Red–green–brown alliance

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The term red-green-brown alliance, originating in France, refers to the alleged alliance of Communists (red), Islamists (green), and Ultranationalists (brown). The term is often used in a broad sense to refer to antisemitic and/or anti-American views shared by disparate groups and movements.

French essayist Alexandre del Valle wrote of "une alliance idéologique ... rouge-brun-vert" (a red-green brown ... ideology) in an April 22, 2002 article in the newspaper Le Figaro,[1] and wrote "Rouges-Bruns-Verts, l'étrange alliance", in a January 2004 article in the magazine Politique Internationale.[2] He has more recently used the French phrase "l'axe rouge-vert-brun" (the red-green-brown axis).[citation needed]

Del Valle's conceptual rendering of Islamist ideological trends appears to be based at least partially on earlier writings in which he had charged the United States and western Europe with favouring the "war machine" of "armed Islamism" via its funding of the Mujahadeen in Afghanistan during the presidency of Ronald Reagan,[3] which helped future enemies of the West.[citation needed] After that, Del Valle published many articles on the red-brown-green Axis against the West,[4] and he is publishing in France and Italy an essay entitled "The Reds Browns Greens, the anti-Western alliance of extremists".[5]

The later popularity of the red-green-brown theory (and its various permutations) derives mainly from a speech given by Roger Cukierman,[citation needed] president of the French Jewish organization CRIF, to a CRIF banquet on January 25, 2003, and given wide circulation by a January 27/28 2003 article in Le Monde. Cukierman used the French term "alliance brun-vert-rouge" to describe the antisemitic alignment supposedly shared by "an extreme right nostalgic for racial hierarchies" (symbolized by the color brown), "an extreme left [which is] anti-globalist, anti-capitalist, anti-American [and] anti-Zionist" (red), and followers of José Bové (green).

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