Red Hand of Ulster
The Red Hand of Ulster (in Irish: Lámh Dhearg Uladh) is a symbol used in heraldry to denote the Irish province of Ulster. It is an open right hand coloured red, with the fingers pointing upwards, the thumb held parallel to the fingers, and the palm facing forward. It is less commonly known as the Red Hand of O'Neill. Its origins are said to be attributed to the mythical Irish figure Labraid Lámh Dhearg (Labraid of the Red Hand), and appear in other mythical tales passed down from generation to generation in the oral tradition. The symbol is rooted in Irish Gaelic culture and is particularly associated with the Uí Néill clan of Ulster. In some versions, a left hand is used and/or the thumb is opened.
Mythical origins 
According to one myth, the kingdom of Ulster had at one time no rightful heir. Because of this it was agreed that a boat race should take place and that "whosoever's hand is the first to touch the shore of Ireland, so shall he be made the king".
One potential king so desired the kingship that, upon seeing that he was losing the race, he cut off his hand and threw it to the shore — thus winning the kingship. The hand is most likely red to represent the fact that it would have been covered in blood. According to some versions of the story, the king who cut off his hand belonged to the Uí Néill clan, which apparently explains its association with them. Another variation of this story concludes that it was none other than Niall of the Nine Hostages who severed his own hand in order to win his crown from his brother.
A different myth tells of two giants who engaged in battle. One had his hand cut off by the other, and a red imprint of the hand was left on the rocks.
The Red Hand symbol is believed to have been used by the Uí Néill clan during its Nine Years' War (1594–1603) against the spread of English control. The war cry Lámh Dhearg Abú! (Red Hand to victory!) was also associated with the Uí Néill.
Coats of arms used by those whose surnames are of Uí Néill descent – Ó Donnghaile, Ó Cathain, Ó Máeilsheáchlainn and Ó Catharnaigh, to name just a few – all feature the Red Hand in some form, recalling their common descent. On the Ó Néill coat of arms featuring the Red Hand, the motto is Lámh Dhearg Éireann (Red Hand of Ireland). The arms of the chiefs of the Scottish Clan MacNeil (of Barra) contain the Red Hand; the clan has traditionally claimed descent from Niall of the Nine Hostages. Many other families have used the Red Hand to highlight an Ulster ancestry. The head of the Guinness family, the Earl of Iveagh, has three Red Hands on his arms granted as recently as 1891.
The Red Hand was later included in the now abolished Northern Ireland flag and on the shields of counties Cavan, Tyrone, Londonderry, Antrim and Monaghan. It is also used by many other official and non-official organisations throughout the province of Ulster.
The Red Hand can be regarded as one of the very few cross-community symbols used in Northern Ireland. Due to its roots as a Gaelic Irish symbol, nationalist/republican groups have used (and continue to use) it – for example the republican Irish Citizen Army, the republican National Graves Association, Belfast, the Irish Transport and General Workers Union and numerous GAA clubs in Ulster. However, after its use on the Ulster Covenant (1912) and in the arms of the Government of Northern Ireland (from 1922), loyalist groups also began to use it – for example the Red Hand Commandos, Red Hand Defenders and Ulster Defence Association, among others.
Due to its recent usage by loyalist paramilitaries, those unfamiliar with Irish history have believed it to be a solely loyalist symbol. In 2005 former Miss Northern Ireland, Zöe Salmon, caused controversy when she chose the Red Hand as a symbol to represent Northern Ireland in a competition for Blue Peter. David Miller, a sociology professor from Strathclyde University in Scotland, complained to the BBC, saying that "like the swastika the Red Hand has been misappropriated ... it is the symbol of the unionists". Michael Copeland, an Ulster Unionist Party assembly member, described the row as "political correctness gone mad".
- The Red Hand of Ulster's a paradox quite,
- To Baronets 'tis said to belong;
- If they use the left hand, they're sure to be right,
- And to use the right hand would be wrong.
- For the Province, a different custom applies,
- And just the reverse is the rule;
- If you use the right hand you'll be right, safe and wise,
- If you use the left hand you're a fool.
- Ireland.com - Irish Heraldic Traditions
- Triskelle - Irish history: Red Hand of O'Neill
- Araltas.com - O'Neill coat of arms
- Burke's Peerage, London 2003, sub "Iveagh"
- CAIN website - "Symbols Used in Northern Ireland - Symbols Used by Both Traditions"
- "Here’s a gaffe I made earlier" timesonline.co.uk
- Baronetage Red hand (Sir David Roche, Bt)