|Foundation date||June 2005|
|Headquarters||San Francisco, California, U.S.|
|Key people||Yishan Wong (CEO)|
|Slogan(s)||The front page of the internet|
|Alexa rank||64 (March 2014[update])|
|Type of site||Social news|
|Registration||Optional (required to submit, comment or vote)|
Reddit //, stylized as reddit, is an entertainment, social networking service and news website where registered community members can submit content, such as text posts or direct links. Only registered users can then vote submissions "up" or "down" to organize the posts and determine their position on the site's pages. Content entries are organized by areas of interest called "subreddits".
Reddit was founded by Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian. It was acquired by Condé Nast Publications in October 2006 and became a direct subsidiary of Condé Nast's parent company, Advance Publications in September 2011. As of August 2012, Reddit operates as an independent entity, although Advance is still its largest shareholder. Reddit is based in San Francisco, California.
The site is a collection of entries submitted by its registered users, essentially a bulletin board system. The name "Reddit" is a portmanteau of "read/edit" and of "read it", e.g., "I read it on Reddit".
The site features numerous categories, known as "subreddits". As of February 2014[update], the default subreddits included:
- educational subreddits (news, science, technology, todayilearned, worldnews)
- entertainment subreddits (gaming, movies, music, television, videos)
- discussion subreddits (askreddit, askscience, books, explainlikeimfive, iama)
- humor and image sharing subreddits (adviceanimals, aww, earthporn, funny, gifs, pics, wtf)
- the meta subreddit "bestof"
In total 23 subreddits are visible on the front page to new users and those who browse while not logged in with an account.
When items (links or text posts) are submitted to the site, redditors (users) can vote for or against them (upvote/downvote). Each subreddit has a front page that shows newer submissions that have been rated highly. Redditors can also post comments about the submission, and respond back and forth in a conversation-tree of comments; the comments themselves can also be upvoted and downvoted. The front page of the site itself shows a combination of the highest-rated posts out of all the subreddits a user is subscribed to.
Front-page rank, for both the general front page and for individual subreddits, is determined by the age of the submission, positive ("upvoted") to negative ("downvoted") feedback ratio and the total vote-count. Dozens of submissions cycle through these front pages daily.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2013)|
Registering an account with Reddit is free and does not require an email address to complete. Users are referred to as "redditors", a portmanteau of "reddit editor". When logged in, users have the ability to vote on submissions and comments to increase or decrease their visibility and submit links and comments. Users can also create their own subreddit based around any topic of their choosing, and interested users can add it to their frontpage by subscribing to it. For example, as of November 2013[update], the Wikipedia subreddit—focused on discussion and news on and about Wikipedia—has over 126,000 subscribers. Reddit comments are often abbreviated and filled with terms that are understood within the Reddit community ranging from CCW (for “comments and criticisms welcome”) to SO (for “significant other”). Users earn "link karma" and "comment karma" for submitting popular links and comments, which accumulate as point values on their user profile. The points do not lead to a prize as they are meant to stand in as a badge of honor for the user among their peers, although redditors have attempted to redeem their points before.
Reddit also allows submissions that do not link externally. These are called "self posts" or "text submissions". Many discussion-based subreddits allow only text-only submissions such as "AskReddit" - where users are only allowed to pose broad, discussion based questions to the community at large. Self posts do not accumulate karma points for the submitter, but they can still be voted on like other content.
Reddit communities occasionally coordinate to skew polls on other websites, such as in 2007 when Greenpeace allowed web users to decide the name of a killer whale it was tracking. Reddit users voted en masse to name the whale "Mr. Splashy Pants", and Reddit administrators further encouraged this by changing the site logo to a whale during the voting. In December of that year, Mister Splashy Pants was announced as the winner of the competition.
Within the site, Redditors commemorate their "cake day" once a year, which is the anniversary of the day the user's account was first created. The "cake day" offers no special benefit, except a small icon representing a slice of cake appears next to that user's name for 24 hours.
Redditors can "friend" one another, which gives a redditor quick access to posting and comments of their friend list. The commenting system and friend system, along with a certain "Reddit ethos" (called reddiquette on Reddit), lend Reddit aspects of a social networking service, though not to the extent of Facebook, Google+, and other websites aimed at providing social networking services.
The Reddit community socialize at local parks and bars around the world, and there are many localized subreddits for local meetings.
Reddit entries are organized into areas of interest called "subreddits". Historically, the front page was the main subreddit, and other areas were "subreddits". There is now no main subreddit. Instead, there are multiple default subreddits dealing with topics such as books, television, and music. Any registered user may create a subreddit, although a link to do so does not appear on the user's homepage until after thirty days. There are over 5,400 active subreddits to peruse, with a default set of 20 put in place in October 2011. The default subreddits were changed again in July 2013, bringing the total to 22.
Users may customize what is shown on their personal front page by subscribing to individual subreddits through a page that shows all subreddits available. The site's general front page is also accessible via a link to "all" at the top of the individual user's customized front page.
One of the most popular subreddits is IAmA ("I Am A") where a user may post "AMAs" (for "Ask Me Anything"), or similarly "AMAAs" ( for "Ask Me Almost Anything") – prompts for others to ask questions about any topic. AMAs are open to all Reddit users, and use the site's comment system for both questions and answers. This subreddit was founded in May 2009.
A number of notable individuals have participated in the IAmA subreddit, including President Barack Obama (while campaigning for the 2012 election), Dave Grohl, Madonna, Chris Hadfield (who answered questions from the International Space Station), Bill Gates, Ron Paul, Stephen Colbert, Psy, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Rachel Maddow, Renée Fleming, Louis C.K., Roger Federer, Larry King, Philip Zimbardo, Stan Lee, John Mather, David Copperfield, Paul Krugman, Danny Boyle, Al Gore, Roger Ebert, Michael Bolton, Gary Johnson, Lawrence Krauss, Jill Stein, Kevin Rudd, Amanda Palmer, and Tim Ferriss. As of October 2013[update], Barack Obama's AMA is the highest rated on the site; the increased traffic brought down many parts of the website when the AMA occurred on August 29, 2012.
Celebrities participating in IAmAs have seen both positive and negative responses. Woody Harrelson's AMA was criticized after Harrelson declined to answer questions that were unrelated to the movie "Rampart" he was promoting. In contrast, rapper Snoop Lion attracted 1.6 million page views after conducting an AMA that provided several candid responses to the community's questions.
In June 2005, Reddit was founded in Medford, Massachusetts by Steve Huffman and Alexis Ohanian, both 22-year-old graduates of the University of Virginia. It received its initial funding from Y Combinator.
A few months after the site launched an executive from Yahoo! invited Huffman and Ohanian to come for a visit to Yahoo!'s headquarters in Silicon Valley. The executive--whom Ohanian has never named--ended up laughing them out of his office, calling Reddit's traffic, "A rounding error in comparison to Yahoo!." As of March 2014, Reddit's monthly traffic is roughly equivalent to 39% of Yahoo's monthly traffic. , while Reddit operates with roughly 0.002 of the personnel and operating costs expended by Yahoo! 
The team expanded to include Christopher Slowe in November 2005. Between November 2005 and January 2006 Reddit merged with Aaron Swartz's company Infogami, and Swartz became an equal owner of the resulting parent company, Not A Bug. Condé Nast Publications, owner of Wired, acquired Reddit on October 31, 2006, and the team moved to San Francisco. In January 2007, Swartz was fired.
On June 18, 2008, Reddit became an open source project. With the exception of the anti-spam/cheating portions, all of the code and libraries written for Reddit became freely available on GitHub.
By the end of 2008, the team had grown to include Erik Martin, Jeremy Edberg, David King, and Mike Schiraldi. In 2009, Huffman and Ohanian moved on to form Hipmunk, recruiting Slowe and King shortly thereafter.
In July 2010, after explosive traffic growth, Reddit introduced Reddit Gold, offering new features for a price of $3.99/month or $29.99/year. Reddit Gold adds a number of features to the interface, including the ability to display more comments on a page, access to the private subreddit /r/lounge, and notifications whenever one's username is mentioned in a comment.
On January 11, 2012, Reddit announced that it would be participating in a 12-hour sitewide blackout in protest of the Stop Online Piracy Act. The blackout occurred on January 18 and coincided with the blackouts of Wikipedia and several other websites. In May 2012, Reddit joined the Internet Defense League, a group formed to organize future protests.
Reddit was originally written in Common Lisp but was rewritten in Python in December 2005. The reasons given for the switch were wider access to code libraries and greater development flexibility. The Python web framework that former Reddit employee Aaron Swartz developed to run the site, web.py, is now available as an open-source project.
Reddit uses PostgreSQL as their primary datastore and is slowly moving to Apache Cassandra, a column oriented datastore. It uses RabbitMQ for offline processing, HAProxy for load balancing and memcached for caching.
On July 21, 2010, Reddit outsourced the Reddit search engine to Flaptor, who used its search product IndexTank.
There are several unofficial applications that use the Reddit API on the Google Play, including Reddit is Fun, Andreddit, F5, BaconReader, and an Android tablet specific application called Reddita. There are also several Windows 8 apps on the Store used to access Reddit, including unofficial Reddit apps such as Reddit on ReddHub and Reddit To Go!. An unofficial desktop application Reditr exists that is compatible with Windows, OS X, Linux and ChromeOS. There are unofficial applications for iOS such as Alien Blue, Karma, Upvote, iReddit, and iPad-specific appilications such as Reddzine and Biscuit.
According to Google Ad Planner's estimate, as of May 2013[update], the median Reddit user is male (59%), 25–34 years of age, and is connecting from the United States (68%). Pewinternet.org has stated that 6% of all adult internet users use Reddit.
Community and culture
The website is known for its open nature and diverse user community that generate its content. Its demographics allows for wide-ranging subject areas, or main subreddits, that receive much attention, as well as the ability for smaller subreddits to serve more niche purposes. For example, the University of Reddit, a subreddit that exists to communally teach, emerged from the ability to enter and leave the online forum, the “classroom," at will, and classes ranging from computer science to music, to fine art theory exist. The unique possibilities that subreddits provide create new opportunities for raising attention and fostering discussion across many areas. In gaining popularity in terms of unique users per day, Reddit has been a platform for many to raise publicity for a number of causes. And with that increased ability to garner attention and a large audience, users can use one of the largest communities on the Internet for new, revolutionary, and influential purposes.
Its popularity has enabled users to take unprecedented advantage of such a large community. Its innovative socially ranked rating and sorting system drives a method that is useful for fulfilling certain goals of viewership or simply finding answers to interesting questions. User sentiments about the website's function and structure include feelings about the breadth and depth of the discussions on Reddit and how the site makes it easy to discover new and interesting items. Almost all of the user reviews on Alexa.com, which rates Reddit's monthly unique traffic rating 125th in the United States, mention Reddit's "good content" as a likable quality. However, others raise the negative aspects of the potential for Reddit's communities to possess a "hive mind" of sorts, embodying some negative aspects of group interaction theories like crowd psychology and collective consciousness.
In recent history, Reddit has been known as the instigator of several charity projects, some short and others long-term, in order to benefit others. A selection of major events are outlined below:
- In early December 2010, members of the Christianity subreddit decided to hold a fundraiser and later members of the atheism subreddit decided to give some friendly competition, cross-promoting fundraising drives for Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) and World Vision's Clean Water Fund, respectively. Later, the Islam subreddit joined in, raising money for Islamic Relief. In less than a week, the three communities (as well as the Reddit community at large) raised over $50,000. Most of this was raised by the atheism subreddit, though the smaller Christianity subreddit had a higher average donation amount per subscriber. A similar donation drive in 2011 saw the atheism subreddit raise over $200,000 for charity.
- In early October 2010, a story was posted on Reddit about a seven-year-old girl, Kathleen Edward, who was in the advanced stages of Huntington's disease. The girl's neighbors were taunting her and her family. Redditors banded together and gave the girl a shopping spree at Tree Town Toys, a toy store local to the story owned by a Reddit user.
- Reddit started the largest Secret Santa program in the world, which is still in operation to date. For the 2010 Holiday season, 92 countries were involved in the Secret Santa program. There were 17,543 participants, and $662,907.60 was collectively spent on gift purchases and shipping costs.
- Members from Reddit donated over $600,000 to DonorsChoose in support of Stephen Colbert's March to Keep Fear Alive. The donation spree broke previous records for the most money donated to a single cause by the Reddit community and resulted in an interview with Colbert on Reddit.
- Reddit users donated $185,356.70 to Direct Relief International for Haiti after the earthquake devastated the island in January 2010.
- Reddit users donated over $70,000 to the Faraja Orphanage in the first 24 hours to help secure the orphanage after intruders robbed and attacked one of the volunteers, Omari, who survived a strike to the head from a machete.
- In October 2012, Shitty Watercolour, a popular Redditor known for posting watercolor paintings on the website, streamed live a 12-hour painting session on YouTube to raise money for charity: water, a non-profit organization which aims to provide potable drinking water in developing countries. Redditors donated a minimum of $10 to have a photo of their choice painted in a 5 cm by 5 cm (2 in×2 in) square section of large sheets of paper. The paint-a-thon raised $2,700.
The Reddit Effect
Also known as the "SlashDot effect", the Reddit effect is when a smaller website has a high influx of traffic due to Reddit. It is also affectionately called the "Reddit Hug" among the website's users. Because Reddit is such a large site, the traffic is immense and can easily crash smaller sites. In order for users to see crashed websites, several Reddit bots have been created that take a snapshot of the website before large amounts of traffic flood the affected website.
"Restoring Truthiness" campaign
As a response to Glenn Beck's August 28, 2010, Restoring Honor rally (heavily promoted by him in his Fox News broadcasts during the summer), in September 2010 Reddit users started a movement to persuade Stephen Colbert to have a counter-rally in Washington, D.C. The movement was started by user mrsammercer, in a post where he describes waking up from a dream in which Stephen Colbert holds a satirical rally in D.C.
He writes, "This would be the high water mark of American satire. Half a million people pretending to suspend all rational thought in unison. Perfect harmony. It'll feel like San Francisco in the late 60s, only we won't be able to get any acid."
The idea resonated with the Reddit community, which launched a campaign to bring the event to life. Over $600,000 was raised for charity to gain the attention of Colbert. The campaign was mentioned on-air several times, and when the Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear was held in Washington, D.C. on October 30, 2010, thousands of redditors made the journey.
During a post-rally press conference, Reddit co-founder Alexis Ohanian asked, "What role did the Internet campaign play in convincing you to hold this rally?" Jon Stewart responded by saying that, though it was a very nice gesture, the two had already thought of the idea prior and the deposit on using the National Mall was already paid during the summer, so it acted mostly as a "validation of what we were thinking about attempting". In a message to the Reddit community, Colbert later added, "I have no doubt that your efforts to organize and the joy you clearly brought to your part of the story contributed greatly to the turnout and success."
Controversies involving Reddit
The website has a strong culture of free speech and very few rules about the types of content that may be posted. This has led to the creation of several communities that have been perceived as offensive, including forums dedicated to jailbait (since banned) and pictures of dead bodies; several such subreddits were the focus of an edition of Anderson Cooper 360 in September 2011. However, "Suggestive or sexual content featuring minors" was not explicitly banned until February 2012, after members of the forum Something Awful planned to send correspondence to "Parent Teacher Associations, politicians, churches, news outlets and the FBI" about such subreddits.
In October 2012, a Gawker article published the real-life identity of "Violentacrez", a Reddit moderator prominently involved with a string of controversial subreddits devoted to explicit material. As a result of the story, the user, revealed to be a middle-aged computer programmer from Texas, was fired from his job. In response to the exposé, a number of Reddit moderators banned Gawker links from their subreddits.
Following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, Reddit faced criticism after users wrongly identified a number of people as suspects. Notable among misidentified bombing suspects was Sunil Tripathi, a student reported missing before the bombings took place. A body reported to be Sunil's was found in Rhode Island's Providence River on April 25, 2013 as reported by the Rhode Island Health Department. The cause of death is under investigation. Reddit general manager Erik Martin later issued an apology for this behavior, criticizing the "online witch hunts and dangerous speculation" that took place on the website. The incident was later referenced in the season 5 episode of the CBS TV series The Good Wife titled "Whack-a-Mole".
In late October 2013, the moderators of the /r/politics subreddit banned a large group of websites. Many were left wing news websites, such as Mother Jones, The Huffington Post, Salon, Alternet, Rawstory, The Daily Kos, Truthout, Media Matters, and ThinkProgress as well as some popular progressive blog sites, such as Democratic Underground and Crooks and Liars. They also banned a number of right wing sites—Drudge Report, Breitbart, The Daily Caller, Dailypaul, Little Green Footballs, Power Line, and Reason. Salon reported that "the section's moderators explained in a post on Tuesday, the goal is 'to reduce the number of blogspam submissions and sensationalist titles. The purge, the moderators explained, is also aimed at sites that provide lots of "bad journalism." The December 2013 list of banned websites has been modified since late October, and sites with original content, such as Mother Jones and The Huffington Post, are allowed.
In January 2014, Mother Jones published a story describing the sale of guns on the site. The report suggested that sellers were doing so to exploit a loophole in federal law. Nearly 100 AR-15s were engraved with the Reddit logo as part of licensing deal made with the page in 2011.
In May 2010, Reddit was named in Lead411's "2010 Hottest San Francisco Companies" list.
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