Red Deer, Alberta
|City of Red Deer|
Aerial view of Downtown Red Deer
|Motto: Education, Industry and Progress|
|Established||1882 as a trading post|
May 31, 1894
| - Town
|June 12, 1901
March 25, 1913
|• Mayor||Tara Veer|
|• Governing body|
|• City Manager||Craig Curtis|
|• MP||Earl Dreeshen (Cons)|
|• MLAs||Cal Dallas (P.C.),
Mary Anne Jablonski (P.C.)
|• City||104.29 km2 (40.27 sq mi)|
|Elevation||855 m (2,805 ft)|
|• Density||868.4/km2 (2,249/sq mi)|
|Ranked 44th largest metro
area in Canada in 2006
|Time zone||MST (UTC−7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC−6)|
|Postal code span||T4N to T4R|
|Area code(s)||403 587|
|Highways||Queen Elizabeth II Highway
David Thompson Highway
|Waterways||Red Deer River|
Red Deer is a city in Central Alberta, Canada. It is located near the midpoint of the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor and is surrounded by Red Deer County. It is Alberta's third-most-populous city – after Calgary and Edmonton. The city is located in aspen parkland, a region of rolling hills that is subject to oil, grain, and cattle production. It is a centre for oil and agriculture distribution, and the surrounding region is a major centre for petrochemical production. According to its 2013 municipal census, the City of Red Deer's population is now 97,109.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Arts and culture
- 5 Attractions
- 6 Sports
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 Education
- 9 Media
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by aboriginal tribes including the Blackfoot, Plains Cree and Stoney. European fur traders began passing through the area in the late eighteenth century. Into this ethnic mix, the Métis peoples also emerged.
A native trail ran from Montana in the south across the Bow River near Calgary and on to Fort Edmonton. About halfway between Calgary and Edmonton, the trail crossed the Red Deer River at a wide, stony shallow used by First Nations peoples and bison, commonly known as buffalo, since ancient times. The shallows, now known as the Old Red Deer Crossing, are about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) upstream from the present City of Red Deer.
With the establishment of Fort Calgary by the North-West Mounted Police in 1875, traffic increased along what was by then known as the Calgary and Edmonton Trail. After the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in Calgary, traffic along the "C & E" trail increased substantially. A trading post and stopping house were built at the Crossing in 1882 and a permanent settlement began to develop around it.
During the 1885 Riel Rebellion (also known as the North-West Rebellion), the Canadian militia constructed Fort Normandeau at the Crossing. The fort was later taken over by the North-West Mounted Police who used it until 1893.
With the decimation of the bison by hunters, the aboriginal tribes who relied on them for food, clothing and shelter were also in decline. The fertile lands around the Red Deer River were attractive to farmers and ranchers. One early settler, the Reverend Leonard Gaetz, gave a half-share of 1,240 acres (5.0 km2) he had acquired to the Calgary and Edmonton Railway to develop a bridge over the river and a townsite. As a result, the Crossing was gradually abandoned. The first train from Calgary to Edmonton passed through Red Deer in 1891.
The Cree peoples called the river on which Red Deer stands Waskasoo Seepee, which translates to "Elk River". However, British traders translated the name as "Red Deer River", since they mistakenly thought elk were European red deer. Later, the settlers of the area named their community after the river.
Leonard Gaetz acted as the local land agent for the Saskatchewan Colonization Company and purchased parts of three other sections from his employers. By 1890, the Gaetz family owned vast land holdings along the south bank of the Red Deer River around the mouth of the Waskasoo Creek. The holdings included parts of Sections 16, 17, 20 and 21. Leonard Gaetz's increasing wealth allowed his family to play a central role in the growth of Red Deer.
In 1895, Gaetz returned to the active ministry in Manitoba. Once again, this proved detrimental to his health. He retired back to Red Deer in 1901, and resided here for the remainder of his life. He was a strong promoter of the area, founding the Westerner showgrounds and annual "Westerner Days", akin to the Calgary Stampede. He died in Red Deer in 1907.
1900 to 1929
Red Deer saw a massive influx of settlers in the early 1900s.
In 1901, when Red Deer was incorporated as a town, the population stood at 343. Through its location midway between Edmonton and Calgary and the fertile land that supported profitable mixed farming, Red Deer developed primarily as an agricultural service and distribution centre. A further boost came in 1907 when it was chosen as a major divisional point for the Canadian Pacific Railway. Two other railways, the Alberta Central Railway and the Canadian Northern Railway, entered the community in 1911. Red Deer underwent a large land boom.
On March 25, 1913, Red Deer was incorporated as a city and the population had jumped to nearly 2,800.
World War I brought a sharp end to the boom. Red Deer emerged as a small, quiet, but prosperous, prairie city. In 1922, the provincial institution for the care of the mentally handicapped, currently known as the Michener Centre, was established in the city. Prospects looked good for modest but sustainable growth.
1930 to 1945
The Great Depression of the 1930s was a major setback for the city, though it fared better than some communities. Central Alberta was not hit by severe drought. The city was virtually debt-free and profited from its ownership of the local public utilities.
Growth returned to the city with the outbreak of World War II. Red Deer was chosen as the location of a large military training camp (the A-20 Camp which was located where Cormack Armoury, The Memorial Centre and Lindsay Thurber High School are now located). The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan built two air bases to the south of the city at Penhold and Bowden.
Post Second World War
In the late 1950s, Red Deer claimed to be the fastest-growing city in Canada.
By roughly 1991 the Canadian Pacific Railway had been removed from the inner city; the track currently runs parallel to the city outskirts. The most prominent landmark of the railway remaining is the CPR bridge spanning the Red Deer River, converted to a walking trail shortly after the track removal.
The city is now a major centre for oil and natural gas extraction and related industries and also for agriculture and agricultural services. It is also a regional centre for administration with a courthouse and provincial building. It is also well served with all major stores in malls such as Bower Place, Southpointe Common, Parkland Mall and many other locations. A large commercial district/business park called Gasoline Alley has developed in recent years just south of the city limits.
Red Deer is also noted for its number of restaurants, economic resilience and youth demographic.
Red Deer is located on the Red Deer River after which it was named.
Red Deer has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), with somewhat of a semi-arid influence. The hottest recorded temperature was 36 °C (96.8 °F) on August 24, 1992. The coldest recorded temperature was −43.3 °C (−45.9 °F) on December 9, 1977.
|Climate data for Red Deer (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||13.5
|Average high °C (°F)||−4.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−10.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−16.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−41.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||22.2
|Rainfall mm (inches)||0.10
|Snowfall cm (inches)||22.1
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||7.9||5.7||6.4||5.8||11.1||15.4||14.2||13.0||11.1||6.6||6.7||6.0||110.0|
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||0.08||0.15||0.54||4.0||10.6||15.4||14.2||13.0||10.9||4.9||0.96||0.19||74.9|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm)||7.9||5.5||6.0||2.4||1.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.38||2.1||6.0||5.9||37.1|
|Source: Environment Canada|
Red Deer is divided into the following neighbourhoods.
|Source: Statistics Canada
|Population by ethnic group, 2006|
|Mixed visible minority||155||0.2%|
|Other visible minority||40||0%|
In the 2011 Census, the City of Red Deer had a population of 90,564 living in 36,346 of its 38,789 total dwellings, a 8.9% change from its 2006 adjusted population of 83,154. With a land area of 104.29 km2 (40.27 sq mi), it had a population density of 868.4/km2 (2,249.1/sq mi) in 2011.
In 2006, Red Deer had a population of 82,772 living in 33,894 dwellings, a 22.0% increase from 2001. The city has a land area of 69.23 km2 (26.73 sq mi) and a population density of 1,195.6 /km2 (3,097 /sq mi).
Nearly ninety percent of residents spoke English as a first language while 1.7 percent spoke Spanish and 1.6% spoke French. The next most common languages were Tagalog (Filipino) at 1.1 percent, German at 1.0 percent, and Chinese at 0.8 percent, followed by Dutch at 0.6%, Ukrainian at 0.4 percent, and Vietnamese at 0.3 percent.
About 4.4 percent of residents identified as aboriginal at the time of the 2006 census.
Red Deer is home to almost 1,800 recent immigrants (arriving between 2001 and 2006) who now make up just more than two percent of the population. About sixteen percent of these immigrants came from the Philippines, while about 14% came from Colombia, 8% came from India, seven percent came from the United States, and about five percent from each of South Africa and the United Kingdom, and about four percent from El Salvador.
Almost seventy-two percent of the residents are identified as Christian and over twenty-six percent said they had no religious affiliation for the 2001 Census. For specific denominations Statistics Canada counted 14,660 Roman Catholics (22 percent), and 10,970 United Church (16.5 percent), 3,720 Anglicans (5.6 percent), 3,065 Lutherans (4.6 percent), as well as about 1,305 Baptists (2 percent), and about 1,200 Pentecostals (1.8 percent), about 1,060 Presbyterians (1.6 percent), about 905 for the Christian and Missionary Alliance (1.5 percent), and about 650 Jehovah's Witnesses (1.0 percent), as well as about 585 for the Evangelical Missionary Church (0.9 percent) and 455 Mormons (0.7 percent ).
In a July 2007 analysis of demographic information from the 2006 Federal Census prepared by Environics Analytics, Red Deer was the city most closely resembling the country as a whole.
Arts and culture
Named Cultural Capital of Canada by Canadian Heritage in 2003, Red Deer is home to a wide variety of arts and cultural groups. It is the home of Central Alberta Theatre, Central Music Festival, the Red Deer Symphony Orchestra, the Red Deer Museum and Art Gallery, the Red Deer Royals and other performing arts and fine arts organizations.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2013)|
The Alberta Sports Hall of Fame is adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Highway 2) and the Greater Red Deer Visitor Centre.
The Canyon Ski Resort is located 7.5 km (4.7 mi) east of Red Deer.
The Enmax Centrum hosts sports events, concerts, trade shows and conventions.
The 12,000 m2 (130,000 sq ft) G.H. Dawe Community Centre is shared by G.H. Dawe Community School, the G.H. Dawe Branch of the Red Deer Public Library, G.H. Dawe Centre Recreation Facility and St. Patrick's School.
The Greater Red Deer Visitor Centre is adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Highway 2) and the Alberta Sports Hall of Fame.
The Recreation Centre, an older facility that has been upgraded to modern standards, has indoor and outdoor pools, steam rooms and hot tubs among other features.
Waskasoo Park meanders through Red Deer from its outskirts in the southwest, through the heart of the city, to its outskirts in the northeast along the Red Deer River. It includes over 80 kilometres (50 miles) of multi-use trails for biking, rollerblading, horseback riding, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing and walking. The park is one of the reasons Red Deer is known as "Park City".
The Westerner Exposition Grounds hosts events such as Agricon and Westerner Days. Held in early July, Westerner Days includes a rodeo, pony chuck-wagon racing, a fair, exhibitions and other events.
Red Deer is the hometown of several well-known sporting personalities, including former NHLer Ron Anderson, ex-NHLer Glen Wesley, Trent Hunter, Chris Mason, Randy Moller, Brandon Sutter, Paul Postma and Mark Tinordi, and Olympic gold medallist Jamie Salé. Ron MacLean is also from Red Deer. Olympic medallist speed skater Jeremy Wotherspoon also spent most of his childhood in Red Deer after being born in Saskatchewan. Olympic bronze medallist Deidra Dionne grew up in Red Deer.
- Red Deer Rebels, Western Hockey League
The city is served by Red Deer Regional Airport, which serves mostly general aviation, but also a small commuter airline. Scheduled turbo-prop service is available to Calgary, Kelowna, Edmonton, Grande Prairie and Fort McMurray.
Red Deer Transit provides local bus service throughout the city.
Health care is provided at the Red Deer Regional Hospital.
Three school authorities operate schools in Red Deer.
Founded in 1887, the Red Deer Public School District serves 10,000 students in thirty schools. Offering a wide range of programming, the district not only meets the needs of children and youth from the City of Red Deer and welcomes international students from around the world. Lindsay Thurber Comprehensive High School and Hunting Hills High School provide a large number of program options for students of high school age.
Founded in 1909, when the Daughters of Wisdom, a religious order from France, accepted the challenge of the Tinchebray Fathers, also from France, to offer Catholic schooling in Red Deer, Red Deer Catholic Regional Schools welcomes almost 7,000 students in five Central Alberta communities, including Red Deer. They operate École Secondaire Notre Dame High School, the only Catholic high school in central Alberta, which serves 1,500 students from the City of Red Deer and surrounding communities.
Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2's school École La Prairie is a French school located near downtown Red Deer that offers pre-kindergarten through grade 9 programs. It offers all courses in French to a population of 119 students whose first language is French.
Red Deer College was founded in 1964 as Red Deer Junior College. Today, it offers some degrees, adult upgrading, certificate programs, diploma programs, university transfer courses, applied degree programs, and apprenticeship and trades training.
|This section requires expansion. (July 2011)|
- Alberta Municipal Affairs (2010-09-17). "Municipal Profile – City of Red Deer". Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- Alberta Municipal Affairs: Municipal Officials Search
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- "Alberta Private Sewage Systems 2009 Standard of Practice Handbook: Appendix A.3 Alberta Design Data (A.3.A. Alberta Climate Design Data by Town)" (PDF). Safety Codes Council. January 2012. pp. 212–215 (PDF pages 226–229). Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and population centres, 2011 and 2006 censuses (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- "Red Deerian Comes Out on Top". City of Red Deer. 2009-07-08. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Red Deer continues to grow, city reaches 97,109 residents". City of Red Deer. June 17, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
- Alberta Trail Net (December 2002). "Calgary and Edmonton Trail" (PDF format; requires Adobe Reader). Retrieved 2009-09-14. [dead link]
- "History of Red Deer". City of Red Deer. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
- "North Red Deer: A Century of Change". City of Red Deer. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
- "2011 Village of North Red Deer Centennial Celebrations". City of Red Deer. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
- "Red Deer". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "Red Deer Open Data Catalogue: Neighbourhood Boundaries". City of Red Deer. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- "Table IX: Population of cities, towns and incorporated villages in 1906 and 1901 as classed in 1906". Census of the Northwest Provinces, 1906. Sessional Paper No. 17a. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1907. p. 100.
- "Table I: Area and Population of Canada by Provinces, Districts and Subdistricts in 1911 and Population in 1901". Census of Canada, 1911. Volume I. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1912. p. 2-39.
- "Table I: Population of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta by Districts, Townships, Cities, Towns, and Incorporated Villages in 1916, 1911, 1906, and 1901". Census of Prairie Provinces, 1916. Population and Agriculture. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1918. p. 77-140.
- "Table 8: Population by districts and sub-districts according to the Redistribution Act of 1914 and the amending act of 1915, compared for the census years 1921, 1911 and 1901". Census of Canada, 1921. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1922. p. 169-215.
- "Table 7: Population of cities, towns and villages for the province of Alberta in census years 1901-26, as classed in 1926". Census of Prairie Provinces, 1926. Census of Alberta, 1926. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1927. p. 565-567.
- "Table 12: Population of Canada by provinces, counties or census divisions and subdivisions, 1871-1931". Census of Canada, 1931. Ottawa: Government of Canada. 1932. p. 98-102.
- "Table 4: Population in incorporated cities, towns and villages, 1901-1936". Census of the Prairie Provinces, 1936. Volume I: Population and Agriculture. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1938. p. 833-836.
- "Table 10: Population by census subdivisions, 1871–1941". Eighth Census of Canada, 1941. Volume II: Population by Local Subdivisions. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1944. p. 134-141.
- "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1926-1946". Census of the Prairie Provinces, 1946. Volume I: Population. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1949. p. 401-414.
- "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1871–1951". Ninth Census of Canada, 1951. Volume I: Population, General Characteristics. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1953. p. 6.73-6.83.
- "Table 6: Population by sex, for census subdivisions, 1956 and 1951". Census of Canada, 1956. Population, Counties and Subdivisions. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1957. p. 6.50-6.53.
- "Table 6: Population by census subdivisions, 1901–1961". 1961 Census of Canada. Series 1.1: Historical, 1901–1961. Volume I: Population. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1963. p. 6.77-6.83.
- "Population by specified age groups and sex, for census subdivisions, 1966". Census of Canada, 1966. Population, Specified Age Groups and Sex for Counties and Census Subdivisions, 1966. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1968. p. 6.50-6.53.
- "Table 2: Population of Census Subdivisions, 1921–1971". 1971 Census of Canada. Volume I: Population, Census Subdivisions (Historical). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1973. p. 2.102-2.111.
- "Table 3: Population for census divisions and subdivisions, 1971 and 1976". 1976 Census of Canada. Census Divisions and Subdivisions, Western Provinces and the Territories. Volume I: Population, Geographic Distributions. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1977. p. 3.40-3.43.
- "Table 4: Population and Total Occupied Dwellings, for Census Divisions and Subdivisions, 1976 and 1981". 1981 Census of Canada. Volume II: Provincial series, Population, Geographic distributions (Alberta). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1982. p. 4.1-4.10. ISBN 0-660-51095-2.
- "Table 2: Census Divisions and Subdivisions – Population and Occupied Private Dwellings, 1981 and 1986". Census Canada 1986. Population and Dwelling Counts – Provinces and Territories (Alberta). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1987. p. 2.1-2.10. ISBN 0-660-53463-0.
- "Table 2: Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 1986 and 1991 – 100% Data". 91 Census. Population and Dwelling Counts – Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1992. p. 100-108. ISBN 0-660-57115-3.
- "Table 10: Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Divisions, Census Subdivisions (Municipalities) and Designated Places, 1991 and 1996 Censuses – 100% Data". 96 Census. A National Overview – Population and Dwelling Counts. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. 1997. p. 136-146. ISBN 0-660-59283-5.
- "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Divisions, 2001 and 1996 Censuses - 100% Data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
- "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. 2010-01-06. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
- , Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision
- "2011 Municipal Affairs Population List". Alberta Municipal Affairs. October 5, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- "Red Deer Continues To Grow, City Reaches 91,877 Residents". City of Red Deer. June 8, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "Red Deer—Community Profile". Statistics Canada. Census 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- "Red Deer". Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2001 and 2006 Censuses—20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "Red Deer". Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census—20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "Red Deer". Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (8) and Place of Birth (261) for the Immigrants and Non-permanent Residents of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census—20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "Red Deer". Religion (95A), Age Groups (7A) and Sex (3) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas 1 and Census Agglomerations, 1991 and 2001 Censuses—20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "The Marketing Search for Anytown, Canada". CBC News. 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- City of Red Deer Document – Quality of Life http://www.reddeer.ca/NR/rdonlyres/E9BEC218-E486-4599-9E45-5168E10F9CF0/0/Qualityoflife.pdf
- Red Deer Public School District
- Red Deer Catholic Regional Division
- "Student Population by Grade, School, and Authority, 2011, p. 31.". Alberta Education. Retrieved 2011-04-01.