Red Wharf Bay branch line
|Red Wharf Bay branch line|
|Opening||1 July 1908|
|Closed||3 April 1950|
|Line length||6 miles 60 chains (10.9 km)|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
The Red Wharf Bay branch line was a standard gauge railway line in Anglesey, Wales, a branch off the Anglesey Central Railway. It opened fully in 1909, but closed to passengers in September 1930. Freight operations continued until 3 April 1950, and the tracks were lifted during the summer of 1953.
An early venture
The first company authorised to operate a railway on Anglesey was the Anglesey Railway Company, established by Act of Parliament in 1812. It was intended to bring coal and minerals from Pentre Berw to Red Wharf Bay for export by sea. No evidence has been found that this railway was built.
The modern railway
In the late 19th century, the London and North Western Railway was one of the main railways in Britain, and operated almost all services along the North Wales coast. The LNWR developed plans for two branch lines on Anglesey in 1897: one to Beaumaris (which was abandoned), and another to serve the growing tourist trade of Benllech. This line was to connect with the main line at Llanfairpwll, but William Jones MP advocated a connection at Llangefni, on the Anglesey Central Railway (operated by then as a branch line of the LNWR). A compromise was reached with the line connecting at Holland Arms, near Pentre Berw, as authorised by Act of Parliament in 1899. The intended terminus was now to be in the nearby village of Red Wharf Bay, giving a slightly shorter route. This was changed by a further act of 1900 to a crossroads over half a mile (0.8 km) from Red wharf Bay and a mile (1.6 km) from Benllech, in an attempt to serve both villages. The terminus was called "Red Wharf Bay and Benllech", often abbreviated to "Red Wharf Bay".
The start of construction work was delayed significantly due to the LNWR having financial commitments elsewhere. In 1905 it was decided to build the branch as a Light Railway instead, to save further money. Work started with a connection at Holland Arms in June 1907, the main contractor being J Strachan. Some archaeological remains were discovered in a cutting near Pentraeth, including two skeletons, some urns and a 'bronse spear or dagger head'. The portion from Holland Arms to Pentraeth was completed and inspected in June 1908. Services started as far as Pentraeth on 1 July 1908, with the remainder opening on 24 May 1909.
Passenger services on this branch were operated by the LNWR's pioneer autotrain (which the LNWR referred to as a railmotor). This consisted of a rake of two carriages that would be attached to an engine, with a driving compartment and controls built into the rear carriage. When connected to a locomotive adapted for push-pull operation the train could then be operated in either direction without needing to run around. Two carriages were converted from restaurant cars in 1908 for the opening of the line to Pentraeth. Third class accommodation was provided for approximately 80 passengers, with electric lighting and a centre gangway. The autotrain was so successful that many more old carriages were converted for push-pull operation on other branch lines, a pair of which replaced the original railmotor set after opening to Red Wharf Bay. The daily freight service was operated by a regular locomotive.
The first passenger service of the morning started from Bangor, and would return there in the evening. Seven return services to Red Wharf Bay were provided each day, from either Gaerwen (where the Anglesey Central Railway met the main line) or Holland Arms. When not running to Red Wharf Bay the railmotor train was also used on the Anglesey Central Railway: it would operate between Llangefni and Gaerwen while the main branch train was on the round trip from Llangefni to Amlwch and back.
Shortages during the First World War resulted in service cuts. The railmotor set was reduced to one coach around 1914/1915. The seven return trips operated until the summer of 1916 became four in 1917. During the post-war grouping the line became the property of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, and services were gradually reinstated, returning to seven return services by the summer of 1929. In the winter of 1922/23, a great herring shoal was found on the coast between Moelfre and Benllech. Twelve special trains took five hundred tons of herring from Red Wharf Bay to London, Liverpool, Manchester and other cities, all in the space of two weeks.
Decline and closure
The growth of road motor transport was particularly damaging for the branch: the remote terminus of the railway meant their passengers had a long walk to get to either Benllech or Red Wharf Bay, but buses could operate all the way to the villages. Falling passenger numbers in the 1920s, and the onset of the Great Depression led to the removal of passenger services on 22 September 1930, leaving only the daily goods service. Crosville Motor Services operated the replacement bus service between Benllech and Bangor. This hourly service was more frequent than the train had been, and also removed the need to change trains at Gaerwen (and sometimes Holland Arms too). Some special passenger trains continued to run on Saturdays in the summer months until 1939, as the light buses used could not cope with the density of traffic from Benllech. Once the Menai Suspension Bridge was rebuilt, it could take heavier double-decker buses, and the need for train services disappeared again.
Freight services were reduced to three trains a week in 1944. Due to a lack of wartime maintenance, the post-nationalisation owner British Railways considered closing the line in 1948, but decided to maintain the freight services with an overall speed restriction of 15 mph. In a meeting held on 4 July 1950 it was stated that closure of the branch would result in a saving of £4,307 per annum, compared with the cost of £31,000 to relay the track in order to fully reopen the branch. It was decided to close the branch for a six month experimental period, transferring the remaining traffic to other stations and to road transport. The branch closed on 3 April 1950 and did not reopen.
With its importance as a junction on the Anglesey Central Railway gone, Holland Arms station was closed to all traffic on 4 August 1952. The track was sold to Messrs James N. Campbell Ltd. of Coatbridge for £19,000, and demolition started on 9 April 1953, with the junction at Holland Arms taken up on 16 October. The sleepers were sold to local people as firewood, but the timber buildings at Pentraeth and Red Wharf Bay remained for some years after.
- Richards, Melville: An Atlas of Anglesey, page 99. Anglesey Community Council, 1972
- Christensen, Mike (Autumn 1991). "Single Line Working of the Anglesey Central Railway". British Railway Journal (38): 377.
- Baughan (1981), page 82
- Baughan (1981), page 86
- Rear (1994), page 8
- Birmingham locomotive club (1968). Industrial and independent locomotives and railways of North Wales. p. F3.
- "BBC - Red Wharf Bay Railway". Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- Carpenter, Roger (October 1983). "The Red Wharf Bay Branch of the L.N.W.R". British Railway Journal (1): 4.
- Carpenter (1983), page 6
- Foster, Richard D. (Winter 1994). "The Train Services on the Anglesey Central Line". British Railway Journal (50): 25–37.
- "BBC North West Wales History - Railway to Red Wharf Bay". Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- Baughan (1981), page 89
- Rear (1994), pages 21-22
- Rear (1994), page 21
- Rear, (1994), page 22
- Baughan (1981), page 90
- Baughan, Peter E. (1980). A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain: Volume 11 North and Mid Wales (1st ed.). Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7850-3. OCLC 6823219.
- Baughan, Peter E. (1991). A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain: Volume 11 North and Mid Wales (2nd ed.). Nairn: David St John Thomas. ISBN 0-9465-3759-3. OCLC 26361284.
- Rear, W.G. (1994). Scenes from the Past 21: Railways of North Wales: Anglesey Branch Lines - Amlwch and Red Wharf Bay. Stockport: Foxline Publishing. ISBN 1-8701-1926-6. OCLC 31385418.