Organized in 1990, Redwood Summer was a movement of environmental activism aimed at protecting old-growthredwood (Sequoia sempervirens) trees from logging by northern California timber companies. The first official protest associated with Redwood Summer took place in June 1990 at the Louisiana Pacific export dock in Samoa California. Beginning that same month logging companies organized "Right to Work Rallies" in support of the timber extraction industry. Redwood Summer is a part of the larger Timber Wars of the 1990s. "Timber Wars" is also the title of a book by Judi Bari documenting the protests over the decade. On May 24, 1990, Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney were driving through Oakland, California when a pipe bomb exploded directly under Bari's driver side seat. They were on a tour to recruit college students for Redwood Summer. Although the history of EarthFirst! had continually been controversial, Bari attempted to make Redwood Summer an act of nonviolent civil disobedience, rather than a flat-out confrontation. Protesters were asked to keep the demonstration free of items that may possible compromise this goal, such as alcohol, drugs, and weapons. Regardless of this intention Bari, and Redwood Summer, faced limited support from other environmental organizations. The Sierra Club refused to participate in the movement reportedly citing insurance and liability concerns. Gail Lucas, who represented The Sierra Club in the matter, denounced Redwood Summer saying it could “generate strong antagonism”. Bari did not feel that Lucas “represent[ed] the people who wrote the Forests Forever initiative, organized the Redwood Summer protests, or filed the grassroots lawsuits.”  EPIC did not criticize the Redwood Summer movement or Earthfirst!, but needed to maintain “Clean hands” should they be involved in a litigation with Maxxam. Despite its cooperative intentions, demonstrations often fueled animosity from timber workers and sparked numerous counter protests. In general, Redwood Summer lived up to its commitment of nonviolence, causing inconvenience to timber workers and slowing logging in demonstration areas. Over the next decade EPIC filled numerous lawsuits against timber companies in the area. Eventually leading to the establishment of Headwaters Forest Reserve.