration Areas were built in Missouri and are now state parks. There are three former Recreational Demonstration Areas in Tennessee, all are now state parks.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The National Parks:Shaping the System:" (PDF). National Park Service. 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  2. ^ a b c d "United States Code: Title 16 Conservation: CHAPTER 1 - NATIONAL PARKS, MILITARY PARKS, MONUMENTS, AND SEASHORES; SUBCHAPTER LXIV - RECREATIONAL DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS: Section 459s - Lands for certain projects added to certain projects". The Oklahoma State Courts Network. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  3. ^ "Georgia State Parks and Historic Sites: Histories". Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2007-03-21. 
  4. ^ "BADLANDS NP: History of Badlands National Monument: The Depression Years". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-03-21. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "The CCC Years". Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  6. ^ "National Park Service Chronological Timeline: 1930-1939". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  7. ^ "Catoctin Recreational Demonstration Area". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  8. ^ "Chopawamsic Recreation Demonstration Area". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  9. ^ "Raleigh: A Capital City: Crabtree Creek Recreational Demonstration Area". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  10. ^ a b c "TENNESSEE: A GUIDE TO THE STATE". Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Tennessee. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  11. ^ "National Register of Historic Places: Oklahoma - Love County". National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  12. ^ "National Register of Historic Places: Missouri - Camden County". National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  13. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program: Mendocino Woodlands Recreational Demonstration Area". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  14. ^ "State Historic Preservation Office: Johnson County". Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  15. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program: Pine Mountain State Park". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  16. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Program: St. Croix Recreational Demonstration Area". National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  17. ^ "The Regional Review: VIRGINIA NATURAL HISTORY INSTITUTE". National Park Service. April–May 1940. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  18. ^ "Fish and Wildlife Areas: Winamac". Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved 2007-03-14.