|Country of origin||Thailand, Austria|
|Variants||Original, Sugarfree, Cola, Total Zero, Red Edition, Blue Edition, Silver Edition, F1 Edition|
|Related products||Red Bull Cola, Red Bull Energy Shot, Red Bull Sugar-Free, Red Bull Total Zero, Red Bull Racing, Red Bull Racing Team|
Red Bull is an energy drink sold by Austrian company Red Bull GmbH, created in 1987. In terms of market share, Red Bull is the most popular energy drink in the world, with 5.2 billion cans sold in 2012.
Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz was inspired by a pre-existing energy drink named Krating Daeng (Thai: กระทิงแดง, Thai pronunciation: [kràtʰiŋ dɛːŋ]), which was first invented and sold in Thailand. He took this idea, modified the ingredients to suit the tastes of westerners, and, in partnership with Chaleo Yoovidhya, founded Red Bull GmbH in Austria. In Thai, daeng means red, and krating is the reddish-brown muscle-bound bovine called a "gaur", an animal slightly larger than the bison. Red Bull is sold in a tall and slim blue-silver can; in Thailand and in some parts of Asia it is sold in a wider gold can with the name of Krating Daeng or Red Bull Classic. The two are different products, produced separately.
The Red Bull company slogan is "Red Bull gives you wings" and the product is marketed through advertising, events (Red Bull Air Race, Red Bull Crashed Ice), sports team ownerships (RB Leipzig, FC Red Bull Salzburg, Red Bull Brasil, Red Bull New York, Red Bull Racing, Scuderia Toro Rosso), celebrity endorsements, and music, through its record label Red Bull Records.
Red Bull has been criticized for its marketing with extreme sports pictures, including those of at least six known fatalities (see below). Red Bull was criticized for health risks in the past; however, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that the levels of taurine and glucuronolactone used in Red Bull and other popular energy drinks are safe.
Chaleo Yoovidhya founded T.C. Pharmaceuticals. In 1976 he introduced a drink called Krating Daeng in Thailand, which means "red gaur" in English. It was inspired by the tonic Lipovitan, which prime ingredient is taurine, and was popular among Thai truck drivers and laborers.
In 1984 the company Red Bull GmbH was co-founded by Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur, who turned Red Bull into a global brand. After visiting Thailand in 1982 Mateschitz had discovered that Krating Daeng helped cure his jet lag. From 1984-87 Mateschitz worked as the international marketing director for Blendax, a toothpaste company with TCBG Pharmaceutical (a Blendax licensee) to adapt its flavor and develop a marketing strategy for the Asian market.
Red Bull GmbH was founded by each partner investing $500,000 of savings and taking a stake in the new company. Chaleo and Dietrich each held a 49% share of the new company. They gave the remaining 2% to Chaleo's son Chalerm, but it was agreed that Mateschitz would run the company. The product was launched in 1987 in Austria as a carbonated version.
In 1992, the product expanded to international markets: Hungary and Slovenia. It entered the United States via California in 1997 and the Middle East in 2000. In 2008, Forbes magazine listed both Chaleo and Mateschitz as the 250th richest people in the world with an estimated net worth of $4 billion.
Red Bull marketing is headquartered in Fuschl am See, an Austrian village of 1500 inhabitants near Salzburg. The building sports no logo and is heavily guarded. The company does not grant any interviews.
Red Bull contains caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, B-group vitamins, sucrose, and glucose. Red Bull Sugar Free is like Red Bull Energy Drink, but without sugar. The sugars sucrose and glucose have been replaced by the sweeteners acesulfame K and aspartame/sucralose.
Red Bull is sold in China in two versions: a regular-strength version in a short, wide, gold-and-red can; and an "extra-strength" version in a taller, thinner, blue-and-silver can more like the cans sold in western countries. Neither version is carbonated.
In Malaysia, Red Bull is sold in five versions: in addition to the regular strength version in short, gold-and-red can like the one sold in China, and "International" version sold in a taller, thinner, blue-and-silver can (looking like the "extra-strength" version sold in China, but carbonated), a "less-sugar" also sold in a short, silver-and-red can- this version tastes much more sour compared to the gold-and-red can version, but is otherwise identical in terms of nutrients. Additionally, both regular and less-sugar version are also available in a lower dosage, sold in glass bottles with gold-and-red or silver-and-red label depending on version, mimicking the Krating Daeng bottles sold in Thailand.
Claims about the drink's effects and performance have been challenged on various occasions, with the UK's Advertising Standards Authority imposing advertising restrictions in 2001 in response to complaints recorded as early as 1997. In 2011, Red Bull earned around EUR 4.2 billion in worldwide sales and was available in 165 countries globally.
Caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone have been assessed by health authorities for their safety. Health Canada conducted a review of the scientific literature on caffeine, concluding that the general population of healthy adults is not at risk for potential adverse effects from caffeine if they limit their consumption to 400 mg per day.
Taurine and glucuronolactone are human body constituents and present in the human diet from foods such as scallops, fish, poultry and grains. The Scientific Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) published in 2009 at the request of the European Food Safety Authority's commission (EFSA) the evaluation of the safety in use of two particular "energy drink" ingredients, specifically taurine and glucuronolactone, and concluded that the exposure to these said substances at the levels presently used in energy drinks is no safety concern.
Yet, the same EFSA European Food Safety Authority published also in 2009 another scientific opinion led by the 'EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies' (NDA), focusing this time on various studies of taurine and its commercial alleged health claims, namely: antioxidant activity, detoxifying properties, and protection of body cells from oxidative damage (defined as per the EFSA: Protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage), energy metabolism (energy-yielding metabolism), ergogenic role in sports and exercise (Delay in the onset of fatigue and enhancement of physical performance).
The EFSA concluded that on the basis of the available data, the cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of taurine and the previously mentioned commercial claims.
A review published in 2008 found no documented reports of negative or positive health effects associated with the amount of taurine used in energy drinks, including Red Bull. Caffeine and sugar levels in Red Bull are comparable to coffee and fruit juices, respectively.
The caffeine content of a single can of Red Bull is 80 mg/250 ml (32 mg/100 ml). This is about the same as one cup of coffee, or slightly less depending on the brewing method. The actual caffeine level in Red Bull can vary depending on country, as some countries have legal restrictions on how much caffeine is allowed in drinks. As is the case with other caffeinated beverages, Red Bull drinkers may experience adverse effects as a result of overuse caffeine intoxication.
Moderate caffeine intake (less than 400 mg per day) does not adversely affect cardiovascular health.
There has been at least one case report of Red Bull overdose causing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in a young athlete. A February 3, 2009 article in The Daily Telegraph called "Red Bull 'may have triggered heart condition that killed student' " reported the death of a 21-year-old woman who died after drinking four cans of Red Bull as well as alcohol at "social levels". It is believed, but was not proven, that she suffered from a rare heart condition called long QT Syndrome. She was on medication for epilepsy and had an abnormally large heart. A medical examination found no illegal drugs in her body. The article quoted a doctor as saying, "The coroner recorded that the 21-year-old woman died of natural causes."
Impact on driving
Authorities kept Red Bull from being sold in France from 1996 to 2008, and in Denmark, and Norway for years. As of 2013 it is on sale in all 27 member states of the European Union and in 165 countries around the world.
The French food safety agency was concerned about taurine. A Red Bull drink that did not contain taurine was introduced. The French refusal of market approval was challenged by the European Commission, and partially upheld by the European Court of Justice in 2004. The French food safety agency relented in 2008, because it was unable to prove a definite health risk, taurine-related or not.
In 2013, Red Bull told the Redwell brewery, a Norfolk micro brewery to change its name or face legal action, because it sounded too similar to Red Bull. The eight man brewery in Norwich was told its name could "confuse" customers and "tarnish" its trademark. The two companies reached a settlement permitting Redwell to continue using its name.
Red Bull's slogan is "it gives you wings". Red Bull's international marketing campaign targets young men mostly with extreme sports. These range from mountain biking, BMX, motocross, windsurfing, snowboarding, skateboarding, kayaking, wakeboarding, cliff-diving, surfing, skating, freestyle motocross, rally, Formula 1 racing, to breakdancing. Red Bull uses music and videogames, and has enlisted celebrities, such as Eminem (sponsoring the Red Bull "EmSee Battle Rap championships"). It hosts events like art shows and the "Red Bull Flugtag" (German for "flight day" or "flying day"). Red Bull owns association football teams, with clubs in Austria, Germany, the United States and Brazil featuring the Red Bull trademark in their names. By associating the drink's image with these activities, the company seeks to promote a "cool" public image and raise brand power. The energy drink has created a market for over 150 related types of merchandise, like Red Rooster and Blue Lightning.
In the PlayStation 3's social gaming platform, PlayStation Home, Red Bull developed its own in-game island, specifically advertising its energy drink and the Red Bull Air Race event (for which the space is named) released in January 2009. In late November 2009, Red Bull produced two new spaces, the Red Bull Illume space, and the Red Bull Beach space featuring the Red Bull Flugtag, both released on the same day. In January 2012, Red Bull released its first personal space called the "Red Bull House of Skate" featuring an indoor skate park.
In the video game Worms 3D, Red Bull allows worms to move more quickly than normal. Red Bull is displayed on virtual track-side billboards during game play and in the opening cinematic in the video game Wipeout 2097.
- RB Leipzig – a football team currently playing in the German 3. Liga
- New York Red Bulls (officially Red Bull New York) – a soccer franchise competing in the United States' Major League Soccer
- Infiniti Red Bull Racing – a Formula One team based in Milton Keynes, England, World Constructor's Championship winner of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, and produced the car for the 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 F1 World Champion Sebastian Vettel.
- Scuderia Toro Rosso (Italian translation of Team Red Bull) – Another Formula One team based in Faenza, Italy.
- Team Red Bull – a racing team competing in the U.S.-based stock car racing competition NASCAR Red Bull Racing Team competed in NASCAR beginning in 2007. The team ceased operations after the Sprint Cup Series' 2011 season.
- FC Red Bull Salzburg – an Austrian football club based in Salzburg and competing in the Austrian Bundesliga
- EC Red Bull Salzburg – a member of the Austrian Hockey League based in Salzburg, Austria
- EHC Red Bull München – a member of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga based in Munich, Germany
- Red Bull Brasil – a football team currently playing in the Brazilian Campeonato Paulista Série A2 based in Campinas, Brazil
- Triple Eight Race Engineering – from 2013, Red Bull will sponsor one of the top V8 Supercar teams.
- Red Bull Racing Brasil, a Stock Car Brasil team, since 2007.
- Red Bull Ghana – a Ghanaian professional football club located in Sogakope that plays in the Poly Tank Division One League.
- StarTale – In 2012, Redbull began sponsoring this professional Starcraft 2 and Counter-Strike: Global Offensive team based in South Korea.
- D3W – In 2012, Redbull began sponsoring this professional studio and Marc Diwan co. based in Canada.
- Škoda Motorsport rally team
- Cacá Bueno's speed record Vectra
- Carlin Motorsport Dallara-Renault
- Citroën C4 WRC
- Citroën DS3 WRC
- Hyundai Genesis Coupe Pikes Peak edition
- Hyundai Veloster rallycross car
- JMB Racing Maserati MC12 GT
- KTM road and Dakar rally bikes
- Peugeot 208 T16
- Sauber F1 team from 1995 to 2004
- SEAT Sport WTCC team
- Škoda Fabia S2000
- Volkswagen Passat DARPA Grand Challenge edition
- Volkswagen Polo R WRC
- Volkswagen Race Touareg Dakar edition
- Volkswagen V10 TDI Touaregs Pikes Peak edition
- Houston & Clifford AG
- Bitsaxis Group
In 2009, Red Bull added mainstream sport athletes to its roster of sports endorsements.
- Reggie Bush US NFL athlete announced at the 2009 Super Bowl.
- Dani Pedrosa, Marc Márquez and John Reynolds.
- Red Bull Junior Team, a program which sponsors young drivers competing in single seater racing. Since 2001 many young drivers developed careers in professional motorsport, with 13 participants having competed in Formula One, including quadruple F1 world champion Sebastian Vettel.
- Skateboarder Ryan Sheckler
- Skijumper Adam Małysz, snowboarders Mark McMorris, Torah Bright and Nathan Johnstone, and skiers Kaya Turski, Lindsey Vonn and Alexis Pinturault.
- Halo player Dave "Walshy" Walsh, and his team "Final Boss" in 2007-2008.
- Red Bull is active in eSports, endorses Korean team "StarTale", and posts updates of StarTale players "Life" and "Bomber" on their website.
- Dion Phaneuf NHL defenseman - Captain of the Toronto Maple Leafs.
- Red Bull has also sponsored Call of Duty player Matt Haag known as 'NaDeSHoT since 2013 as part of their eSports sponsorship program.
- Red Bull Stratos
- Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series
- Red Bull Rampage
- Red Bull Ragnaraok
- Red Bull Road Rage
- Red Bull King of the Rock Tournament
- Red Bull Romaniacs Hard Enduro Rallye
- Red Bull Crashed Ice
- Red Bull X-Fighters
- Red Bull X-Alps
- Red Bull Air Race World Championship
- Red Bull Flugtag
- Red Bull Paperwings
- Red Bull LAN
- Red Bull Training Grounds
- Red Bull sports events
- Red Bull Art of Motion
- Red Bull BC One
- Red Bull Cold Rush
- Red Bull Dolomitenmann - A 4-man relay competition including trail running, paragliding, kayaking, mountainbiking
- Red Bull Elements - A 4-man relay competition including rowing, trail running, paragliding, mountainbiking
- Red Bull MotoGP Rookie Cup
- Indianapolis motorcycle Grand Prix
- Red Bull Storm Chase - A worldwide windsurfing competition in storm conditions with wind speeds of at least force ten
- Red Bull Supernatural - A "backcountry boarding competition designed to challenge, then crown the best all-around snowboarder on the planet."
- Red Bull Soapbox Race
- Red Bull Ring, a motorsport circuit in Spielberg, Styria, Austria.
- Red Bull Arena (Leipzig), home stadium of German football club RB Leipzig.
- Red Bull Arena (New Jersey), home stadium of American soccer club the New York Red Bulls.
- Red Bull Arena (Salzburg), home stadium of Austrian football club FC Red Bull Salzburg.
- Hangar-7 (Salzburg), a multifunctional building with a collection of historical airplanes.
As of 2013, at least six male extreme-sports performers have died during, or in the case of Eigo Sato in preparation for, stunts executed on behalf of Red Bull marketing. All videos with fatal ending were cut and Red Bull still uses them as film "trailers". The deceased are:
- Shane McConkey (Canadian extreme skier, died 3/2009 age 40)
- Ueli Gegenschatz (Swiss BASE jumper, died 11/2009 age 38)
- Caleb Moore (US snowmobile racer, died 1/2013 age 25)
- Eigo Sato (Japanese motorbike stuntman, "Red Bull X fighter" died 2/2013 age 34 years during training for the Red Bull roadshow)
- Eli Thompson (US skydiver, died 8/2009 age 46)
- Toriano Wilson (US motorbike racer, died 8/2008 age 14 years during a Red Bull race)
- Felix Baumgartner — stratospheric parachute jump 2013
- List of energy drinks
- Vodka Red Bull
- Monster Energy
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Red Bull.|
- Official website
- Thai Red Bull / Krating Daeng 
- Red Bull Energy Drink 
- Red Bull's Total Marketing - slideshow by Der Spiegel