Distribution and habitat
The red-billed tropicbird occurs in the tropical Atlantic, eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans. The Indian Ocean race, P. a. indicus, was at one time considered a full species, the lesser red-billed tropicbird from Pakistan and western India. It breeds on tropical islands laying a single egg directly onto the ground or a cliff ledge. It disperses widely when not breeding, and sometimes wanders far, including three records from Great Britain. One has recently been found in eastern Nova Scotia, Canada and another sighting was confirmed on Lord Howe Island near Australia in November 2010. They feed on fish and squid, but are poor swimmers. Red billed tropicbirds have been sighted at Matinicus Rock, Maine.
The adult is a slender, mainly white bird, 48 cm long, excluding the central tail feathers which double the total length, and a one metre wingspan. The long wings have black markings on the flight feathers. There is black through the eye. The bill is red. Sexes are similar, although males average longer tails. Juveniles lack the tail streamers, are greyer-backed, and have a yellow bill. P. a. indicus has a reduced black eye stripe, and a more orange-tinted bill.Its wind are made up of very large feather coat.
P. a. mesonauta, chick Little Tobago
P. a. mesonauta, nesting, Little Tobago
P. a. mesonauta, in flight, Little Tobago
P. a. mesonauta, typical clumsy landing, Little Tobago
P. a. indicus; illustration by Joseph Smit, 1898
Depiction on banknote
- BirdLife International (2013). "Phaethon aethereus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Red-billed Tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus)". BirdGuides. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Birds of India by Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, ISBN 0-691-04910-6
- Seabirds: An Identification Guide by Harrison, Peter ISBN 0-7470-1410-8
Snow, D.W. (1965). The breeding of the Red-billed Tropicbird in the Galapagos Islands. Condor 67(3): 210-214.
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- Red-billed Tropicbird BirdLife International