The sturdy dome of the church incorporates some aspects of ancient Byzantium. The interior decoration of the building was designed by Aleksey Shchusev. The marble icons are in the Neo-Russian style. The paintings in both the refectory and the church, painted in the beginning of the 20th century by Ivan Yizhakevych, G. Popov, among many others, contain a Modernist influence. In the rear of the refectory is viewing area, providing visitors with a panorama of the Near and Far Caverns, the Dnieper River, and the left-bank of the city.
In 1911 following the assassination of Pyotr Stolypin, the Russian politician's funeral service was held in the Refectory church and his grave is located in the Lavra.