|Directed by||Anthony Hemingway
|Produced by||Rick McCallum
Chas. Floyd Johnson
|Screenplay by||John Ridley
|Story by||John Ridley|
|Starring||Cuba Gooding, Jr.
|Music by||Terence Blanchard|
|Editing by||Michael O'Halloran
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
|Running time||121 minutes|
Red Tails is a 2012 American war film produced by Lucasfilm and released by 20th Century Fox.[N 1] The film is a fictionalized portrayal of the Tuskegee Airmen, a group of African American United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) servicemen during World War II.[N 2]
Filmed in 2009, Red Tails was directed by Anthony Hemingway from an original screenplay by John Ridley, with additional material shot the following year with executive producer George Lucas[N 3] as director and Aaron McGruder as writer of the reshoots. Red Tails is the first Lucasfilm production since the 1994 film Radioland Murders that is not associated with the Indiana Jones or Star Wars franchises. The film stars Cuba Gooding, Jr. (who previously starred in The Tuskegee Airmen, an HBO made-for-television film about the same group of pilots) in his first theatrical film in five years, and Terrence Howard (who had also portrayed a Tuskegee pilot in Hart's War). Red Tails was also mixed in 3D sound by Barco.
In 1944, as the air war over Europe is entering a deadly phase with increasing losses of bombers, the 332d Fighter Group (the Tuskegee Airmen) consisting of young African American USAAF fighter pilots, after enduring racism throughout their recruitment and training in the Tuskegee training program, are finally sent into combat in Italy. Although flying worn-out Curtiss P-40 Warhawk aircraft and chafing at their ground attack missions against trains and enemy ground transport, the Tuskegee Airmen recognize that they may never fight the Luftwaffe in fighter-to-fighter combat. The tight-knit group of Capt. Martin "Easy" Julian (Nate Parker), Lt. Joe "Lightning" Little (David Oyelowo), Ray "Ray Gun" or "Junior" Gannon (Tristan Wilds), Andrew "Smoky" Salem (Ne-Yo), and Samuel "Joker" George (Elijah Kelley) under the guidance of Major Emanuel Stance (Cuba Gooding, Jr.) and Col. A.J. Bullard (Terrence Howard), face a white military bureaucracy still resistant to accepting black flyers as equals.[N 4]
Strife develops between roommates and best friends, Easy and Lightning, each of whom are battling their own inner demons; Lightning is a hotheaded and reckless pilot who takes too many risks, while Easy is an alcoholic prone to self-doubt. After returning to base from a mission, Lightning spies a pretty Italian girl named Sofia (Daniela Ruah), becomes instantly infatuated with her, and starts a relationship.
Meanwhile, Stance is able to secure a chance to "light up the board" when the Tuskegee Airmen are chosen to support the Allied landings at Anzio, Italy known as Operation Shingle. There, they battle Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters led by a German ace pilot they nickname, "Pretty Boy" (Lars van Riesen), scoring their first aerial victories over the enemy, as well as destroying a German airfield. However, Ray Gun is injured during the battle and suffers impaired vision in one eye. Ray Gun begs Easy to keep him on the flight roster despite his impaired vision. Easy is reluctant, but ultimately relents and allows Ray Gun to keep flying.
Bullard is then approached by the USAAF Bomber Command, who are impressed with the Tuskegee Airmen's performance and ask him to use his fighters as Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber escorts due to unacceptably high casualties among bomber crews. Bullard accepts on the condition that his unit be supplied with the new North American P-51 Mustang[N 5]. The tails of the aircraft are painted bright red and become the unofficial name of the outfit. Bullard noted that the flaw of previous escort fighters is that they would recklessly pursue German fighters at the cost of protecting the bombers, so he orders his pilots to stay with the bombers at all costs. Their first escort mission is a success, with the 332nd downing multiple Luftwaffe aircraft without the loss of a single bomber. However, Ray Gun is shot down and captured while Deke crash lands and nearly dies.
As a result of his injuries, Deke is discharged, and Ray Gun is assumed to be dead. Easy realizes it was his fault Ray Gun was allowed to fly, blames himself and spirals deeper into alcoholism. Lightning, worried about his friend, makes a deal with Easy; he will follow orders and fly less recklessly as long as Easy remains sober. Meanwhile, attitudes against the Tuskegee Airmen begin to change as they earn the bomber crews' respect, even being allowed into the "whites only" officer's club. Ray Gun is sent to a POW camp, where he is recruited by a group of POWs who are planning to escape. The escape attempt is successful, but some of the POWs are spotted by a guard so Ray Gun draws the Germans' attention while the other POWs escape. One of the POWs manages to reach the 332nd's base and informs them about Ray Gun's sacrifice, assuming him to be dead. Later, Lightning finally proposes to Sofia and though she originally hesitates, she later accepts as long as he stays in Italy, which he agrees to do.
The Tuskegee Airmen are then tasked with escorting the first American bombers to attack Berlin. However, despite their P-51s having more than enough fuel for the trip, the 332nd is only asked to escort the bombers on the first leg of their journey due to propaganda reasons. But the fighter squadron meant to relieve the 332nd never arrives, and Easy makes the decision to stay with bombers all the way. They are then attacked by Pretty Boy, now leading a flight of the revolutionary new Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighters. Despite being outclassed by their superior speed and 30 mm cannon, the Tuskegee Airmen are able to shoot a few down. Pretty Boy manages to get on Easy's tail and is about to shoot him down, but at the last moment, Lightning attacks and kills Pretty Boy in a head-on attack. Although victorious, he is mortally wounded, and Lightning eventually crashes and dies. Easy is then forced to inform Sofia about Lightning's death and consequently overcomes his alcoholism for good. At Lightning's funeral, Ray Gun miraculously returns, having survived his escape from German captivity.
Ultimately, the Tuskegee Airmen are awarded the Presidential Unit Citation in honor of their achievements.
As appearing in Red Tails, (main roles and screen credits identified):
- Cuba Gooding, Jr. as Major Emanuel Stance
- Terrence Howard as Col. A.J Bullard
- Nate Parker as Capt. Martin "Easy" Julian
- David Oyelowo as Lt. Joe "Lightning" Little
- Ne-Yo as Andrew "Smoky" Salem
- Elijah Kelley as Samuel "Joker" George
- Tristan Wilds as Ray "Ray Gun" or "Junior" Gannon
- Kevin Phillips as Leon "Neon" Edwards
- Marcus T. Paulk as David "The Deacon" Watkins
- Michael B. Jordan as Maurice "Bumps" Wilson
- Daniela Ruah as Sofia
- Bryan Cranston as Col. William Mortamus
- Ryan Early as Captain Bryce
- Lars van Riesen as "Pretty Boy" (the German antagonist pilot)
- Method Man as "Sticks"
- Gerald McRaney as General Luntz
- Henry Garrett as Hart
- Robert Kazinsky as Chester Barnes
- Rick Otto as Flynt
- Josh Dallas as Ryan Fling
- Lee Tergesen as Col. Jack Tomilson
- Andre Royo as Chief "Coffee" Coleman
- Leslie Odom, Jr. as Walter "Winky" Hall
- Jermaine Johnson as "Sneeky"
- Edwina Finley as "CeCe"
- Stacie Davis as Mae
- Aml Ameen as "Bag O'Bones"
- Rupert Penry-Jones as Campbell
George Lucas began developing Red Tails around 1988, after hearing of the Tuskegee Airmen from his friend George Hall, a photographer. At the time, the film was scheduled for release in 1992, with Kevin Sullivan writing the screenplay and Thomas Carter directing. Lucas originally conceived of the film as a long, detailed narrative similar to Lawrence of Arabia, and as a trilogy, but after multiple script drafts, he decided to focus on the combat portion of the story. He compared it to Tucker: The Man and His Dream as "a story too good to be true". In researching the film, Lucasfilm invited some of the surviving Tuskegee Airmen to Skywalker Ranch, where they were interviewed about their experiences during World War II. Lucasfilm was also given access to the original mission logbooks used by some of the pilots. A number of writers worked on the project until John Ridley was hired in 2007 to write the screenplay. Lucas held discussions with Samuel L. Jackson regarding Jackson possibly directing and acting in the film. Although Jackson praised the script, he did not commit to either role. Anthony Hemingway, a former production assistant for Lucas' The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles TV series, was ultimately chosen to direct in 2008.
Pre-production began in January 2009, with location scouting having taken place in June 2008 in Prague, Czech Republic, Italy and Croatia. Production began in March 2009 with high-definition Sony F35 cameras used for principal photography, which took place in the Czech Republic, Italy, Croatia and England over a period from August to December. While shooting in the Czech Republic, the actors also underwent a "boot camp" program, during which they lived in similar conditions to the actual Tuskegee Airmen.
Harkening back to his early work on Star Wars where he had studied World War II aerial footage to create the space aerobatics performed by Rebel X-wings and TIE fighters, Lucas was familiar with World War II aerial combat. The Lucas template for photographing computer-generated imagery (CGI) dogfighting "involved lots of action, continuous motion, moving camera, streaks, loops and rolls, and all of the things aerial photography allows you to do in live action." Aerial scenes in Red Tails involved actors sitting in a gimbal-mounted cockpits (and mock-up fuselages and wings), in front of a green screen, rocked back and forth by production crew members. In order to achieve a realistic reaction, actors were flown in actual P-51 Mustangs at the Planes of Fame in Chino, California, to experience the forces involved in dogfighting.[N 7]
Editing began while the production was in Prague. Avid editing systems were used simultaneously in a Prague studio and at Lucasfilm. A vehicle was fitted with a "technical center" so that the production could quickly move between locations.Red Tails was the first film to use Barco’s Auro-3D 11.1 surround sound system.
In March 2010, Lucas took over direction of reshoots, as Hemingway was busy working on episodes of the HBO series, Treme. The Boondocks creator Aaron McGruder was brought in late in production, after Hemingway's principal photography, to provide re-writes for the Lucas-directed reshoots.
In April 2009, Tuskegee Airman Lt. Col. Lee A. Archer Jr. was selected to be an advisor for Red Tails. He died in 2010 while the film was in post-production and the final credits bear a tribute to Archer.
Lucas covered the cost of production with his own money, and provided a further $35 million for distribution. In an interview on The Daily Show on January 9, 2012, Lucas stated that the long delay in the production of the film was because major film studios balked at financing and marketing a film with an "all-black" cast and "no major white roles." He went on to explain that studios receive "60% of their profit" from overseas, and the studios feel there is no market there for films with all-black casts.Red Tails is also the last film Lucasfilm made independently before being bought by The Walt Disney Company on October 30, 2012.
Red Tails received mixed to negative reviews from film critics, currently holding a 39% "rotten" rating on Rotten Tomatoes; the consensus states: "Despite a worthy fact-based story and obvious good intentions, Red Tails suffers from one-dimensional characters, corny dialogue, and heaps of clichés." On Metacritic, the film holds a 46/100 rating, indicating "mixed or average reviews". The main criticism was directed to the tone of the film; Stephen Holden in The New York Times review, noted, "In structure and tone, Red Tails proudly harks back to the 1940s and ’50s, when good guys were good, and bad guys bad." In rebuttal, co-writer Aaron McGruder commented on the film's tone: "Some people are going to like this tonal choice and some people are going to say, 'Oh it should've been heavier and it should've been more dramatic.' But there's a version of this that doesn't have to be Saving Private Ryan. We can be Star Wars, as crazy as it is." Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film two-and-a-half stars out of four, stating, "Red Tails (is) entertaining. Audiences are likely to enjoy it. The scenes of aerial combat are skillfully done and exciting." In a similar vein, aviation historian Budd Davison, in agreement with fellow historian Barrett Tillman, although cognizant of the "Hollywood treatment", had a caution to aviation enthusiasts looking for a faithful reenactment of the Tuskegee legend, "... buy some popcorn, lean back and enjoy, this is Hollywood telling a story, not making a documentary. Save your guffaws until afterward with your friends."
Ina Diane Archer, daughter of the late Lee Archer (Tuskegee airman and advisor for Red Tails) in writing for Film Comment, criticizes the film's disconnect between aerial scenes and the rest of the film, saying, "One longs for more scenes between the ensemble on the ground, but the emphasis on aerial (and digital) technology leaves the characters without context. There’s a particularly troubling absence of black women (but for a painting on Lightning’s plane) who go unmentioned—no gal back home? no sisters, no Mamas?—nor do we ever see the African Americans who followed the squadron’s adventures."
In the face of media criticism of the portrayals of the Tuskegee Airmen in Red Tails, a number of activists took to social media to protest against what was thought to be a racially-tinged effort to denigrate the contribution of the wartime fighting unit. Beginning with statements to support the film made by surviving Tuskegee Airmen who had seen the film in previews, and spurred by the comments made by Lucas in a candid interview on The Daily Show where the producer openly discussed the difficulties of trying to get Red Tails made over the past 23 years, a Facebook campaign was started. In the Oakland, California premiere, two sold-out screenings were a testament to the success of the campaign. Effie Tesfahun, one of the organizers, explained, “When [Lucas] said Hollywood does not want to touch black films, it really hit me … I thought we should get together and all go and support [this film]. Regardless of what Hollywood thinks, we all want to see positive messages of black people in the movies ... We need to speak, and speak loud, and speak with our dollars, because that’s where people pay attention, when you start talking with your money," Tesfahun said. "We are sending a message that this is what we want.” Lucas commented on the film's reception: "It had an affect [sic] on a lot of kids and adults. Now it's the one thing that everyone comes up to me and says 'thank you' for - I'm proud of that." "We didn’t get to a point when [the film studios] said, 'Oh let's just do black movies.' But every time you poke 'em, it makes an effect."
Adolph Reed, professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania, said the film "trivializes segregation in the military by reducing it to a matter of bad or outmoded attitudes. The ironic effect is significant understatement of both the obstacles the Tuskegee airmen<sic> faced and their actual accomplishments by rendering them as backdrop for a blackface, slapped-together remake of Top Gun."
Red Tails portrays largely fictional events based on the exploits of the Tuskegee airmen, although many viewers were left with the impression that the film was entirely historically accurate. Through a series of three webinars, entitled: "Tuskegee Airman Webinars - 'Was the Movie Accurate'?" sponsored by the Commemorative Air Force's Red Tail Squadron, surviving Tuskegee Airmen Colonel Charles McGee and Colonel Harold Brown provided perspectives related to the film's interpretation. Although discussions as to use of equipment and dates were mentioned, three claims made in the film were the most contentious: the number of losses suffered by bomber crews under escort, the encounters with Luftwaffe jet fighters and the overall record established by the Tuskegee Airmen.
According to period records, it was believed that the Tuskegee Airmen did not lose a single bomber due to enemy fire, a statement made by a bomber pilot in the film. However, this claim has been proven inaccurate and an Air Force report from 2006, showed that at least 25 bombers were lost to enemy fire. As depicted in the climactic scene, the Luftwaffe Me 262 interception of a Tuskegee Airmen escort mission did not result in the first victory over the vaunted jet fighters, credited to another U.S. unit.[N 9] The film also states in the epilogue that the Tuskegee Airmen established one of the best fighter records in the U.S. Air Force. The film notes that 96 Distinguished Flying Crosses were awarded to the unit and 66 Tuskegee Airmen were killed in action. Officially, the Tuskegee Airmen did not produce a single fighter pilot ace, although Lee Archer's record is still in dispute.[N 10]
At the end of webinars, host Brad Lang, the CAF Red Tail Squadron Leader, described the interaction as important to reconciling the historical record with the Red Tails film's essentially dramatic retelling of the Tuskegee Airmen saga. Both colonels also agreed that the discussions were important to resolving the controversy over the film.
Red Tails was released on DVD and Blu-ray/DVD combo, as well as via digital download, on May 22, 2012. The Blu-ray/DVD combo includes Double Victory, a companion documentary to the film that debuted on January 13, 2012 on H2. It details the full real life story of the Tuskegee Airmen, and includes interviews with many of the surviving members. The Blu-ray/DVD combo also includes several featurettes that focus on the film's cast and crew. The only bonus feature included on the regular DVD edition is a series of "highlights" from Double Victory.
In popular culture
- Fly, a 2009 play about the Tuskegee Airmen
- The Tuskegee Airmen, a 1995 HBO television movie on the Tuskegee Airmen
- Although the film is preluded with a note that it is based on actual events, the characters are fictional, although "à clef" portrayals of individuals involved in the Tuskegee Airmen saga.
- The Tuskegee Airmen were the first African American military aviators in the United States armed forces. The film epilogue states that the Tuskegee Airmen hold one of the best fighter records in World War II, and that 66 Tuskegee pilots were killed in action.
- The role that George Lucas played as an executive producer was atypical as he crossed the lines of executive producer, producer, director and creator.
- An "aviator call sign" or "callsign" is a nickname given to a military pilot or other flight officer. With origins back to World War II, the call sign is a substitute for a name, and is used on name tags, aircraft and radio conversations, to simplify communications and possibly mask the origin of the person from the enemy. The call sign is given and was a source of contention with "Junior" Gannon who wants others to call him "Ray Gun".
- The Tuskegee Airmen initially were equipped with Curtiss P-40 Warhawks fighter-bomber aircraft, briefly with Bell P-39 Airacobras (March 1944), later with Republic P-47 Thunderbolts (June–July 1944), and finally the fighter group acquired the fighter aircraft with which they became most commonly associated, the North American P-51 Mustang (July 1944).
- The red markings that distinguished the Tuskegee Airmen included red bands on the noses of P-51s as well as a red rudder; their P-51B and D Mustangs flew with similar color schemes, with red propeller spinners, yellow wing bands and all-red tail surfaces.
- Surviving single-seat P-51 Mustangs often have been modified to incorporate a second seat behind the pilot.
- Red Tails star Ne-Yo was also nominated in the 2012 Choice Single by a Male Artist category for "Give Me Everything (Tonight)" by Pitbull, featuring Ne-Yo, Afrojack and Nayer.
- On August 28, 1944, a pair of USAAF 78th FG P-47 Thunderbolts flown by Maj. J. Myers and Lt Manfred O. Croy shot down the first Me 262 (from 1./KG 51, flown by Ofw H. Lauer) near Brussels.
- Lee Archer had four confirmed victories and although involved in shooting down a Bf 109, the victory was given to another Tuskegee Airman.
- Larnick, Eric. "Aaron McGruder, 'Boondocks' Creator, on Writing 'Red Tails' and Working With George Lucas After Making Fun of Him." moviefone, January 20, 2012. Retrieved: January 23, 2012.
- Demby, Gene. "George Lucas: Hollywood Didn't Want To Fund 'Red Tails' Because Of Its Black Cast." huffingtonpost.com, January 11, 2012.
- Fernandez, Jay A. "Director picked for Lucasfilm project." The Hollywood Reporter, September 30, 2008.
- "George Lucas says Hollywood won't support black films." BBC News, January 12, 2012. Retrieved: January 13, 2012.
- Fritz, Ben. "Movie Projector: Fourth "Underworld" to Soar Higher Than 'Red Tails'." The Los Angeles Times, January 20, 2012. Retrieved: January 25, 2012.
- "Red Tails (2012)." Box Office Mojo/Internet Movie Database, June 10, 2012. Retrieved: June 11, 2012.
- Cone, Brandon and Josh Phillips. " ‘Red Tails’ looks good, fails elsewhere." Bixby Bulletin, January 24, 2012. Retrieved: January 25, 2012.
- "Celebrating African Americans in Aviation." San Diego Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: January 24, 2012.
- "Red Tails: About the Production." Celebrity Wonder. Retrieved: January 24, 2012.
- " 'The Tuskegee Airmen'." Teach with Movies. Retrieved: January 24, 2012.
- Berardinelli, James. "Hart's War." Reel Views, 2002. Retrieved: January 24, 2012.
- Powell, 2nd Lt. William. "What's your sign?" Museum of the United States Air Force, June 3, 2005. Retrieved: January 29, 2012.
- Rice, Markus. "The Men and Their Airplanes: The Fighters." Tuskegee Airmen, 1 March 2000.
- "Credits: Red Tails (2012)." IMDb. Retrieved: January 24, 2012.
- Dennis, Matt. "THN’s Exclusive Interview With Red Tails & Indiana Jones Producer Rick McCallum." thehollywoodnews.com, June 9, 2012. Retrieved: July 21, 2012.
- Spelling, Ian. "Life with Indy." Starlog #191, June 1993.
- Madsen, Dan. "New Movie Update: 'Red Tails'." The Lucasfilm Fan Club Magazine #12, Summer 1990.
- Curtis, Bryan. "George Lucas Is Ready to Roll the Credits." Los Angeles Times, January 17, 2012.
- Windham et al. 2010, p. 151.
- Eller, Claudia. "A look inside Hollywood and the movies: The Road to 'Radioland' Mill Valley Murder-Mystery, or the Not-So-Young George Lucas Chronicles." Los Angeles Times, June 20, 1993.
- Weintraub, Steve. "Producer Rick McCallum Talks Red Tails and Live-Action Star Wars TV Series; Describes Show as 'Empire Strikes Back' on Steroids." Collider.com, January 18, 2012.
- Dutka, Elaine. "Lucas' Next Movie: Tuskegee Airmen." Los Angeles Times, August 11, 1990.
- "Tuskegee Airmen to be subject of Lucas film." MSNBC.com, June 17, 2008.
- Thompson, Jeff. "TNAA honors Carters during 125th anniversary celebration." The Tuskegee News, August 5, 2010.
- Orange, B. Allen. "Exclusive: Michael B. Jordan Talks Red Tails." MovieWeb.com, September 15, 2010.
- Fleming, Michael. "Lucas taps Ridley to write 'Tails'." Variety, August 27, 2007.
- Vejvoda, Jim. "Jackson Eyeing Red Tails." IGN, August 18, 2008. Retrieved: August 25, 2008.
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- Kline 1999, p. 49.
- Kline 1999, pp. 50–51.
- O'Leary 1998, p. 57.
- "George Lucas' new epic shoots on F35." sony.lv. Retrieved: January 24, 2012.
- Goldberg, Matt. "Red Tails to Play in Auro-3D 11.1 Surround Sound in Select Locations." collider.com, January 12, 2012. Retrieved: April 16, 2012.
- Sperling, Nicole. "After 5 years, George Lucas is directing again." Entertainment Weekly #1092, March 5, 2010.
- "Lee A. Archer Jr." legacy.com, February 3, 2010. Retrieved: February 24, 2012.
- "Disney purchases Lucasfilm, announces new Star Wars." 3 News,October 30, 2012. Retrieved: October 31, 2012.
- Vejvoda, Jim. "The Walt Disney Company acquires Lucasfilm: Star Wars: Episode VII set for 2015." IGN Entertainment, Inc., October 30, 2012. Retrieved: October 31, 2012.
- Red Tails at Rotten Tomatoes
- Red Tails at Metacritic
- Holden, Stephen. "Pilots Who Fought to Soar Above Racism." The New York Times, January 19, 2012.
- Ebert, Roger. "Red Tails." Chicago Sun-Times, January 18, 2012. Retrieved: January 24, 2012.
- Tillman 2012, p. 28.
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- "Red Tail Squadron Webinar Program." Commemorative Air Force, 2011. Retrieved: February 24, 2011.
- "Report: Tuskegee Airmen lost 25 bombers." The Associated Press, April 2, 2007. Retrieved: April 10, 2007.
- Nijboer 2010, p. 52.
- Haulman, Dr. Daniel L. "Nine Myths About the Tuskegee." tuskegee.edu, October 21, 2011. Retrieved: February 23, 2012.
- Cooper et al. 1996, p. 66.
- Shaffer, R.L. "Red Tails Lands on Blu-ray and DVD." IGN, March 29, 2012. Retrieved: March 30, 2012.
- "The History Channel presents ... Double Victory." teamredtails.com, January 8, 2012. Retrieved: February 5, 2012.
- Cooper, Charlie, Ann Cooper and Roy La Grone. Tuskegee's Heroes. St. Paul: Minnesota: Motorbooks International Publishing Company, 1996. ISBN 0-7603-0282-0.
- Kline, Sally, ed. George Lucas: Interviews (Conversations with Filmmakers series). Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 1999. ISBN 978-1-57806-125-9.
- Nijboer, Donald. No 126 Wing RCAF (Aviation Elite Units). Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2010. ISBN 978-1-84603-483-1.
- O'Leary, Michael. North American Aviation P-51 Mustang (Osprey Production Line to Frontline 1). Oxford, UK: Osprey, 1998. ISBN 978-1-85532-703-0.
- Tillman, Barrett. "Tales of the Red Tails; Inside the Tuskegee Legend: The men, the machines, the missions." Flight Journal, February 2012.
- Windham, Ryder, Daniel Wallace and Pablo Hidalgo. Star Wars: Year By Year - A Visual Chronicle. New York: DK Publishing, 2010. ISBN 978-1-4053-4167-7.
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