Red Fort

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Red Fort
लाल क़िला
لال قلعہ
Red Fort, Delhi by alexfurr.jpg
View towards the Lahori Gate of the Red Fort
Location Delhi, India
Coordinates 28°39′21″N 77°14′30″E / 28.655747°N 77.241625°E / 28.655747; 77.241625Coordinates: 28°39′21″N 77°14′30″E / 28.655747°N 77.241625°E / 28.655747; 77.241625
Built 1648
Architect Ustad Ahmad Lahauri
Architectural style(s) Mughal architecture
Official name: Red Fort Complex
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, vi
Designated 2007 (31st session)
Reference No. 231
State Party India
Region Asia-Pacific
Red Fort is located in Delhi
Red Fort
Location in Delhi, India
Drawn diagram on cream-coloured paper
Plan of the Red Fort before 1857

The Red Fort was the residence of the Mughal emperor of India for nearly 200 years, until 1857. It is located in the centre of Delhi and houses a number of museums. In addition to accommodating the emperors and their households, it was the ceremonial and political centre of Mughal government and the setting for events critically impacting the region.[1]

The Red Fort was built as the fortified palace of Shahjahanabad, capital of the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan,[2] in 1648. Named for its massive enclosing walls of red sandstone, it is adjacent to the older Salimgarh Fort, built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546. The imperial apartments consist of a row of pavilions, connected by a water channel known as the Stream of Paradise (Nahr-i-Behisht). The Red Fort is considered to represent the zenith of Mughal creativity under Shah Jahan. Although the palace was planned according to Islamic prototypes, each pavilion contains architectural elements typical of Mughal buildings, reflecting a fusion of Timurid, Persian and Hindu traditions. The Red Fort’s innovative architectural style, including its garden design, influenced later buildings and gardens in Delhi, Rajasthan, Punjab, Kashmir, Braj, Rohilkhand and elsewhere.[1] With the Salimgarh Fort, it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007 as part of the Red Fort Complex.[1][3]

The Red Fort is an iconic symbol of India. On Independence Day, the prime minister hoists the national flag at the main gate of the fort and delivers a nationally-broadcast speech from its ramparts.[4]

Name[edit]

Its English name, "Red Fort", is a translation of the Hindustani Lal Quila (لال قلعہ, लाल क़िला) deriving from its red-sandstone walls. As the residence of the imperial family, the fort was originally known as the "Blessed Fort" (Quila-i-Mubarak).[5][6] Agra Fort is also called Lal Quila.

History[edit]

Painting of large fort, seen from above
1785 view of the Red Fort from the east. In the foreground the Rang Mahal is on the left, the Khwabgah Jharoka in the centre and the Moti Masjid on the far right.
View of the Red Fort from the river (by Ghulam Ali Khan, between c. 1852-1854
Painting of gold-and-white palace interior
Bahadur Shah II in the 'Khas Mahal, underneath the Scales of Justice
Contemporary photo of fort exterior, showing later British buildings
After the 1857 rebellion, British forces destroyed a large part of the fort before building military barracks.

Mughal Control[edit]

Shah Jahan commissioned construction of the Red Fort in 1638, when he decided to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi. Its design is credited to architect Ustad Ahmad Lahauri.[7][8] The fort lies along the Yamuna River, which fed the moats surrounding most of the walls.[9] Construction began in the sacred month of Muharram, on 13 May 1638.[10]:01 Supervised by Shah Jahan, it was completed in 1648.[11][12] Unlike other Mughal forts, the Red Fort's boundary walls are asymmetrical to contain the older Salimgarh Fort.[10]:04 The fortress-palace was a focal point of the medieval city of Shahjahanabad, which is present-day Old Delhi. Its planning and aesthetics represent the zenith of Mughal creativity prevailing during Shah Jahan's reign. His successor Aurangzeb added the Pearl Mosque to the emperor's private quarters, constructing barbicans in front of the two main gates to make the entrance to the palace more circuitous.[10]:08

The administrative and fiscal structure of the Mughals declined after Aurangzeb, and the 18th century saw a degeneration of the palace. When Jahandar Shah took over the Red Fort in 1712, it had been without an emperor for 30 years. Within a year of beginning his rule, Shah was murdered and replaced by Farukhsiyar. To raise money, the silver ceiling of the Rang Mahal was replaced by copper during this period. Muhammad Shah, known as 'Rangila' (the Colourful) for his interest in art, took over the Red Fort in 1719. In 1739, Persian emperor Nadir Shah easily defeated the Mughal army, plundering the Red Fort including the Peacock Throne. Nadir Shah returned to Persia after three months, leaving a destroyed city and a weakened Mughal empire to Muhammad Shah.[10]:09 The internal weakness of the Mughal empire made the Mughals titular heads of Delhi, and a 1752 treaty made the Marathas protectors of the throne at Delhi.[13][14] The 1758 Maratha conquest of Lahore and Peshawar[15] placed them in conflict with Ahmad Shah Durrani.[16][17] In 1760, the Marathas removed and melted the silver ceiling of the Diwan-i-Khas to raise funds for the defence of Delhi from the armies of Ahmed Shah Durrani.[18][19] In 1761, after the Marathas lost the third battle of Panipat, Delhi was raided by Ahmed Shah Durrani. Ten years later, Shah Alam ascended the throne in Delhi with Maratha support.[10]:10 In 1783 the Sikh Misl Karorisinghia, led by Baghel Singh Dhaliwal, conquered Delhi and the Red Fort. The Sikhs agreed to restore Shah Alam as emperor and retreat from the fort if the Mughals would build and protect seven Gurudwaras in Delhi for the Sikh gurus.[20]

During the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1803, forces of British East India Company defeated Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi; this ended Maratha rule of the city and their control of the Red Fort.[21] After the battle, the British took over the administration of Mughal territories and installed a Resident at the Red Fort.[10]:11 The last Mughal emperor to occupy the fort, Bahadur Shah II, became a symbol of the 1857 rebellion against the British in which the residents of Shahjahanbad participated.[10]:15

Despite its position as the seat of Mughal power and its defensive capabilities, the Red Fort was not defended during the 1857 uprising against the British. After the rebellion failed, Bahadur Shah II left the fort on 17 September and was apprehended by British forces. He returned to Red Fort as a prisoner of the British, was tried in 1858 and exiled to Rangoon on 7 October of that year.[22] With the end of Mughal reign, the British sanctioned the systematic plunder of valuables from the fort's palaces. All furniture was removed or destroyed; the harem apartments, servants' quarters and gardens were destroyed, and a line of stone barracks built.[23] Only the marble buildings on the east side at the imperial enclosure escaped complete destruction, but were looted and damaged. While the defensive walls and towers were relatively unharmed, more than two-thirds of the inner structures were destroyed by the British; steps were later taken by Lord Curzon to repair some damage.

1911 saw the visit of the British king and queen for the Delhi Durbar. In preparation of the visit, some buildings were restored. The Red Fort Archaeological Museum was also moved from the drum house to the Mumtaz Mahal.

INA trials[edit]

Main article: INA trials

The Red Fort Trials refer to the courts-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army. The first was held between November and December 1945 at the Red Fort.

After Independence[edit]

On 15 August 1947, the first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru raised the Indian national flag above the Lahore Gate. On each subsequent Independence Day, the prime minister has raised the flag and given a speech that is broadcast nationally.[24]

After Indian Independence the site experienced few changes, and the Red Fort continued to be used as a military cantonment. A significant part of the fort remained under Indian Army control until 22 December 2003, when it was given to the Archaeological Survey of India for restoration.[25][26] In 2009 the Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP), prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India under Supreme Court directions to revitalise the fort, was announced.[27][28][29]

As the largest monument in Delhi,[30] is one of its most popular tourist destinations[31] and attracts thousands of visitors every year.[32]

The fort today[edit]

Every year on 15 August (the day India achieved independence from the British), the Prime Minister hoists the national flag at the Red Fort and delivers a nationally-broadcast speech from its ramparts.[4] The Red Fort, the largest monument in Delhi,[30] is one of its most popular tourist destinations[31] and attracts thousands of visitors every year.[32]

The jali of the Diwan-i-Aam in the Red Fort

A sound and light show describing Mughal history is a tourist attraction in the evenings. The major architectural features are in mixed condition; the extensive water features are dry. Some buildings are in fairly-good condition, with their decorative elements undisturbed; in others, the marble inlaid flowers have been removed by looters. The tea house, although not in its historical state, is a working restaurant. The mosque and hamam are closed to the public, although visitors can peer through their glass windows or marble latticework. Walkways are crumbling, and public toilets are available at the entrance and inside the park.

The Lahore Gate entrance leads to a mall with jewellery and craft stores. There are a museum of "blood paintings", depicting young 20th-century Indian martyrs and their stories, an archaeological museum and an Indian war-memorial museum. Although,Red Fort is still one of the most beautiful and well designed forts in the world.

Security[edit]

To prevent terrorist attacks, security is especially tight around the Red Fort on the eve of Indian Independence Day. Delhi Police and paramilitary personnel keep watch on neighbourhoods around the fort, and National Security Guard sharpshooters are deployed on high-rises near the fort.[33][34] The airspace around the fort is a designated no-fly zone during the celebration to prevent air attacks,[35] and safe houses exist in nearby areas to which the Prime Minister and other Indian leaders may retreat in the event of an attack.[33]

The fort was the site of a terrorist attack on 22 December 2000, carried out by six Lashkar-e-Toiba members. Two soldiers and a civilian were killed in what the news media described as an attempt to derail India-Pakistan peace talks.[36][37]

Architecture[edit]

The Red Fort has an area of 254.67 acres (103.06 ha) enclosed by 2.41 kilometres (1.50 mi) of defensive walls,[2] punctuated by turrets and bastions and varying in height from 18 metres (59 ft) on the river side to 33 metres (108 ft) on the city side. The fort is octagonal, with the north-south axis longer than the east-west axis. The marble, floral decorations and double domes in the fort's buildings exemplify later Mughal architecture.[38]

It showcases a high level of ornamentation, and the Kohinoor diamond was reportedly part of the furnishings. The fort's artwork synthesises Persian, European and Indian art, resulting in a unique Shahjahani style rich in form, expression and colour. Red Fort is one of the building complexes of India encapsulating a long period of history and its arts. Even before its 1913 commemoration as a monument of national importance, efforts were made to preserve it for posterity.

The Lahori and Delhi Gates were used by the public, and the Khizrabad Gate was for the emperor.[10]:04 The Lahore Gate is the main entrance, leading to a domed shopping area known as the Chatta Chowk (covered bazaar).[38]

Major structures[edit]

The most-important surviving structures are the walls and ramparts, the main gates, the audience halls and the imperial apartments on the eastern riverbank.[39]

Lahori Gate[edit]

Red sandstone gate of the fortress
The Delhi Gate, which is almost identical in appearance to the Lahori Gate

The Lahori Gate is the main gate to the Red Fort, named for its orientation towards the city of Lahore. During Aurangzeb's reign, the beauty of the gate was spoiled by the addition of bastions (Like a veil drawn across the face of a beautiful woman).[40][41][42] Every Indian Independence Day since 1947, the national flag has flown and the Prime Minister has made a speech from its ramparts.

Delhi Gate[edit]

The Delhi Gate is the southern public gate, in layout and appearance similar to the Lahori Gate. Two life-size stone elephants, on either side of the gate, face each other.

Water Gate[edit]

A minor gate, the Water Gate is at the southeastern end of the walls. It was formerly on the riverbank; although the river has changed course since the fort's construction, the name has remained.

Chhatta Chowk[edit]

Adjacent to the Lahori Gate is the Chhatta Chowk, where silk, jewellery and other items for the imperial household were sold during the Mughal period. The bazaar leads to an open outer court, where it crosses the large north-south street which originally divided the fort's military functions (to the west) from the palaces (to the east). The southern end of the street is the Delhi Gate.

Naubat Khana[edit]

Photo of courtyard shortly after the 1857 uprising
Naubat Khana and the courtyard before its destruction by the British, in an 1858 photograph

The vaulted arcade of the Chhatta Chowk ends in the centre of the outer court, which measured 540 by 360 feet (160 m × 110 m).[43] The side arcades and central tank were destroyed after the 1857 rebellion.

In the east wall of the court stands the now-isolated Naubat Khana (also known as Nakkar Khana), the drum house. Music was played at scheduled times daily next to a large gate, where everyone except royalty was required to dismount.

Diwan-i-Aam[edit]

The inner main court to which the Nakkar Khana led was 540 feet (160 m) wide and 420 feet (130 m) deep, surrounded by guarded galleries.[43] On the far side is the Diwan-i-Aam, the Public Audience Hall.

The hall's columns and engrailed arches exhibit fine craftsmanship, and the hall was originally decorated with white chunam stucco.[43] In the back in the raised recess the emperor gave his audience in the marble balcony (jharokha).

The Diwan-i-Aam was also used for state functions.[38] The courtyard (mardana) behind it leads to the imperial apartments.

Nahr-i-Behisht[edit]

The imperial apartments consist of a row of pavilions on a raised platform along the eastern edge of the fort, overlooking the Yamuna. The pavilions are connected by a canal, known as the Nahr-i-Behisht ("Stream of Paradise"), running through the centre of each pavilion. Water is drawn from the Yamuna via a tower, the Shahi Burj, at the northeast corner of the fort. The palace is designed to emulate paradise as described in the Quran. In the riverbed below the imperial apartments and connected buildings was a space known as zer-jharokha ("beneath the latticework").[43]

Mumtaz Mahal[edit]

The two southernmost pavilions of the palace are zenanas (women's quarters), consisting of the Mumtaz Mahal and the larger Rang Mahal. The Mumtaz Mahal houses the Red Fort Archaeological Museum.

Rang Mahal[edit]

The Rang Mahal housed the emperor's wives and mistresses. Its name means "Palace of Colours", since it was brightly painted and decorated with a mosaic of mirrors. The central marble pool is fed by the Nahr-i-Behisht.

Khas Mahal[edit]

The Khas Mahal was the emperor's apartment. Connected to it is the Muthamman Burj, an octagonal tower where he appeared before the people waiting on the riverbank.

Diwan-i-Khas[edit]

A gate on the north side of the Diwan-i-Aam leads to the innermost court of the palace (Jalau Khana) and the Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience). It is constructed of white marble, inlaid with precious stones. The once-silver ceiling has been restored in wood. François Bernier described seeing the jewelled Peacock Throne here during the 17th century. At either end of the hall, over the two outer arches, is an inscription by Persian poet Amir Khusrow:

If heaven can be on the face of the earth,

It is this, it is this, it is this.

Many white buildings, with large grassy area in foreground
Panoramic view of the imperial enclosure. From left: Moti Masjid, the hammam, Divan-i-Khas, Khas Mahal and the 'Rang Mahal

Hammam[edit]

The hammam were the imperial baths, consisting of three domed rooms floored with white marble.

Moti Masjid[edit]

West of the hammam is the Moti Masjid, the Pearl Mosque. A later addition, it was built in 1659 as a private mosque for Aurangzeb. It is a small, three-domed mosque carved in white marble, with a three-arched screen leading down to the courtyard.[44]

Hira Mahal[edit]

The Hira Mahal is a pavilion on the southern edge of the fort, built under Bahadur Shah II and at the end of the Hayat Baksh garden. The Moti Mahal on the northern edge, a twin building, was destroyed during (or after) the 1857 rebellion.

Shahi Burj[edit]

Low, white building with ornate pillars and arches
Shahi Burj and its pavilion

The Shahi Burj was the emperor's main study of the; its name means "Emperor's Tower", and it originally had a chhatri on top. Heavily damaged, the tower is undergoing reconstruction. In front of it is a marble pavilion added by Aurangzeb.

Hayat Bakhsh Bagh[edit]

Square red sandstone building in a dried-out water tank
Red Zafar Mahal and white Sawan/Bhadon pavilion behind it in the Hayat Bakhsh Bagh

The Hayat Bakhsh Bagh is the "Life-Bestowing Garden" in the northeast part of the complex. It features a reservoir (now dry) and channels, and at each end is a white marble pavilion (Savon and Bhadon). In the centre of the reservoir is the red-sandstone Zafar Mahal, added about 1842 under Bahadur Shah II.[45]

Smaller gardens (such as the Mehtab Bagh or Moonlight Garden) existed west of it, but were destroyed when the British barracks were built.[10]:07 There are plans to restore the gardens. Beyond these, the road to the north leads to an arched bridge and the Salimgarh Fort.

Princes' quarter[edit]

North of the Hayat Bakhsh Bagh and the Shahi Burj is the quarter of the imperial princes. This was used by member of the Mughal royal family and was largely destroyed by the British forces after the rebellion. One of the palaces was converted into a tea house for the soldiers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Red Fort Complex". World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 
  2. ^ a b N. L. Batra (May 2008). Delhi's Red Fort by the Yamuna. Niyogi Books. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "Red Fort was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007". Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Singh becomes third PM to hoist flag at Red Fort for 9th time". Business Standard. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012. 
  5. ^ William M. Spellman (1 April 2004). Monarchies 1000–2000. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-087-0. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Mehrdad Kia; Elizabeth H. Oakes (1 November 2002). Social Science Resources in the Electronic Age. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-57356-474-8. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
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  8. ^ "building the Taj – who designed the Taj Mahal". PBS. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
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  11. ^ Controversy: Though this fort was thought to have been built in 1639, there are documents and a painting available of Shah Jahan receiving the Persian ambassador in 1638 at the jharokha in the Diwan-i-Aam in the Red fort. This painting preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, was reproduced in the Illustrated Weekly of India (page 32) of 14 March 1971. However the painting shows the jharokha at Lahore, and not Delhi. See R. Nath's History of Mughal Architecture; Abhinav Publications, 2006..
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  20. ^ Murphy, Anne (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-19-991629-0. 
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  22. ^ Mody, Krutika. "Bahadur Shah II "Zafar"'s significance with Red Fort". Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  23. ^ William Dalrymple. "Introduction". The Last Mughal. Penguin. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-143-10243-4. 
  24. ^ PTI (2013-08-15). "Manmohan first PM outside Nehru-Gandhi clan to hoist flag for 10th time". The Hindu. Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
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  26. ^ Muslim India. Muslim India. 2004. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  27. ^ "Red Fort facelift to revive Mughal glory in 10 years : Mail Today Stories, News - India Today". Indiatoday.intoday.in. 2009-06-01. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
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  29. ^ "CHAPTER-00_revisedfeb09.pmd" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-13. 
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  35. ^ "Rain Brings Children Cheer, Gives Securitymen a Tough Time". The Hindu. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  36. ^ "Red Fort attack will not affect peace moves". 19 August 2012. 
  37. ^ "Red Fort terrorist attacks". Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  38. ^ a b c Langmead, Donald; Garnaut, Christine (2001). Encyclopedia of Architectural and Engineering Feats. ABC-CLIO. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-57607-112-0. 
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  40. ^ Fanshawe.H.C (1998). "Delhi, Past and Present". general introduction (Asian Educational Services). pp. 1–8. ISBN 978-81-206-1318-8. Retrieved 10 June 2009. 
  41. ^ Sharma p.143
  42. ^ Mahtab Jahan (2004). "Dilli's gates and windows". MG The Milli Gazette Indian Muslims leading new paper. Retrieved 17 May 2009. 
  43. ^ a b c d "A handbook for travellers in India, Burma, and Ceylon". Archive.org. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  44. ^ World Heritage Series – RED FORT. Published by Director General, Archeological Survey of India, New Delhi, 2009. ISBN 9878187780977
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External links[edit]