Redondo Beach, California
|Redondo Beach, California|
|City of Redondo Beach|
Redondo Beach - King Harbor sign
Location of Redondo Beach in Los Angeles County, California
|Incorporated||April 29, 1892|
|• Mayor||Steve Aspel|
|• City Council||Jeff Ginsburg
|• City Treasurer||Thomas Gaian|
|• City Clerk||Eleanor Manzano|
|• Total||6.208 sq mi (16.080 km2)|
|• Land||6.198 sq mi (16.054 km2)|
|• Water||0.010 sq mi (0.026 km2) 0.16%|
|Elevation||62 ft (19 m)|
|• Density||11,000/sq mi (4,200/km2)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|ZIP codes||90277, 90278|
|GNIS feature IDs||1652782, 2411535|
Redondo Beach is one of the three Beach Cities located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 66,748 at the 2010 census, up from 63,261 at the 2000 census. The city is located in the South Bay region of the greater Los Angeles area.
Redondo Beach was originally part of the 1785 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant that later became the South Redondo area. The city's territory has an unusual shape including an area along the beach (South Redondo Beach) and another strip inland from Manhattan Beach and Hermosa Beach (North Redondo Beach). The primary attractions include Municipal Pier and the sandy beach, popular with tourists and a variety of sports enthusiasts. The western terminus of the Metro Rail Green Line is in North Redondo Beach.
- 1 Lifestyle
- 2 Economy
- 3 Geography
- 4 History
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Government
- 7 Politics
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 Education
- 10 Notable residents
- 11 In the media
- 12 Sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Redondo Beach is the focus of many who want to be in the sun and near the ocean. Although a vibrant community in its own right, much of the Redondo Beach lifestyle is a blend of the neighborhoods, activities and people of the three Beach Cities of Southern California's South Bay. Like its sister cities of Hermosa Beach and Manhattan Beach, Redondo's key lifestyle draw is the vast beach that links these three cities. Redondo was described as "The Gem Of The Continent" in the Los Angeles Daily Herald on December 22, 1887
A wide sand beach starts below the bluffs of Palos Verdes in the south (after Torrance Beach) and carries north to the Redondo Pier. The area of the beach that starts in Palos Verdes is known as "RAT (Right After Torrance) Beach." A paved path, called The Strand runs from Torrance through South Redondo, north to Hermosa Beach, Manhattan Beach, and eventually to Santa Monica. A typical day on this path will see thousands of people on foot, bicycle, skateboard, roller-blade, wheelchair and stroller enjoying the sun and surf. The continuous path is broken only by the massive Redondo Beach King Harbor Marina and Pier complex, where it veers away from water and onto dedicated lanes of surface streets for about a mile before again turning to the ocean in Hermosa Beach. Continuing north from Manhattan Beach, this path stretches well into Marina Del Rey and beyond with few breaks.
Surfing is a key element of the South Bay lifestyle year-round; it is common to see locals catching waves on both Christmas and New Year's Day. Powerful winter storms in the Pacific ocean can turn typically placid and rolling South Bay waves into large and occasionally dangerous monsters, a natural draw for the local surfing population. Local wave heights in December 2005 were some of the largest on record and were reported to top 15 feet (4.6 m) to 20 feet (6.1 m) in some instances; at least one surfer required resuscitation when he was thrashed against the ocean bottom after trying a particularly large wave.
Beach Volleyball is another important aspect of Redondo Beach's lifestyle. The wide and flat sand beaches provide the perfect venue for the sport and permanent poles and nets are placed and maintained by the city year-round. Professional tournaments managed by the AVP take place in neighboring Hermosa and Manhattan Beach. Redondo Beach is home to Gold Medalist Kerri Walsh and AVP Pro Casey Jennings.
The Redondo Recreation Indoor Men's Volleyball League at Aviation Gym on Wednesday nights is one of the premier indoor recreational volleyball leagues in Southern California where one could play high level volleyball. Former college and professional volleyball athletes participate in this league year round in about four seasons per year.
Currently Redondo Beach is growing in popularity to filming production. In 2006 "Medium" crews were seen shooting at a local coffee shop. Fox's The O.C. was also seen filming at Redondo Union High School, Redondo Beach Pier, and local parks. Also, Redondo Beach was home to the filming of the classic television series, Baywatch.
Redondo Beach is often divided into two logical North/South areas with 190th, Anita, and Herondo streets forming its east-west boundary line. South Redondo plays host to the pier and marina/harbor complex and directly borders active Hermosa Beach; life on the ocean side of Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) can be frenetic with restaurants and boating activities keeping people active and engaged at all times. Inland of PCH is largely residential.
Bordering North/South Redondo at the Marina is the massive AES power plant, which has been the source of substantial political debate in the city over the last decade, largely centered over what to do with the land once the plant becomes inactive over the next 25 years (subject to change and compromise). This power plant sports Whaling Wall number 31, a 586 ft (179 m) × 95 ft (29 m) whale mural by world-famous artist Robert Wyland titled "Gray Whale Migration".
The small business district near the pier and marina was revived in the 1990s by beachgoers and new residents wanted to sell beachwear and surfing accessories. That district was once focused on fishing and canning when the pier was used to transport fish-based foodstuffs and canned fish to American and Asian consumers, but that industry had an economic downfall in the 1970s and 1980s.
South Redondo is a bit more on the gentrified, quiet side. Its wide streets, wide sand beaches and laid-back feel make it a prime destination for those seeking a "bike to the grocery store" community. Several close-knit neighborhoods exist; South Broadway hosts street parties in the summer where children play on jumping gyms and the local Fire Department judges the best dessert contest while kids climb their pumper truck. The Main Library is located in the Civic Center.
North Redondo begins north of 190th Street. As a result of Redondo Beach's geography, North Redondo is primarily an inland experience as the beachfronts form most of Hermosa Beach and part of Manhattan Beach. While primarily residential, North Redondo contains some of the city's major industry and commercial space, including the inland aerospace and engineering firms that are part of Southern California's long space legacy. It is also home to the South Bay Galleria shopping center and a revitalized Artesia Boulevard. North Redondo is the home of the Redondo Beach Performing Arts Center, one of the South Bay's premier cultural facilities, and home to the Los Angeles Ballet, Distinguished Speaker Series, Kala Koa Entertainment, and a diverse range of other cultural and entertainment events. The North Branch of the Redondo Beach Library serves this area. North Redondo is home to nearly two-thirds of the children in Redondo Beach.
Many original homes still stand in Redondo Beach neighborhoods, but these small Arts and Crafts style homes are quickly being bought, demolished and rebuilt to match the tastes of the modern, more affluent buyer that makes South Bay their home. Zoning allows properties within two to three blocks of the beach to be developed as large two to three-unit luxury townhomes; inland areas are more likely to have single-family homes. There is a citywide height limit of 32 ft (9.8 m) for new homes; unlike Manhattan Beach, Redondo allows rooftop living spaces and decks.
Redondo Breakwall is a well-known surf spot in the South Bay.
A revitalized downtown area affectionately termed "Riviera Village" (named so after the Hollywood Riviera, which is the area it is in) provides locals an opportunity to eat, shop and commune in a quiet atmosphere. Since 2004 several new or newly renovated restaurants have made a positive impact on local options for an on-the-town experience. Downtown also supports a number of independent boutiques and shops specializing in clothing and fashion, as well as at least three wine-tasting galleries. This downtown area is in South Redondo west of PCH between Avenue I and Palos Verdes Blvd.
The Marina, Harbor and Pier complexes are large, planned centers of activity that host Korean seafood restaurants, touristy bars, smaller shops and a games arcade. The pier is a common spot for anglers to cast for a local catch; many residents of inland Los Angeles drive to Redondo Beach to take advantage of the long and unique shape of this pier. The adjacent Marina, located just north of the Pier, is home to another half-dozen restaurants, a seafood shop, and a pub with almost 100 beers on tap. The large, monolithic concrete structures that make up the pier and harbor area stand in stark contrast to the venerable cozy feel of the rest of the South Bay's neighborhood-style street front architecture; the city continues to consider options for the area as new entertainment and dining chooses to locate in other areas of the Beach Cities.
According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees||% of Total City Employment|
|2||Redondo Beach Unified School District||1,100||3.05%|
|3||Beach Cities Health District||620||1.72%|
|4||City of Redondo Beach||487||1.35%|
|7||The Cheesecake Factory||261||0.72%|
|8||DHL Global Forwarding||244||0.68%|
Cost of living
The beach lifestyle comes at a price: According to public data from the Los Angeles Times, real estate prices increased almost 20% per year between 1999 and 2005. Properties within short walking distance of the ocean routinely sell for well over $1 million. Those with direct, unhindered views routinely ask in excess of $2 million. Money Magazine ranks communities in the area as some of the most expensive places to live in the U.S. The average three-bed, two-bath home costs about $1,000,000 in South Redondo as of 2006 and $875,000 in North Redondo. The 2007 "credit meltdown" has affected home values in the area to a lesser extent than the rest of Southern California.
Redondo Beach is located at (33.856514, -118.377081).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.2 square miles (16.1 km²), over 99% of it land.
Redondo Beach was originally part of the 1784 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant of the 43,000-acre (170 km2) Dominguez Rancho that later became the ten-mile (16 km) Ocean frontage of Rancho Sausal Redondo.
The Chowigna Indians used the site of today's "Wilderness Park" in Redondo Beach, California as a lookout place. The wetlands located at the site of today's AES power plant in Redondo Beach were a source of foods including halibut, lobster, and sea bass, and also of salt. In the 1700s, the Chowigna bartered salt from the old Redondo Salt Lake, "a spring-fed salt lake about 200 yards wide and 600 yards long situated about 200 yards from the ocean", with other tribes. Their village by the lake was called "Onoova-nga", or "Place of Salt." The Chowigna were relocated to missions in 1854, when Manuel Dominguez sold 215 acres of Rancho San Pedro, including the lake, to Henry Allanson and William Johnson for the Pacific Salt Works.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Redondo Beach had a population of 66,748. The population density was 10,751.1 people per square mile (4,151.0/km²). The racial makeup of Redondo Beach was 49,805 (74.6%) White (65.2% Non-Hispanic White), 1,852 (2.8%) African American, 291 (0.4%) Native American, 8,004 (12.0%) Asian, 199 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 2,725 (4.1%) from other races, and 3,872 (5.8%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,142 persons (15.2%).
The Census reported that 66,317 people (99.4% of the population) lived in households, 367 (0.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 64 (0.1%) were institutionalized.
There were 29,011 households, out of which 7,825 (27.0%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 12,507 (43.1%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,515 (8.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,207 (4.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,904 (6.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 179 (0.6%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 9,252 households (31.9%) were made up of individuals and 2,145 (7.4%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29. There were 16,229 families (55.9% of all households); the average family size was 2.94.
The population was spread out with 12,887 people (19.3%) under the age of 18, 4,198 people (6.3%) aged 18 to 24, 23,149 people (34.7%) aged 25 to 44, 19,532 people (29.3%) aged 45 to 64, and 6,982 people (10.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males.
There were 30,609 housing units at an average density of 4,930.2 per square mile (1,903.6/km²), of which 14,917 (51.4%) were owner-occupied, and 14,094 (48.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.3%. 36,796 people (55.1% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 29,521 people (44.2%) lived in rental housing units.
According to the 2010 United States Census, Redondo Beach had a median household income of $98,916, with 5.9% of the population living below the federal poverty line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 63,261 people, 28,566 households, and 15,254 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,065.4 inhabitants per square mile (3,889.4/km²). There were 29,543 housing units at an average density of 4,700.6 per square mile (1,816.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 78.62% White, 9.10% Asian, 2.52% African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.35% Pacific Islander, 4.37% from other races, and 4.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.47% of the population.
There were 28,566 households out of which 23.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.6% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the city the population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 43.1% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males.
According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $93,274, and the median income for a family was $108,753. Males had a median income of $56,796 versus $45,204 for females. The per capita income for the city was $38,305. About 4.0% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2006)|
Before the beach city housing boom in the 1990s, Redondo Beach's population mirrored much of older communities around Los Angeles. Redondo Beach had generally large numbers of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (esp. Hawaiians and Samoans) for cities with an excess of 50,000 residents. The city has a sizable Native American community, due to the fact that numerous participants in the Bureau of Indian Affairs' relocation programs chose the South Bay area of Los Angeles. Nearby is the El Nido section, briefly a Chicano area before the 1970s.
In the early 1900s, the developing community attracted immigrants, often fishermen and maritime workers of Dutch, Greek, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish descent, who used to have neighborhoods on the city's southern end known as "Clifton" (the county area was incorporated into Redondo Beach in 1976). The community also had its share of Asian American and Latino (Mexican or other Latin American) residents. African Americans encountered few problems on moving into the mixed-race community, especially after the 1950s.
According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $109.5 million in Revenues, $106.8 million in expenditures, $283.1 million in total assets, $66.3 million in total liabilities, and $79.5 million in cash and investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:
|Interim City Manager||Joe Hoefgen|
|Interim Assistant City Manager||Michael Witzansky|
|Chief of Police||W. Joseph Leonardi|
|Fire Chief||Robert Metzger|
|Waterfront and Economic Development||Peter Carmichael|
|Information Technology Director||Chris Benson|
|Community Development||Aaron Jones|
|Interim Director of Recreation, Transit & Community Services||Dan Smith|
|Library Director||Susan Anderson|
|Interim Public Works Director||Tim Shea|
|Financial Services Director||Craig Koehler|
The Beach Cities Health District, one of 78 California Health Districts, is located in Redondo Beach. Created in 1955, as South Bay Hospital, to provide health and wellness services to the residents of Hermosa Beach, Manhattan Beach, and Redondo Beach. The District took on its current name in 1993. In 2002, Beach Cities Health District opened AdventurePlex, a Manhattan Beach fitness facility for youth and their families of the three beach cities. AdventurePlex has mazes, tunnels, outdoor rock climbing walls, complex ropes courses, and an indoor gymnasium.
State and federal representation
The United States Postal Service operates the Redondo Beach Post Office at 1201 North Catalina Avenue, the Redondo Beach Station #2 Post Office at 1715 Via El Prado, the North Redondo Beach Post Office at 2215 Artesia Boulevard, and the Galleria Post Office at Suite 377D at 1815 Hawthorne Boulevard.
The Redondo Beach Unified School District serves the city. Redondo Union High School is the zoned high school. The Redondo Beach Educational Foundation was originally founded in 1992 and revitalized in 2008. They fund enrichment programs that include music, science, counseling and college trips.
- Allan McCollum (born 1944), contemporary artist; grew up in Redondo Beach, and graduated from Aviation High School
- Amazon Eve, the tallest model in the world at 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m)
- Amy White, swimmer, 1984 Olympics silver medalist, born in Redondo Beach
- Bill Auberlen, race car driver
- Black Flag, the hardcore punk band, is from Redondo, Manhattan and Hermosa Beach.
- Brittney Rogers (born 1982), Miss Louisiana USA 2003
- Carla Esparza (born 1987), professional female mixed martial artist attended Redondo Union High School.
- Charles Lindbergh attended Redondo Union High School
- Damon Edge, musician of band Chrome; resident; died in his Redondo Beach apartment in 1995
- Demi Moore (born 1962), actress; attended Redondo Union High School for a year
- Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907–91), atomic scientist and Nobel Prize winner; born in Redondo Beach
- Eve Torres, dancer, model, and WWE performer; resident
- Hisaye Yamamoto (born 1921), Japanese-American writer; born in Redondo Beach.
- Jereme Rogers, professional skateboarder; resident
- Jesse Heiman, TV personality and actor
- Jim Fox, professional hockey player, TV analyst; resident 
- Judith Resnik, second American woman in space, killed in the Challenger disaster
- Patrick Kearney (born 1940), serial murderer
- Pau Gasol, professional basketball player; resident
- Paul Westphal (born 1950), professional basketball player and coach; grew up in Redondo Beach, and attended Aviation High School.
- Paul Wise, professional golfer and NCAA Division II Men's Golf Individual Champion.
- Ron Artest, professional basketball player; resident
- Ron Kovic (born 1946), anti-war activist, veteran and writer who was paralyzed in the Vietnam War; best known as the author of his memoir Born on the Fourth of July; resident
- Shannon Brown, professional basketball player; resident
- Slava Voynov, professional hockey player; resident
- The Smothers Brothers (Tom, born 1937; Dick, born 1939), musicians and actors; grew up in Redondo Beach and graduated from Redondo Union High School
- Tiffany van Soest, kickboxer and resident
- Traci Lords (born 1968), adult-film actress; attended Redondo Union High School
- William Starke Rosecrans, inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and United States Army Major General during the American Civil War, bought 16,000 acres (65 km2) of land which later became Redondo Beach. He died there at Rancho Sausal Redondo in 1898.
In the media
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2009)|
- Songs & videos
- Patti Smith's song "Redondo Beach", on her 1975 album Horses; covered by Morrissey in 2004 and released as a single in 2005
- Redondo Beach is mentioned in the song "Surfin' U.S.A." by The Beach Boys.
- The Edison Power Plant is the filming location of Britney Spears music video "(You Drive Me) Crazy".
- The Redondo Fun Factory at the Redondo Beach International Boardwalk is the filming location for the music video of Boys Like Girls' "Love Drunk".
- The television show The O.C. used the beach and pier as a key filming location.
- The television show Dexter has been filming at the Redondo Pier. (2009)
- The television show 24 uses the AES power plant in filming many scenes.
- The television show CSI: Miami has been filmed in Redondo Beach.
- Three seasons of the television series Riptide were filmed in King Harbor.
- The television show Even Stevens filmed mall episodes at Redondo Beach's South Bay Galleria. They also used Aviation High School's track field for its outside gym scenes.
- The '90s television show California Dreams is set in Redondo Beach.
- A first season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series called "Operation: Annihilate!" had scenes of the planet Deneva, which were filmed at the TRW headquarters in this town.
- TruTV's show Speeders has made a few appearances in Redondo Beach.
- Extreme Makeover: Home Edition rebuilt a house for the Ripatti-Pearce family who reside in Redondo Beach.
- Parts of the movie Point Break were filmed in Redondo Beach (such as the gas station fire/explosion scene took place at the intersection of Beryl and Catalina, and the foot chase passed the famous Dive N' Surf shop).
- Redondo Beach is the destination of the road-tripping family in the 2006 movie Little Miss Sunshine, although Ventura, CA stood in for Redondo Beach at the end of the film.
- Men at Work was filmed in Redondo Beach, which went by the pseudonym Las Playas
- Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End was filmed off the coast of Redondo Beach. The Black Pearl, a cursed sea vessel, was moored in the harbor for several weeks in 2006.
- John Travolta's character Vincent Vega in the movie Pulp Fiction lives in Redondo Beach.
- The eponymous race in The Cannonball Run ended in Redondo Beach.
- The beach scene in Big Momma's House 2 was filmed in Redondo Beach and the pier.
- Redondo Beach is home of the fictional Bird of Paradise Motel in the 1990 film The Two Jakes.
- Parts of the 1988 movie Tequila Sunrise were filmed in Redondo Beach, specifically, on the Esplanade. Kurt Russell's character wears an RUHS (Redondo Union High School) senior ring.
- The Hot Chick (2002) starring Rob Schneider used the Redondo Union High School football stadium during the scene where Schneider is pushed down the stadium's bleachers by co-star Anna Faris.
- In the movie 1408, the beach scene is set at Hermosa Pier and Redondo Beach.
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- "Gem Of The Continent". Los Angeles Daily Herald. Retrieved December 22, 1887.
- Reeves, Rachel (December 10, 2013). "California Energy Commission pays Redondo Beach another visit". Easy Reader News. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
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- Lacey, Marc (1992-04-17). "An Urban Oasis : Surrounded by condos sits a place the Chowigna Indians once used as a lookout spot. Today, people go there for an escape. - Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
- Brand, Bill. ""Heart Park" Restoring Redondo Beach". The Foggy View, Supplement to the March 2005 Southern Sierran, Sierra Club Palos Verdes - South Bay Group / Angeles Chapter. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
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- Welcome to the Redondo Beach Historical Museum: A self-guided tour
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- Beach Cities Health District
- List of California Health Districts
- "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "California's 33rd Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC.
- "Vote Cast By Community and Council District". Retrieved 2012-06-13.
- "Post Office Location - REDONDO BEACH." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location - REDONDO BEACH STATION #2." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location - NORTH REDONDO BEACH." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
- "Post Office Location - GALLERIA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
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- "Redondo Beach Educational Foundation is Making an Impact - The Redondo Beach Localista Magazine".
- Enright, Robert. ""No Things But in Ideas: an interview with Allan McCollum", Border Crossings, September 2001, p. 24.
- "Amazon Eve official website".
- Harrington, Joe S.,
- Carla Esparza at Ultimate Apocalypse
- Every, Dale Van and Morris DeHaven Tracy. Charles Lindbergh: His Life. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1927 (reprint 2005). ISBN 1-4179-1884-5, pp. 19–22
- Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'n' Roll, (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003), p. 373.
- Dinh, Mai; Murphy, Janet. Demi Moore, People, 2008.
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- Ratermann, Dale; Brosi, Brian. 1001 Basketball Trivia Questions, Sports Pub., 1999, p. 54.
- NCAA Division II Men's Golf Championships
- LEITEREG, NEAL (May 23, 2014). "L.A. Kings' Slava Voynov scores modern home in Redondo Beach". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Claghorn, Charles Eugene. Biographical Dictionary of American Music, (Parker Pub. Co., 1973), p. 411.
- "TIFFANY VAN SOEST". Lion Fight Promotions. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Laufenberg, Norbert B. Entertainment Celebrities, (Trafford Publishing, 2005), p. 403.
- GJW. "The O.C. Filming Locations". Seeing-stars.com. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
- Morison, Jeanette. "May I see Your Badge, Mister - Uh, Spock?". The Retirees Association. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
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|Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Redondo Beach.|
||Hermosa Beach||Manhattan Beach & Hawthorne||Rolling Hills Estates|
|Pacific Ocean||Torrance & Palos Verdes Estates||Torrance|