Recy Taylor

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Recy Taylor (born 1920) is an African American woman from Abbeville in Henry County, Alabama. On September 3, 1944, she was kidnapped while leaving church and brutally gang raped by six white men.[1] Even though the men admitted the rape to authorities, two grand juries subsequently declined to indict the men, meaning no charges were ever brought against Taylor's six assailants.

In 2011, the Alabama House of Representatives apologized on behalf of the state "for its failure to prosecute her attackers."[2] Taylor's rape and the subsequent court cases were among the first instances of nation wide protest and activism among the African American community, and ended up providing an early organizational spark for the Civil Rights movement.[3]

The assault[edit]

Recy Taylor was walking home from the church on September 3, 1944, with her friend Fannie Daniel, and Daniel's teenage son West, when a car pulled up on the side of the road. In the car was US Army Private Herbert Lovett and six other men, all armed. Herbert Lovett accused Taylor of cutting "that white boy in Clopton this evening".[4] This accusation was false, as Taylor had been with Daniel all day. The seven men forced Taylor into the car at gunpoint and proceeded to drive her to a patch of trees on the side of the road. They forced her to remove her clothes saying "Get them rags off, or I'll kill you and leave you down here in the woods".[5] After she was forcibly undressed, Taylor begged to return home to her family, including a husband and an infant child. The assailants ignored her requests, all removed their clothes, and watched as Lovett ordered Taylor to lie down and for her to "act just like you do with your husband or I'll cut your damn throat".[5] She was raped by six men, including Lovett.

Reactions to the assault[edit]

Taylor's kidnapping was reported immediately to the police by Daniel. Daniel identified the car as belonging to Hugo Wilson, who "admitted to picking up Taylor and, as he put it, carrying her to the spot" and pinned the rape on six men, Dillard York, Billy Howerton, Herbertt Lovett, Luther Lee, Joe Culpepper, and Robert Gamble.[6] Even though three eyewitnesses identified Wilson as the driver of the car, the police did not call in any of the men Wilson named as assailants, and Wilson was fined $250.[7] The black community of Abbeville was outraged at the actions taken by the police, and the event was reported to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Montgomery, Alabama.[8] The NAACP sent down their best investigator and activist against sexual assaults on black women, Rosa Parks.[9]

First trial[edit]

Parks took the case back to Montgomery where she started to form a defense for Taylor with the assistance of E.D. Nixon, Rufas A. Lewis, and E.G. Jackson, all influential men in the Montgomery community.[10] Parks and her allies formed the Alabama Committee for Equal Justice for Mrs. Recy Taylor, "with support from national labor unions, African-American organizations, and women's groups".[10] The group recruited supporters across the entire country and by the spring of 1945 they had organized what the Chicago Defender called the "strongest campaign for equal justice to be seen in a decade".[10]

The trial took place on October 3–4, 1944, with an all-white, all-male jury. However, none of the assailants had been arrested, which meant that the only witnesses were Taylor's black friends and family. Taylor's family could not identify the names of the assailants, and since Sheriff Gamble "never arranged a police line-up, Taylor could not identify her attackers in court".[10] Also, the $250 bond Gamble placed Wilson and his accomplices under "were issued late in the afternoon, the day after Taylor's hearing".[10] After five minutes of deliberation, the jury dismissed the case. The only way it could be re-opened would be through an indictment from the grand jury.

Proceeding months[edit]

In the months following the trial, Taylor received multiple death threats, and her home was firebombed by white supremacists.[11] Taylor, along with her husband and child, moved into the family home, where her father and siblings would help protect Taylor from other death threats. Her entire family was afraid to go out after dark, and Taylor wouldn't leave even during the day. She not only feared the threats from the angry vigilantes of the town, but also the threats from her attackers the night of the assault. Benny Corbitt took guard in a tree every night with a gun guarding Taylor and her family until daybreak. Taylor and her family assumed they would live the rest of their lives in fear.[11] However, talk of "the brutal rape and phony hearing" resonated through NAACP chapters throughout the south and within black communities. These organizations and others came together to defend Taylor and demand punishment for her attackers as well as Taylor's safety.[11]

Activism for justice[edit]

The activists convened at the Negro Masonic Temple in Birmingham, Alabama where members of the Montgomery and Birmingham NAACP, editors and reporters from the Alabama Tribune and Birmingham World, and members of the Southern Negro Youth Congress, or SYNC, amongst others coordinated efforts to bring justice for Recy Taylor. SYNC members, together with Rosa Parks and other primarily female activists helped spread Recy Taylor's story all the way up the coast to Harlem, New York.[12] Stories of Taylor's assault were printed in the Pittsburgh Courier making the "rape of Recy Taylor a southern injustice" which "immediately sparked nation-wide interest".[13] This led to a publication in the New York Daily News titled "Alabama Authorities Ignore White Gang's Rape of Negro Mother" and attacked the long lasting segregation and defense of white womanhood as well as the "manipulation of interracial rape to justify violence against black men."[13] After various other newspaper publications and widespread knowledge of the attack, black activists started writing to the then Governor of Alabama, Chauncey Sparks. Sparks had promised during his election campaign to "keep the federal government's nose out of Alabama business", so after numerous attacks including comparisons of the Henry County's police to the Nazis, "Governor Sparks reluctantly agreed to launch an investigation".[14]

Rosa Parks, in her instrumental work to bring justice for Taylor, spearheaded the creation of the "Committee for Equal Justice for Mrs. Recy Taylor" (CEJRT). It quickly gathered national support, with local chapters springing up across the United States. The group had an illustrious membership; "luminaries included W.E.B. Du Bois; Mary Church Terrell, a suffragist and founder of the National Association of Colored Women; Charlotte Hawkins Brown, a popular clubwoman and respected educator; Ira De A. Reid, a sociologist and assistant director of the new formed Southern Regional Council; John Sengstacke, the publisher of the Chicago Defender; Countee Cullen and Langston Hughes of Harlem Renaissance fame; Lillian Smith, author of the controversial interracial love story Strange Fruit; and Broadway impresario Oscar Hammerstein II."[15] The "illustrious" group drew the attention of the FBI as anti-communists working for the House Un-American Activities Committee argued that the group was simply a cover for the Communist Party.[16]

Investigation[edit]

After Sparks launched an investigation, Sheriff Gamble was interviewed again about the measures he took to ensure justice on the behalf of Recy Taylor. Gamble falsely claimed that he started an investigation of his own immediately after the attack. He also claimed that he had arrested all of the men involved in the rape two days after the assault, and that he had placed Hugo Wilson, the man identified as being the owner of the car, under a $500 bond. He also accused Taylor of being "nothing but a whore around Abbeville" and that she had been "treated for some time by the Health Officer of Henry County for venereal disease".[17] Later, other white men from Abbeville identified Taylor as an "upstanding, respectable woman who abided by the town's racial and sexual mores".[17] Investigators interviewed the alleged rapists, and four of the seven men "admitted to having intercourse with Taylor, but argued that she was essentially a prostitute and willing participant".[18] Others, including Herbertt Lovett, denied knowing anything about the attack. However, one of the assailants, Joe Culpepper, admitted that himself and the other rapists were out looking for a woman the night of the attack, that Lovett got out of the car with a gun and spoke to Taylor, that Taylor was forced into the car and later forced out of the car and made to undress at gunpoint, was raped and later blindfolded and left on the side of the road.[19] Culpepper's retelling of the story was directly in line with Taylor's original account. However, even with this information including several of the alleged assailants testimonies, the attorney general "failed to convince the jurors of Henry County that there was enough evidence to indict the seven suspects when he presented Taylor's case on February 14, 1945".[19] The second all-white male jury refused to issue any indictments.

Aftermath[edit]

The black community was shocked at the second dismissal of Taylor's case. The news coverage of the second hearing was more hostile towards Taylor based on the false claims of her being a prostitute. The assistant attorney general stated that "This case has been presented to two grand juries in Henry County and both grand juries have not seen fit to find an indictment", claiming that "no facts or circumstances connected with this case have been suppressed."[20] Even though the outcome of the case was not good for Taylor, this case was a major victory for the formation of the civil rights movement because of the successful mobilization of activists across the nation. "The Recy Taylor case brought the building blocks of the Montgomery bus boycott together a decade earlier."[3]

Taylor lived in Abbeville with her family for two decades after the attack. She said that during those years she lived "in fear, and many white people in the town continued to treat her badly, even after her attackers left."[2] She eventually moved to Florida, where she still lives.

In 2011, the Alabama House of Representatives apologized to Taylor on behalf of the state "for its failure to prosecute her attackers."[2] State Representative Dexter Grimsley, along with Abbeville Mayor Ryan Blalock and Henry County Probate Judge JoAnn Smith, also apologized to Taylor for her treatment.

Taylor received the apologies on Mother's Day in 2011, when she visited Rock Hill Holiness Church in Abbeville, the very church where she was kidnapped. "I felt good," she said. "That was a good day to present it to me. I wasn't expecting that."[21]

In 2011, Taylor visited the White House and attended a forum on Rosa Parks at the National Press Club[21][22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McGuire, Danielle L. (2010). At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance- A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. Random House. pp. xv–xvii. ISBN 978-0-307-26906-5. 
  2. ^ a b c "'Morally repugnant': Alabama issues apology for its treatment of black woman gang raped by six white men in 1944," The Daily Mail, March 30, 2011.
  3. ^ a b McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 39.
  4. ^ McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. xv.
  5. ^ a b McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. xvi.
  6. ^ McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 6–7.
  7. ^ McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 8.
  8. ^ McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. xvii.
  9. ^ "Southern black women find justice elusive for civil rights-era rapes," Associated Press, October 15, 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d e McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 13.
  11. ^ a b c McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 14.
  12. ^ McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 15.
  13. ^ a b McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 17.
  14. ^ McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 119-125.
  15. ^ McGuire, Danielle (2010). At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance -- A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. New York: Vintage. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-307-38924-4. 
  16. ^ McGuire, Danielle (2010). At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance -- A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. New York: Vintage. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-307-38924-4. 
  17. ^ a b McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 33.
  18. ^ McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 34.
  19. ^ a b McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 35.
  20. ^ McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street, p. 36.
  21. ^ a b "Civil rights-era rape victim revels in White House tour," The Grio, NBC News, May 13, 2011.
  22. ^ "Recy Taylor Visits White House" By Danielle Wright, Associated Press report on BET, 05/13/2011.