Redondo Beach, California

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For a similarly named place in Portugal, see Redonda Beach. For other uses, see Redondo Beach (disambiguation).
Redondo Beach, California
City of Redondo Beach
Redondo Beach - King Harbor sign
Redondo Beach - King Harbor sign
Official seal of Redondo Beach, California
Official logo of Redondo Beach, California
Location of Redondo Beach in Los Angeles County, California
Location of Redondo Beach in Los Angeles County, California
Coordinates: 33°51′23″N 118°22′37″W / 33.85639°N 118.37694°W / 33.85639; -118.37694Coordinates: 33°51′23″N 118°22′37″W / 33.85639°N 118.37694°W / 33.85639; -118.37694
Country  United States
State  California
County Los Angeles
Incorporated April 29, 1892[1]
 • Mayor Steve Aspel[2]
 • City Council[2] Jeff Ginsburg
Pat Aust
Bill Brand
Steve Sammarco
Matthew Kilroy
 • City treasurer Steve Diels[3]
 • City clerk Eleanor Manzano[4]
 • Total 6.208 sq mi (16.080 km2)
 • Land 6.198 sq mi (16.054 km2)
 • Water 0.010 sq mi (0.026 km2)  0.16%
Elevation[6] 62 ft (19 m)
Population (April 1, 2010)[7]
 • Total 66,748
 • Estimate (2013)[7] 67,815
 • Density 11,000/sq mi (4,200/km2)
Time zone Pacific (UTC−8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC−7)
ZIP codes 90277, 90278[8]
Area code 310/424[9]
FIPS code 06-60018
GNIS feature IDs 1652782, 2411535

Redondo Beach is one of the three Beach Cities located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. The population was 66,748 at the 2010 census, up from 63,261 at the 2000 census. The city is located in the South Bay region of the greater Los Angeles area.

Redondo Beach was originally part of the 1785 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant that later became the South Redondo area. The city's territory has an unusual shape including an area along the beach (South Redondo Beach) and another strip inland from Manhattan Beach and Hermosa Beach (North Redondo Beach). The primary attractions include Municipal Pier and the sandy beach, popular with tourists and a variety of sports enthusiasts. The western terminus of the Metro Rail Green Line is in North Redondo Beach.


Redondo Beach, 1890

Redondo Beach is the focus of many who want to be in the sun and near the ocean. Although a vibrant community in its own right, much of the Redondo Beach lifestyle is a blend of the neighborhoods, activities and people of the three Beach Cities of Southern California's South Bay. Like its sister cities of Hermosa Beach and Manhattan Beach, Redondo's key lifestyle draw is the vast beach that links these three cities. Redondo was described as "The Gem Of The Continent" in the Los Angeles Daily Herald on December 22, 1887[10]

Beach lifestyle[edit]

Redondo Beach, 1906

A wide sand beach starts below the bluffs of Palos Verdes in the south (after Torrance Beach) and carries north to the Redondo Pier. The area of the beach that starts in Palos Verdes is known as "RAT (Right After Torrance) Beach." A paved path, called The Strand runs from Torrance through South Redondo, north to Hermosa Beach, Manhattan Beach, and eventually to Santa Monica. A typical day on this path will see thousands of people on foot, bicycle, skateboard, roller-blade, wheelchair and stroller enjoying the sun and surf. The continuous path is broken only by the massive Redondo Beach King Harbor Marina and Pier complex, where it veers away from water and onto dedicated lanes of surface streets for about a mile before again turning to the ocean in Hermosa Beach. Continuing north from Manhattan Beach, this path stretches well into Marina Del Rey and beyond with few breaks.

Surfing is a key element of the South Bay lifestyle year-round; it is common to see locals catching waves on both Christmas and New Year's Day. Powerful winter storms in the Pacific ocean can turn typically placid and rolling South Bay waves into large and occasionally dangerous monsters, a natural draw for the local surfing population. Local wave heights in December 2005 were some of the largest on record and were reported to top 15 feet (4.6 m) to 20 feet (6.1 m) in some instances; at least one surfer required resuscitation when he was thrashed against the ocean bottom after trying a particularly large wave.

Beach Volleyball is another important aspect of Redondo Beach's lifestyle. The wide and flat sand beaches provide the perfect venue for the sport and permanent poles and nets are placed and maintained by the city year-round. Professional tournaments managed by the AVP take place in neighboring Hermosa and Manhattan Beach. Redondo Beach is home to Gold Medalist Kerri Walsh and AVP Pro Casey Jennings.

The Redondo Recreation Indoor Men's Volleyball League at Aviation Gym on Wednesday nights is one of the premier indoor recreational volleyball leagues in Southern California where one could play high level volleyball. Former college and professional volleyball athletes participate in this league year round in about four seasons per year.

Currently Redondo Beach is growing in popularity to filming production. In 2006 "Medium" crews were seen shooting at a local coffee shop. Fox's The O.C. was also seen filming at Redondo Union High School, Redondo Beach Pier, and local parks. Also, Redondo Beach was home to the filming of the classic television series, Baywatch.


South Bay Galleria, a shopping mall on the border of Lawndale
Redondo Beach's borders

Redondo Beach is often divided into two logical North/South areas with 190th, Anita, and Herondo streets forming its east-west boundary line. South Redondo plays host to the pier and marina/harbor complex and directly borders active Hermosa Beach; life on the ocean side of Pacific Coast Highway (PCH) can be frenetic with restaurants and boating activities keeping people active and engaged at all times. Inland of PCH is largely residential.

Bordering North/South Redondo at the Marina is the massive AES power plant, which has been the source of substantial political debate in the city over the last decade, largely centered over what to do with the land once the plant becomes inactive over the next 25 years (subject to change and compromise).[11][12] This power plant sports Whaling Wall number 31, a 586 ft (179 m) × 95 ft (29 m) whale mural by world-famous artist Robert Wyland titled "Gray Whale Migration".

The small business district near the pier and marina was revived in the 1990s by beachgoers and new residents wanted to sell beachwear and surfing accessories. That district was once focused on fishing and canning when the pier was used to transport fish-based foodstuffs and canned fish to American and Asian consumers, but that industry had an economic downfall in the 1970s and 1980s.

South Redondo is a bit more on the gentrified, quiet side. Its wide streets, wide sand beaches and laid-back feel make it a prime destination for those seeking a "bike to the grocery store" community. Several close-knit neighborhoods exist; South Broadway hosts street parties in the summer where children play on jumping gyms and the local Fire Department judges the best dessert contest while kids climb their pumper truck. The Main Library is located in the Civic Center.

North Redondo begins north of 190th Street. As a result of Redondo Beach's geography, North Redondo is primarily an inland experience as the beachfronts form most of Hermosa Beach and part of Manhattan Beach. While primarily residential, North Redondo contains some of the city's major industry and commercial space, including the inland aerospace and engineering firms that are part of Southern California's long space legacy. It is also home to the South Bay Galleria shopping center and a revitalized Artesia Boulevard. North Redondo is the home of the Redondo Beach Performing Arts Center, one of the South Bay's premier cultural facilities, and home to the Los Angeles Ballet, Distinguished Speaker Series, Kala Koa Entertainment, and a diverse range of other cultural and entertainment events. The North Branch of the Redondo Beach Library serves this area. North Redondo is home to nearly two-thirds of the children in Redondo Beach.

Many original homes still stand in Redondo Beach neighborhoods, but these small Arts and Crafts style homes are quickly being bought, demolished and rebuilt to match the tastes of the modern, more affluent buyer that makes South Bay their home. Zoning allows properties within two to three blocks of the beach to be developed as large two to three-unit luxury townhomes; inland areas are more likely to have single-family homes. There is a citywide height limit of 32 ft (9.8 m) for new homes; unlike Manhattan Beach, Redondo allows rooftop living spaces and decks.

Redondo Breakwall is a well-known surf spot in the South Bay.

Other activities[edit]

A revitalized downtown area affectionately termed "Riviera Village" (named so after the Hollywood Riviera, which is the area it is in) provides locals an opportunity to eat, shop and commune in a quiet atmosphere. Since 2004 several new or newly renovated restaurants have made a positive impact on local options for an on-the-town experience. Downtown also supports a number of independent boutiques and shops specializing in clothing and fashion, as well as at least three wine-tasting galleries. This downtown area is in South Redondo west of PCH between Avenue I and Palos Verdes Blvd.

The Marina, Harbor and Pier complexes are large, planned centers of activity that host Korean seafood restaurants, touristy bars, smaller shops and a games arcade. The pier is a common spot for anglers to cast for a local catch; many residents of inland Los Angeles drive to Redondo Beach to take advantage of the long and unique shape of this pier. The adjacent Marina, located just north of the Pier, is home to another half-dozen restaurants, a seafood shop, and a pub with almost 100 beers on tap. The large, monolithic concrete structures that make up the pier and harbor area stand in stark contrast to the venerable cozy feel of the rest of the South Bay's neighborhood-style street front architecture; the city continues to consider options for the area as new entertainment and dining chooses to locate in other areas of the Beach Cities.


According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[13] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees  % of Total City Employment
1 Northrop Grumman 5,827 16.15%
2 Redondo Beach Unified School District 1,100 3.05%
3 Beach Cities Health District 620 1.72%
4 City of Redondo Beach 487 1.35%
5 Nordstrom 363 1.01%
6 Crowne Plaza 339 0.94%
7 The Cheesecake Factory 261 0.72%
8 DHL Global Forwarding 244 0.68%
9 Target 217 0.60%
10 Macy's 208 0.58%

Cost of living[edit]

According to public data from the Los Angeles Times, real estate prices increased almost 20% per year between 1999 and 2005. Properties within short walking distance of the ocean routinely sell for well over $1 million. Those with direct, unhindered views routinely ask in excess of $2 million. Money Magazine ranks communities in the area as some of the most expensive places to live in the U.S. The average three-bed, two-bath home costs about $1,000,000 in South Redondo as of 2006 and $875,000 in North Redondo. The 2007 "credit meltdown" has affected home values in the area to a lesser extent than the rest of Southern California.

Redondo Beach Pier, 1991
Redondo Beach Pier, 1991


Redondo Beach is located at 33°51′23″N 118°22′37″W / 33.85639°N 118.37694°W / 33.85639; -118.37694 (33.856514, -118.377081).[14]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.2 square miles (16.1 km²), over 99% of it land.

Redondo Beach was originally part of the 1784 Rancho San Pedro Spanish land grant of the 43,000-acre (170 km2) Dominguez Rancho that later became the ten-mile (16 km) Ocean frontage of Rancho Sausal Redondo.


The Chowigna Indians used the site of today's "Wilderness Park" in Redondo Beach, California as a lookout place.[15] The wetlands located at the site of today's AES power plant in Redondo Beach were a source of foods including halibut, lobster, and sea bass, and also of salt.[16] In the 1700s, the Chowigna bartered salt from the old Redondo Salt Lake, "a spring-fed salt lake about 200 yards wide and 600 yards long situated about 200 yards from the ocean", with other tribes.[17] Their village by the lake was called "Onoova-nga", or "Place of Salt." The Chowigna were relocated to missions in 1854, when Manuel Dominguez sold 215 acres of Rancho San Pedro, including the lake, to Henry Allanson and William Johnson for the Pacific Salt Works.[12][17][18]


Redondo Beach Pier


The 2010 United States Census[19] reported that Redondo Beach had a population of 66,748. The population density was 10,751.1 people per square mile (4,151.0/km²). The racial makeup of Redondo Beach was 49,805 (74.6%) White (65.2% Non-Hispanic White),[20] 1,852 (2.8%) African American, 291 (0.4%) Native American, 8,004 (12.0%) Asian, 199 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 2,725 (4.1%) from other races, and 3,872 (5.8%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,142 persons (15.2%).

The Census reported that 66,317 people (99.4% of the population) lived in households, 367 (0.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 64 (0.1%) were institutionalized.

There were 29,011 households, out of which 7,825 (27.0%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 12,507 (43.1%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,515 (8.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 1,207 (4.2%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,904 (6.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 179 (0.6%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 9,252 households (31.9%) were made up of individuals and 2,145 (7.4%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29. There were 16,229 families (55.9% of all households); the average family size was 2.94.

The population was spread out with 12,887 people (19.3%) under the age of 18, 4,198 people (6.3%) aged 18 to 24, 23,149 people (34.7%) aged 25 to 44, 19,532 people (29.3%) aged 45 to 64, and 6,982 people (10.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males.

There were 30,609 housing units at an average density of 4,930.2 per square mile (1,903.6/km²), of which 14,917 (51.4%) were owner-occupied, and 14,094 (48.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.9%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.3%. 36,796 people (55.1% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 29,521 people (44.2%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Redondo Beach had a median household income of $98,916, with 5.9% of the population living below the federal poverty line.[20]


As of the census[21] of 2000, there were 63,261 people, 28,566 households, and 15,254 families residing in the city. The population density was 10,065.4 inhabitants per square mile (3,889.4/km²). There were 29,543 housing units at an average density of 4,700.6 per square mile (1,816.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 78.62% White, 9.10% Asian, 2.52% African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.35% Pacific Islander, 4.37% from other races, and 4.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.47% of the population.

There were 28,566 households out of which 23.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.6% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the city the population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 43.1% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $93,274, and the median income for a family was $108,753.[22] Males had a median income of $56,796 versus $45,204 for females. The per capita income for the city was $38,305. About 4.0% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over.


Before the beach city housing boom in the 1990s, Redondo Beach's population mirrored much of older communities around Los Angeles. Redondo Beach had generally large numbers of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (esp. Hawaiians and Samoans) for cities with an excess of 50,000 residents. The city has a sizable Native American community, due to the fact that numerous participants in the Bureau of Indian Affairs' relocation programs chose the South Bay area of Los Angeles. Nearby is the El Nido section, briefly a Chicano area before the 1970s.[citation needed]

In the early 1900s, the developing community attracted immigrants, often fishermen and maritime workers of Dutch, Greek, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish descent, who used to have neighborhoods on the city's southern end known as "Clifton" (the county area was incorporated into Redondo Beach in 1976). The community also had its share of Asian American and Latino (Mexican or other Latin American) residents. African Americans encountered few problems on moving into the mixed-race community, especially after the 1950s.


Municipal government[edit]

According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $109.5 million in Revenues, $106.8 million in expenditures, $283.1 million in total assets, $66.3 million in total liabilities, and $79.5 million in cash and investments.[13]

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:[13]

City Department Director
City Manager Joe Hoefgen
Assistant City Manager Michael Witzansky
Chief of Police W. Joseph Leonardi
Fire Chief Robert Metzger
Waterfront and Economic Development Peter Carmichael
Information Technology Director Chris Benson
Community Development Aaron Jones
Interim Director of Recreation, Transit & Community Services Dan Smith
Library Director Susan Anderson
Interim Public Works Director Tim Shea
Financial Services Director Craig Koehler

The Beach Cities Health District,[23] one of 78 California Health Districts,[24] is located in Redondo Beach. Created in 1955, as South Bay Hospital, to provide health and wellness services to the residents of Hermosa Beach, Manhattan Beach, and Redondo Beach. The District took on its current name in 1993. In 2002, Beach Cities Health District opened AdventurePlex,[25] a Manhattan Beach fitness facility for youth and their families of the three beach cities. AdventurePlex has mazes, tunnels, outdoor rock climbing walls, complex ropes courses, and an indoor gymnasium.

State and federal representation[edit]

In the California State Legislature, Redondo Beach is in the 26th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ben Allen, and in the 66th Assembly District, represented by Republican David Hadley.[26]

In the United States House of Representatives, Redondo Beach is in California's 33rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Ted Lieu.[27]

Redondo Beach Police Department[edit]

The Redondo Beach Police Department was established in the 1920s. Today, the Police Department consists of Chief Mel Nichols and 109 sworn members (officers) plus 57 non-sworn members. [28]

Redondo Beach Public Library[edit]


The first library in Redondo Beach began as a reading room in 1895. The first five member Library Commission for the city was formed in November 1908. The library moved into the then City Hall's west wing in 1909 and remained there until 1917 when it filled the entire west wing at 301 Emerald Street. In 1928 the Chamber of Commerce recommended a new library be built on the site previously occupied by the Hotel Redondo in what is now Veterans Park. The Veterans Park Library is a Spanish/Dutch colonial building designed by architect Lovel Bearse Pemberton and opened on July 2, 1930. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. After serving as the Main Library for the city for 60 years, a site adjacent to City Hall was identified for a new, modern Main Library building. The new Main Library for the City of Redondo Beach opened on July 8, 1995 at 303 N. Pacific Coast Highway. A North Branch Library was also established in 1930 and started at the Grant Community Hall, it then moved to its current location at 2000 Artesia Boulevard in 1949. A new North Branch Library was constructed on the site in 2009 and opened its doors on September 28, 2010. The North Branch Library is the first City owned Green building and received Gold LEED certification.[29]


In the 2008 presidential election Barack Obama won 59% of the vote and John McCain won 37% of the vote.[30]


The United States Postal Service operates the Redondo Beach Post Office at 1201 North Catalina Avenue,[31] the Redondo Beach Station #2 Post Office at 1715 Via El Prado,[32] the North Redondo Beach Post Office at 2215 Artesia Boulevard,[33] and the Galleria Post Office at Suite 377D at 1815 Hawthorne Boulevard.[34]

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Torrance Health Center in Harbor Gateway, Los Angeles, near Torrance and serving Redondo Beach.[35]


The Redondo Beach Unified School District serves the city. Redondo Union High School is the zoned high school. The Redondo Beach Educational Foundation[36] was originally founded in 1992 and revitalized in 2008. They fund enrichment programs that include music, science, counseling and college trips.

Notable residents[edit]

In the media[edit]

Songs & videos


  • The television show The O.C. used the beach and pier as a key filming location.[53]
  • The television show Dexter has been filming at the Redondo Pier. (2009)
  • The television show 24 uses the AES power plant in filming many scenes.
  • The television show CSI: Miami has been filmed in Redondo Beach.
  • Three seasons of the television series Riptide were filmed in King Harbor.
  • The television show Even Stevens filmed mall episodes at Redondo Beach's South Bay Galleria. They also used Aviation High School's track field for its outside gym scenes.
  • The '90s television show California Dreams is set in Redondo Beach.
  • A first season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series called "Operation: Annihilate!" had scenes of the planet Deneva, which were filmed at the TRW headquarters in this town.[54]
  • TruTV's show Speeders has made a few appearances in Redondo Beach.
  • Extreme Makeover: Home Edition rebuilt a house for the Ripatti-Pearce family who reside in Redondo Beach.


Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date" (Word). California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Retrieved August 25, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "The Mayor and City Council of the City of Redondo Beach". City of Redondo Beach. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  3. ^ "City Treasurer's". City of Redondo Beach. Retrieved January 26, 2015. 
  4. ^ "The City Clerk's Office". City of Redondo Beach. Retrieved January 13, 2015. 
  5. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer File - Places - California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Redondo Beach". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "Redondo Beach (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 26, 2015. 
  8. ^ "USPS - ZIP Code Lookup - Find a ZIP+ 4 Code By City Results". Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  9. ^ "Number Administration System - NPA and City/Town Search Results". Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  10. ^ "Gem Of The Continent". Los Angeles Daily Herald. Retrieved December 22, 1887. 
  11. ^ Reeves, Rachel (December 10, 2013). "California Energy Commission pays Redondo Beach another visit". Easy Reader News. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  12. ^ a b "AES Power Plant Informational Brief". Building a Better Redondo. 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  13. ^ a b c "City of Redondo Beach CAFR". Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  14. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  15. ^ Lacey, Marc (1992-04-17). "An Urban Oasis : Surrounded by condos sits a place the Chowigna Indians once used as a lookout spot. Today, people go there for an escape. - Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-03-15. 
  16. ^ Brand, Bill. ""Heart Park" Restoring Redondo Beach". The Foggy View, Supplement to the March 2005 Southern Sierran, Sierra Club Palos Verdes - South Bay Group / Angeles Chapter. Retrieved 2014-03-15. 
  17. ^ a b "SOUTH BAY HISTORY: Redondo Beach's salt lake". San Jose Mercury News. 2010-05-20. Retrieved 2014-03-15. 
  18. ^ Welcome to the Redondo Beach Historical Museum: A self-guided tour
  19. ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA - Redondo Beach city". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 
  20. ^ a b  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  22. ^
  23. ^ Beach Cities Health District
  24. ^ List of California Health Districts
  25. ^ AdventurePlex
  26. ^ "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  27. ^ "California's 33rd Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. 
  28. ^
  29. ^ The Redondo Beach Public Library, City of Redondo Beach Library, accessed March 28, 2015.
  30. ^ "Vote Cast By Community and Council District". Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  31. ^ "Post Office Location - REDONDO BEACH." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  32. ^ "Post Office Location - REDONDO BEACH STATION #2." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  33. ^ "Post Office Location - NORTH REDONDO BEACH." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  34. ^ "Post Office Location - GALLERIA." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  35. ^ "Torrance Health Center[dead link]." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  36. ^ "Redondo Beach Educational Foundation is Making an Impact - The Redondo Beach Localista Magazine". 
  37. ^ Enright, Robert. ""No Things But in Ideas: an interview with Allan McCollum", Border Crossings, September 2001, p. 24.
  38. ^ "Amazon Eve official website". 
  39. ^ Harrington, Joe S.,
  40. ^ Carla Esparza at Ultimate Apocalypse
  41. ^ Every, Dale Van and Morris DeHaven Tracy. Charles Lindbergh: His Life. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1927 (reprint 2005). ISBN 1-4179-1884-5, pp. 19–22
  42. ^ Sonic Cool: The Life & Death of Rock 'n' Roll, (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2003), p. 373.
  43. ^ Dinh, Mai; Murphy, Janet. Demi Moore, People, 2008.
  44. ^ The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography, (Houghton Mifflin Reference Books, 2003), p. 987.
  45. ^ Wagner-Martin, Linda; Davidson, Cathy N. The Oxford Book of Women's Writing in the United States (Oxford University Press US, 1999), p. 83.
  46. ^
  47. ^ Ratermann, Dale; Brosi, Brian. 1001 Basketball Trivia Questions, Sports Pub., 1999, p. 54.
  48. ^ NCAA Division II Men's Golf Championships
  49. ^ LEITEREG, NEAL (May 23, 2014). "L.A. Kings' Slava Voynov scores modern home in Redondo Beach". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  50. ^ Claghorn, Charles Eugene. Biographical Dictionary of American Music, (Parker Pub. Co., 1973), p. 411.
  51. ^ "TIFFANY VAN SOEST". Lion Fight Promotions. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  52. ^ Laufenberg, Norbert B. Entertainment Celebrities, (Trafford Publishing, 2005), p. 403.
  53. ^ GJW. "The O.C. Filming Locations". Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  54. ^ Morison, Jeanette. "May I see Your Badge, Mister - Uh, Spock?". The Retirees Association. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  55. ^ "The Hot Chick Filming Locations". Retrieved 2012-06-13. 

External links[edit]