- "Humuhumunukunukuāpuaa" redirects here. For the Rhinecanthus aculeatus of the same name, see Lagoon triggerfish. For the High School Musical 2 song, see High School Musical 2 (soundtrack).
(Bloch & J. G. Schneider, 1801)
The reef, rectangular, or wedge-tail triggerfish, also known by its Hawaiian name, humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa (pronounced [ˈhumuˈhumuˈnukuˈnukuˈwaːpuˈwɐʔə]), also spelled Humuhumunukunukuapua'a or just humuhumu for short; meaning "fish that grunts like a pig" for the sound it makes when cornered or caught., is one of several species of triggerfish. Classified as Rhinecanthus rectangulus, it is endemic to the salt water coasts of various central and south Pacific Ocean islands. It is often asserted that the Hawaiian name is one of the longest words in the Hawaiian language and that "the name is longer than the fish."
The triggerfish's teeth and top lip are blue and the teeth are set close together inside its relatively chubby mouth, it has a small second spine, which it can use to lock its main spine into an upright position. The triggerfish can wedge itself into small crevices and lock its spine to make it extremely difficult to get out. In addition, when fleeing from predators, the triggerfish will sometimes make grunting noises, possibly a call to warn other nearby triggerfish of danger. One particularly interesting aspect of the fish's behavior is the ability to blow jets of water from its mouth. These jets help the fish find benthic invertebrates that may be buried under the substrate. Triggerfish can often be seen spitting sand from their mouths in order to sift through the material in search of edible detritus or organisms. Reef triggers are fairly aggressive and will generally not tolerate conspecific species in its general vicinity, thus the fish is often found solitary. This is particularly true in captivity. Triggers have the remarkable ability to rapidly alter their coloration. They can fade into a relatively drab appearance when sleeping or demonstrating submission while the coloration is often the most vivid when the fish is healthy and unthreatened by its surrounding.
Hawaii state fish 
The reef triggerfish was originally designated the official fish of Hawaii in 1985, but due to an expiration of a Hawaiian state law after five years, it ceased to be the state fish in 1990. On April 17, 2006, bill HB1982 was presented to the Governor of Hawaiʻi which permanently reinstated the reef triggerfish (humuhumunukunukuapuaʻa) as the state fish of Hawaiʻi. The bill passed into law on May 2, 2006 and was effective upon its approval.
- The Virtual Terrain Project.
- Kidzworld.com Hawaiian Islands - Tropical Vacation
- Waikiki Swim Club - History
- Hawaiian Marine Life Profile - Maui Ocean Center
- Hawaiian Bill 1982 Retrieved 2011-05-17
- "Lawmaker seeks official status for humuhumunukunukuapuaa". USA Today. January 1, 2006. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- HB1982 Measure History
- House Bill
- Hawaii may honor long-named fish - Weird news - MSNBC.com
- "Rhinecanthus rectangulus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 30 January 2006.
- "Marine Life Profile: Reef Triggerfish" (PDF). Waikiki Aquarium. Retrieved 24 November 2011.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2005). "Rhinecanthus rectangulus" in FishBase. December 2005 version.
- "Legislation to permanently establish as Hawaii state fish". Archived from the original on 10 July 2006. Retrieved 28 January 2006.
- "Hawaii may honor fish with long name". Retrieved 18 April 2006.