Red River Colony
The Red River Colony (or Selkirk Settlement) was a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on 300,000 square kilometres (120,000 sq mi) of land granted to him by the Hudson's Bay Company under what is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. Changes during the development of Canada in the 19th century led to the colony's forming the basis of what is today Manitoba, although much of its original territory is now part of the United States.
The Selkirk Concession, also known as Selkirk's Grant, included the portions of Rupert's Land, or the watershed of Hudson Bay, bounded on the north by the line of 52° N latitude roughly from the Assiniboine River east to Lake Winnipegosis, then by the line of 52° 30′ N latitude from Lake Winnipegosis to Lake Winnipeg, and then by the Winnipeg River, Lake of the Woods and Rainy River; on the west roughly by the current boundary between Saskatchewan and Manitoba; and on the south by the (mostly very slight) rise of land marking the extent of the watershed. This covered portions of present-day southern Manitoba, northern Minnesota and eastern North Dakota, in addition to small parts of eastern Saskatchewan, northwestern Ontario and northeastern South Dakota.
Selkirk had become interested in the concept of settling the area after reading Alexander Mackenzie's 1801 book on his adventures in what is today the west of Canada. At the time, social upheaval in Scotland due to the introduction of sheep farming and the ensuing Highland and Lowland Clearances had left a number of Scots destitute. Selkirk was interested in giving them a chance at a better life in a new colony, that he called Assiniboia. He purchased a controlling interest in the Hudson's Bay Company and set up the land grant. His idea was to gain control of the area to take control of the West from the company's rivals, the Montreal-based North West Company. Métis trappers' that supplied the North West's fur traders principally hunted bison around the Red River watershed.
With a HBC colony located in the region, the Nor'Westers would lose access to these vital supplies and cut off from areas further west. Several other considerations by the Company led to Selkirk's plan being approved. Besides offering an area for employees to settle with their native wives, it was to create provisions for company stations. Supplies of "produce, such as flour, beef, pork and butter..." would affordable to manufacture this colony, and reduce the costly shipments from Britain.
In July 1811 Miles Macdonell started a voyage from Yarmouth to York Factory, as instructed by Selkirk. Upon reaching the HBC station, he led 36 men, primarily Irish and Scottish, for the Red River. Before the party completed their trek on 30 August 1812, half of the laborers had progressively deserted. As the planting season was over before the completion of Fort Douglas, the laborers hastily set about hunting bison for food.
When farming started in the spring of 1813, the results were less than expected. Despite being warned by Selkirk not to anger Nor'Westers, Macdonnell on 8 January 1814 issued the Pemmican Proclamation, which outlawed the export of pemmican from the colony. This may have been to ensure food for the colony, or a business move to cut off the Nor'Westers. Either way, the move touched off the Pemmican War. The Nor'Westers, who relied on pemmican supplied to them by local Métis, were so upset that they destroyed Fort Douglas and burned down all the buildings around it. The fort was later rebuilt and relations settled down for a time.
Selkirk heard of the problems and sent out a new governor, Robert Semple, to take over. When he read a proclamation ordering the fighting to stop, the Battle of Seven Oaks broke out, Fort Douglas was destroyed for a second time, and the settlers were forced off their land. Selkirk then sent in a force of about 100 soldiers from the British Regiment de Meuron to enforce the peace and eventually become settlers themselves, while also capturing the Northwest outpost at Fort William. There, Selkirk arrested numerous significant managers of the North West Company, including Chief Director William McGillivray. The actions left Selkirk almost bankrupt. The Treaty of 1818 set the boundary between the United States and British North America along the 49th parallel of north latitude from the Lake of the Woods to the "Stony Mountains" (now known as the Rocky Mountains). Thus, the southern portion of Selkirk's grant went to the United States.
The Hudson's Bay Company and their rivals, the North West Company were forced to merge in 1821 by the British government. With the end of fur trade inspired conflicts on the plains, the Red River settlement was able to grow. The agricultural products, primarily wheat, began to rise in yearly yields. Flour production rose from over 20,000 pounds annually from 1823 to 1829 to over 30,000 pounds in the early 1830s. The supply of flour reached over 50,000 pounds by the mid-1830s, rapidly deflating the price the HBC paid the farmers for the product. Numbering over 1,000 by 1827, the farmers began to complain about the deflating rates they received and lack of markets to sell their goods to.
In 1841 James Sinclair guided 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west in an attempt to retain the Columbia District for Britain. The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, near present day Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia; then traveled south. Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claim to land south of the 49th parallel of latitude west of the Rockies to the United States as resolution to the Oregon boundary dispute.
By the 1850s, the Hudson's Bay Company lost interest in paying for the settlement. By the 1860s, the Métis outnumbered the Scots. This led to a second period of unrest in 1869 and 1870 called the Red River Rebellion, which led to the creation of Manitoba.
At the end of the American Civil War, Americans were angry at the British support for the Confederacy, which Americans said had prolonged the war. One result was toleration of Fenian efforts to use the U.S. as a base to attack Canada. More serious was the demand for a huge payment to cover the damages caused, on the notion that British involvement had lengthened the war. Senator Charles Sumner, the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, originally wanted to ask for $2 billion, or alternatively the ceding of all of Canada to the United States. When American Secretary of State William H. Seward negotiated the Alaska Purchase in 1867, he intended it as the first step in a comprehensive plan to gain control of the entire northwest Pacific Coast. Seward was a firm believer in Manifest Destiny, primarily for its commercial advantages to the U.S. Seward expected British Columbia to seek annexation to the U.S. and thought Britain might accept this in exchange for the Alabama claims. Soon other elements endorsed annexation; their plan was to annex British Columbia, the Red River Colony (Manitoba), and Nova Scotia, in exchange for the dropping the damage claims. The idea reached a peak in the spring and summer of 1870, with American expansionists, Canadian separatists, and British anti-imperialists seemingly combining forces. The plan was dropped for multiple reasons. London continued to stall, American commercial and financial groups pressed Washington for a quick settlement of the dispute on a cash basis, growing Canadian nationalist sentiment in British Columbia called for staying inside the British Empire, Congress became preoccupied with Reconstruction, and most Americans showed little interest in territorial expansion. The "Alabama Claims" dispute went to international arbitration. In one of the first major cases of arbitration, the tribunal in 1872 supported the American claims and ordered Britain to pay $15.5 million. Britain paid and the episode ended in peaceful relations.;)
Governors of the Red River Colony
|August 1812 – June 1815||Miles MacDonell|
|June 1815 – June 1816||Robert Semple|
|August 1816 – June 1822||Alexander MacDonell|
|June 1822 – June 1823||Andrew Bulger|
|June 1823 – June 1825||Robert Parker Pelly|
|June 1825 – June 1833||Donald McKenzie|
|June 1833 – June 1839||Alexander Christie|
|June 1839 – June 1844||Duncan Finlayson|
|June 1844 – June 1846||Alexander Christie|
|June 1846 – June 1847||John Folliott Crofton|
|June 1847 – June 1848||J. Griffiths|
|June 1848 – June 1855||William Bletterman Caldwell|
|June 1855 – September 1859||Francis Godschall Johnson|
|September 1859 – July 1870||William Mactavish|
- Former colonies and territories in Canada
- Territorial evolution of Canada after 1867
- Joseph James Hargrave
- Louis Riel
- Pembina, North Dakota
- Red River Academy
- Red River Trails
- Territorial era of Minnesota
- Métis buffalo hunt
- The Canadian Encyclopedia
- Morris, Alexander (1880) The Treaties of Canada with the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West Territories Including the Negotiations on Which They Were Based, and Other Information Relating Thereto, Chapter I
- Newman, Peter Charles. Merchant princes. Toronto: Viking. 1991, p. 39.
- Gibson, James R. Farming the Frontier, The Agricultural Opening of the Oregon Country, 1786-1846. Vancouver, B.C.: University of British Columbia Press. 1985, pp. 10-13.
- Ross, Alexander The Red River Settlement. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 1856, pp. 16-18.
- Carter, George E. Lord Selkirk and the Red River Colony. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 18, No. 1 (1968), pp. 60-69.
- R. Douglas Francis, Richard Jones, and Donald B. Smith. "Origins: Canadian History to Confederation", 4th ed. (Toronto:Harcourt Canada ltd., 2000), at pp. 434–5.
- Hargrave, Joseph James (1871). Red River. Montreal: Printed for the author by John Lovell. p. 506.
- Doris W. Dashew, "The Story Of An Illusion: The Plan To Trade 'Alabama' Claims For Canada," Civil War History, Dec 1969, Vol. 15 Issue 4, pp 332-348
- David E. Shi, "Seward'S Attempt to Annex British Columbia, 1865-1869," Pacific Historical Review, May 1978, Vol. 47 Issue 2, pp 217-238
- Governors of the Red River Settlement, Manitoba Historical Society
- The Journal of the Bishop of Montreal, during a Visit to the Church Missionary Society's North-West America Mission, by George Jehoshaphat Mountain, an early account of religious life in the Red River Colony.
- The Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists at Project Gutenberg, by George Bryce 1909