|The Reform Club|
|Architectural style||Italian Renaissance|
|Address||104 Pall Mall, London, SW1Y 5EW|
|Design and construction|
|Civil engineer||Samuel Morton Peto, Thomas Grissell|
|Main contractor||Grissell & Peto|
The Reform Club is a private members club on the south side of Pall Mall in central London. Originally for men only, it changed to include the admission of women in 1981. The club enjoys extensive reciprocity with clubs around the world, and attracts significant numbers of foreign members, including diplomats.
The club was founded in 1836 by Edward Ellice, MP for Coventry and Whig Whip, whose riches came from the Hudson's Bay Company but whose zeal was chiefly devoted to securing the passage of the Reform Act 1832. The new club, for members of both Houses of Parliament, was intended to be a centre for the radical ideas which that Bill represented: a bastion of liberal and progressive thought that became closely associated with the Liberal Party, which largely succeeded the Whigs in the later 19th century.
Brooks's Club, the headquarters of the old Whig aristocracy, was neither able nor prepared to open its doors to a flood of new men, so preliminary meetings were held at Ellice's house to plan a much larger club, which would promote 'the social intercourse of the reformers of the United Kingdom'. When a Liberal Member of Parliament 'crossed the floor' to join or work with another party, it was expected he should resign from the club.
The Reform Club's building was designed by renowned architect Sir Charles Barry and contracted to builders Grissell & Peto. Construction began in 1837 and finished in 1841. This new club was palatial, the design being based on the Farnese Palace in Rome, and its saloon is regarded as the finest room of all London clubs. The Reform was among the first senior London clubs to have bedrooms (known as chambers), and its library contains over 75,000 books, mostly of a political, historical and biographical nature; traditionally, members donate a copy of any book they write to the club's library, ever increasing its stock.
Until the decline of the Liberal Party in the early 20th century, it was de rigueur for Liberal MPs and Peers to be members of the Reform Club, being regarded as an unofficial party headquarters. However, the National Liberal Club, formed under William Ewart Gladstone's chairmanship, was established in 1882, designed to be more "inclusive", and was geared more towards Liberal grandees and activists throughout the country.
After World War II and with the Liberal Party's decline, the club increasingly drew its membership from civil servants in particular those from the Treasury, whereas the neighbouring Travellers Club became synonymous with Foreign Office officials.
The club maintains a comprehensive list of guest speakers and musical ensembles throughout the year — for example, Nick Clegg and Theresa May (2011), Archbishop John Sentamu (2012), and Ambassadors Liu Xiaoming (2013) and Dr Alexander Yakovenko (2014).
Today the Club no longer represents any particular political view, being a purely social venue.
Besides having had many notable members from the literary world, including Thackeray and Arnold Bennett, the Reform played a role in some significant events, such as the feud between Oscar Wilde's friend and literary executor Robbie Ross and Wilde's ex-lover Lord Alfred Douglas. In 1913, Ross, having discovered that Douglas had taken lodgings in the same house as himself with a view to stealing his papers, took refuge at the Club, from which address he wrote to Edmund Gosse, saying that he felt obliged to return to his rooms "with firearms". Ross himself was elected a member in 1899, and it was also here that he had lunch with Wilde's son Cyril, only a few years before the latter was killed in action during the First World War.
Harold Owen, the brother of Wilfred Owen, called on Siegfried Sassoon at the Reform after Wilfred's death, and Sassoon himself wrote a poem entitled "Lines Written at the Reform Club", which was printed for member at Christmas 1920. Wilfred Owen, though not himself a member, lunched at the Club several times in the company of Sassoon and Roderick Meiklejohn.
Appearances in popular culture and literature
The Reform Club appears in Anthony Trollope's novel Phineas Finn (1867). This eponymous main character becomes a member of the club and there acquaints Liberal members of the House of Commons, who arrange to get him elected to an Irish parliamentary borough. The book is one of the political novels in the Palliser series, and the political events it describes are a fictionalized account of the build-up to the Second Reform Act (passed in 1867) which effectively extended the franchise to the working classes.
The club also appears in Jules Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days; the protagonist, Phileas Fogg, is a member of the Reform Club who sets out to circumnavigate the world on a bet from his fellow members, beginning and ending at the club.
Michael Palin, following his fictional predecessor, also began and ended his televised journey around the world in 80 days at the Reform Club. The Club, like other senior London clubs, has a dress code requiring gentlemen to wear a jacket and tie; Palin preferred to remain casually dressed and, not having prepared himself properly, he was not permitted to enter the building to complete his journey as had been his intention, so his trip ended on the steps outside.
Victorian publisher Norman Warne is shown visiting the Reform Club in the 2006 film Miss Potter.
The club has been used as a location in a number of films, including the fencing scene in the 2002 James Bond movie Die Another Day., "The Quiller Memorandum" (1966), "The Man Who Haunted Himself" (1970), Lindsay Anderson's "O Lucky Man!" (1973), "The Avengers" (1998), "Nicholas Nickleby" (2003), "Quantum of Solace" (2008) and "Sherlock Holmes" (2009).
The Reform Club was used as a meeting place for MI operatives in Part 3, Chapter 1, p. 83ff of Graham Greene's spy novel "The Human Factor" (1978, Avon Books, ISBN 0-380-41491-0).
- John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
- Dr Donald Adamson
- Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith
- Sir David Attenborough
- William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp
- Hilaire Belloc
- Arnold Bennett
- Charles Booth
- Dame Margaret Booth
- Baroness Boothroyd
- Mihir Bose
- John Bright
- Michael Brown, former Conservative MP
- Guy Burgess
- Donald Cameron of Lochiel
- Sir Menzies Campbell
- Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
- Joseph Chamberlain
- Sir Winston Churchill, who resigned in 1913 in protest at the blackballing of a friend, Baron de Forest
- Richard Cobden
- Professor Martin Daunton
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
- Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
- Baroness Dean of Thornton-le-Fylde
- Sir Charles Dilke
- John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham
- Edward Ellice
- Lord Falconer
- Dr Garret FitzGerald
- Edward Morgan Forster
- William Ewart Gladstone
- Baroness Greengross
- Sir William Harcourt
- Lord Hattersley
- Friedrich Hayek
- Sir Michael Howard
- Sir Bernard Ingham
- Sir Henry Irving
- Henry James
- Sir John Jardine
- Lord Jenkins of Hillhead
- William, Earl Jowitt
- Ruth Lea
- David Lloyd George, who resigned with Churchill over Baron de Forest's blackballing
- Professor Sir Ravinder Maini
- Dame Mary Marsh
- Lord Morgan
- Sir Derek Morris
- Baroness Nicholson
- Lord Noel-Buxton
- Daniel O'Connell
- Barry Edward O'Meara
- Viscount Palmerston
- Dame Stella Rimington
- Frederick Robinson, 2nd Marquess of Ripon
- Bertram Fletcher Robinson
- Brian Roper
- Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery
- Viscount Runciman
- Lord John Russell
- Beppe Severgnini
- Viscount Simon
- Sir Martin Sorrell
- Very Rev Victor Stock
- Sir Edward Sullivan
- Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
- Professor Alan M. Taylor
- Dame Kiri Te Kanawa
- William Makepeace Thackeray
- Jeremy Thorpe
- Sir David Walker
- H. G. Wells
- Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster
- Dame Jo Williams
- Dr Tony Wright, former Labour MP
- "Pall Mall; Clubland Old and New London: Volume 4 (pp. 140-164)". british-history.ac.uk. 2003-06-22. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Walker, Tim (18 October 2011). "Polly Toynbee's man makes a meal of his expenses". Telegraph. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Maureen Borland, Wilde's Devoted Friend: a Life of Robert Ross (1990), p201
- Christian Major, "Sassoon's London: the Reform Club", Siegfried's Journal, no 12 (July 2007), pp 5-13
- Russell Burlingham & Roger Billis, Reformed Characters: The Reform Club in History and Literature (2005), p34
- Lejeune, Anthony, with Malcolm Lewis, The Gentlemen's Clubs of London, Bracken Books, London, 1979 (reprinted 1984 and 1987), ISBN 0-946495-14-9
- Burlingham, Russell & Billis, Roger (eds), Reformed Characters. The Reform Club in History and Literature. An Anthology with Commentary (London, 2005)
- Woodbridge, George, The Reform Club 1836–1978. A History from the Club's Records (London, 1978)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reform Club.|
- Reform Club website
- Survey of London's entry on the Club
- "The Reform Club: Architecture and the Birth of Popular Government", lecture by Peter Marsh and Paul Vonberg at Gresham College, 25 September 2007 (available for MP3 and MP4 download)
- Reform Club library pamphlets
- Mary Evans Picture Library - The Club's collection of caricatures
- CBC.CA Paul Kennedy's audio tour of the Club, broadcast in February 2011