Reformed Political Party

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Reformed Political Party
Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij
Leader Kees van der Staaij
Chairman Adri van Heteren
Leader in the Senate Gerrit Holdijk
Leader in the House of Representatives Kees van der Staaij
Leader in the European Parliament Bas Belder
Founded 24 April 1918
Headquarters Burgemeester van Reenensingel 101 Gouda
Youth wing Reformed Political Party Youth
Thinktank Guido de Brès-Foundation (nl)
Ideology Christian right[1]
Social conservatism[1]
Theocracy[2]
Euroscepticism[3]
Political position Right-wing[4] to Far-right[3]
Religion Calvinism
Evangelicalism[1]
European Parliament group Europe of Freedom and Democracy
Colours Blue and Orange
Seats in the Senate
1 / 75
Seats in the House of Representatives
3 / 150
States-Provincial
12 / 566
Seats in the European Parliament
1 / 26
Website
www.sgp.nl
(Offline on Sunday)
Politics of Netherlands
Political parties
Elections

The Reformed Political Party (Dutch: Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij, SGP) is an orthodox Protestant Calvinist[2][5][6][7][8][9][10] political party in the Netherlands. The term Reformed is not a reference to political reform, but is a synonym for Calvinism. The SGP is the oldest political party in the Netherlands in its current form, and has for its entire existence been in opposition. The party has, owing to its orthodox political ideals and its refusal to cooperate in any cabinet, been called a testimonial party.

Party history[edit]

Foundation[edit]

The SGP was founded on 24 April 1918, by several conservative members of the Protestant Anti Revolutionary Party (ARP). They did not support the female suffrage, which the ARP had made possible. Furthermore they were against the alliance the ARP had formed with the General League of Roman Catholic Caucuses. The party entered in the 1918 general elections, but was unable to win any seats. The leading figure in the party's foundation was Yerseke minister Gerrit Hendrik Kersten.

1922–1945[edit]

In the 1922 election the party entered Parliament. In this period the SGP became most noted for proposing to abolish the Dutch representation at the Holy See during each annual parliamentary debate on the budget of the ministry of foreign affairs. Each year the Protestant Christian Historical Union (CHU) voted in favour. The CHU was in cabinet with the Catholic General League, but many of its members and supporters still had strong feelings against the Catholic Church. In 1925 the left-wing opposition composed of the Free-thinking Democratic League and Social Democratic Workers' Party voted in favour of the motion. They were indifferent to the representation at the Holy See, but saw this as a possibility to divide the confessional cabinet. And indeed the cabinet fell over this issue, in what is known as the Nacht van Kersten (Night of Kersten).

In the subsequent elections, the party won one seat, and in the 1929 election the party won another. It remained stable in the 1933 elections but lost one seat in the 1937 elections in which ARP prime minister Hendrikus Colijn performed particularly well. During the Second World War, Kersten cooperated with the Nazi occupiers to allow his paper, the Banier, to be printed, and condemned the resistance. After the war, he was not allowed to return to the House of Representatives.

1945–present[edit]

Kees van der Staaij, current member of parliament and party leader

Kersten was succeeded by Pieter Zandt (nl), under whose leadership the SGP was very stable, continually getting 2% of votes. In 1956 the SGP profited from the enlargement of parliament, and it got a seat in the Senate, which the party lost in 1960, but regained in 1971. In 1961 Zandt died and was succeeded by engineer Cor van Dis sr. (nl) After ten years he stood down in favour of minister Hette Abma, who also stepped down after ten years, in favour of engineer Henk van Rossum. In 1984 the SGP joined the two other orthodox Protestant parties Reformatory Political Federation (RPF) and the Reformed Political League (GPV) in order to gain one seat in the European Parliament, it was taken by SGP engineer Van der Waal. In 1986 Van Rossum was succeeded by Bas van der Vlies, who led the party till March 2010, when he was succeeded by Kees van der Staaij. In 1994 the party lost one seat in parliament, which it regained in 1998 but lost again in 2002. After the general election of 2003, the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) held talks with the SGP — the first time in recent history that the SGP was seriously considered as a possible coalition partner. Ultimately, the Democrats 66 joined the Second Balkenende cabinet instead of the SGP, mostly because of the ideological differences between VVD and SGP.

On 7 September 2005 the district court of The Hague judged that the party could no longer receive subsidies from the government, because women were not allowed to hold positions in the party. This was found to be a violation of the 1981 UN Treaty on Women in which the Netherlands committed to fighting discrimination. It also was a violation of the first article of the Dutch constitution, the principle of non-discrimination. The Dutch Council of State overturned the decision nevertheless, maintaining that a party's political philosophy takes precedence, and that women have the opportunity to join other political parties where they can obtain a leadership role.[11]

Female members of the Reformed Political Party Youth (SGPJ), which does allow female membership, said however that they did not feel discriminated or repressed. During a party congress on 24 June 2006, the SGP lifted the ban on female membership. Political positions inside and outside the party are open to women. The party supports mixed lists for elections. According to preliminary results as of 20 March 2014, the first female SGP delegate was elected to the Vlissingen municipal council.[12]

Ideology and issues[edit]

SGP Jongeren

As a radical Protestant conservative party, the SGP draws much from its ideology from the reformed tradition, specifically the Three Principles of Unity and the old text of the Belgic Confession (Nederlandse Geloofsbelijdenis). The latter text is explicitly mentioned in the first principle of the party,[13] where it is stated that the SGP strives towards a government totally based on the Bible. This first principle also states that the uncut version of the Belgic Confession is meant, which adds the task of opposing anti-Christian powers to the description of the government's roles and tasks.[14] The party is a strict defender of the separation between church and state,[15] rejecting "both the state church and church state". Both church and state are believed to have distinct roles in society, while working towards the same goal, but despite this, the SGP advocates theocracy.[16] The SGP opposes freedom of religion, but advocates freedom of conscience instead, noting that "obedience to the law of God cannot be forced".[17][page needed]

The SGP opposes feminism, and concludes, on Biblical grounds, that men and women are of equal value (gelijkwaardig) but not equal (gelijk).[18] Men and women, so the party claims, have different places in society. This belief led to restricting party membership to men until 2006, when this restriction became subject to controversy[19] and was eventually removed.[20][page needed]

The chances of the party being elected into a government are very slim. Nevertheless, the party uses its opposition seats in parliament to express its principles. The party is therefore called a testimonial party.

In controversial discussions in the Dutch House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer), the SGP often stresses the importance of the rule of law, parliamentary procedure and rules of order, regardless of ideological agreement. The party favours the re-introduction of the death penalty in the Netherlands. They base this on the Bible, specifically on Genesis 9:6, "Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man," and Exodus 21:12, "He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death."

Internationally the party is comparable to the Swiss Federal Democratic Union, a conservative Protestant party. It is also similar to the American Christian right.

In Scandinavia, the Faroese Centre Party is an example of a Bible-fundamentalist party.[citation needed] In comparison, the Norwegian Christian People's Party, the Swedish Christian Democrats and Danish Christian Democrats are less orthodox and in line with mainstream European Christian democracy.

Representation[edit]

This is a list of representations of Reformed Political Party in the Dutch parliament, as well as the provincial, municipal and European elections. The party's lijsttrekker has been the same as the fractievoorzitter (parliamentary group leader) of that year in every election.

Year HoR S EP SP Fractievoorzitter Party Chair membership
1919 0 0 n/a 3 none Gerrit Kersten unknown
1920 0 0 n/a 3 none Gerrit Kersten unknown
1921 0 0 n/a 3 none Gerrit Kersten unknown
1922 1 0 n/a 3 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1923 1 0 n/a 8 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1924 1 0 n/a 8 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1925 2 0 n/a 8 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1926 2 0 n/a 8 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1927 2 0 n/a 11 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1928 2 0 n/a 11 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1929 3 0 n/a 11 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1930 3 0 n/a 11 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1931 3 0 n/a 12 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1932 3 0 n/a 12 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1933 3 0 n/a 12 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1934 3 0 n/a 12 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1935 3 0 n/a 13 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1936 3 0 n/a 13 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1937 2 0 n/a 13 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1938 2 0 n/a 13 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1939 2 0 n/a 10 Gerrit Kersten Gerrit Kersten unknown
1940
German Occupation
1941
German Occupation
1942
German Occupation
1943
German Occupation
1944
German Occupation
1945 2 0 n/a 13 Pieter Zandt (nl) Gerrit Kersten 10,000
1946 2 0 n/a 10 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,100
1947 2 0 n/a 10 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,200
1948 2 0 n/a 10 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,300
1949 2 0 n/a 10 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,400
1950 2 0 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,600
1951 2 0 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,700
1952 2 0 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,750
1953 2 0 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,800
1954 2 0 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,800
1955 2 0 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,850
1956 3 1 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 10,900
1957 3 1 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 11,000
1958 3 1 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 11,500
1959 3 1 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 12,000
1960 3 0 n/a 11 Pieter Zandt Pieter Zandt 12,300
1961 3 0 n/a 11 Cor van Dis sr. (nl) Hette Abma (nl) 12,600
1962 3 0 n/a 12 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 13,000
1963 3 0 n/a 12 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 13,400
1964 3 0 n/a 12 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 13,700
1965 3 0 n/a 12 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 14,000
1966 3 0 n/a 11 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 14,300
1967 3 0 n/a 11 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 14,700
1968 3 0 n/a 11 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 15,000
1969 3 0 n/a 11 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 15,200
1970 3 0 n/a 16 Cornelis van Dis Hette Abma 15,400
1971 3 1 n/a 16 Hette Abma Hette Abma 15,700
1972 3 1 n/a 16 Hette Abma Hette Abma 16,000
1973 3 1 n/a 16 Hette Abma Hette Abma 16,700
1974 3 1 n/a 15 Hette Abma Hette Abma 17,000
1975 3 1 n/a 15 Hette Abma Hette Abma 17,500
1976 3 1 n/a 15 Hette Abma Hette Abma 18,200
1977 3 1 n/a 15 Hette Abma Hette Abma 18,700
1978 3 1 n/a 13 Hette Abma Hette Abma 19,500
1979 3 1 0 13 Hette Abma Hette Abma 20,100
1980 3 1 0 13 Hette Abma Hette Abma 20,300
1981 3 1 0 13 Henk van Rossum (nl) Hette Abma 20,500
1982 3 1 0 15+3* Henk van Rossum Hette Abma 20,800
1983 3 2 0 15+3* Henk van Rossum Hette Abma 21,200
1984 3 2 1 15+3* Henk van Rossum Hette Abma 21,400
1985 3 2 1 15+3* Henk van Rossum D. Slagboom 21,500
1986 3 2 1 15+3* Bas van der Vlies D. Slagboom 21,936
1987 3 1 1 15+3* Bas van der Vlies D. Slagboom 22,235
1988 3 1 1 15+3* Bas van der Vlies D. Slagboom 22,467
1989 3 1 1 15+3* Bas van der Vlies D. Slagboom 23,000
1990 3 1 1 15+3* Bas van der Vlies D. Slagboom 23,062
1991 3 2 1 17+5* Bas van der Vlies D. Slagboom 23,158
1992 3 2 1 17+5* Bas van der Vlies W.Chr. Hovius 23,665
1993 3 2 1 17+5* Bas van der Vlies W.Chr. Hovius 23,700
1994 2 2 1 17+5* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 23,728
1995 2 2 1 19+4* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 23,600
1996 2 2 1 19+4* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 23,865
1997 2 2 1 19+4* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 23,800
1998 3 2 1 19+4* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 23,800
1999 3 2 1 22+6* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 23,860
2000 3 2 1 22+6* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 25,045
2002 2 2 1 22+6* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 25,630
2003 2 2 1 19+5* Bas van der Vlies D.J. Budding 25,850
2004 2 2 1 19+5* Bas van der Vlies Adri van Heteren 25,700
2005 2 2 1 19+5* Bas van der Vlies Adri van Heteren 25,900
2006 2 2 1 19+5* Bas van der Vlies Adri van Heteren 26,400
2007 2 2 1 14+3* Bas van der Vlies Adri van Heteren 26,400
2010 2 2 1 14+3* Kees van der Staaij Adri van Heteren 27,196
2011 2 1 1 14+3* Kees van der Staaij Adri van Heteren ?
2012 3 1 1 12 Kees van der Staaij Adri van Heteren 28,983
* in combined ChristianUnion/SGP parliamentary parties (estimated).
In 2007, the total number of seats for election in the provincial elections was reduced. Proportionally, the party went from 2,51% to 2,39% in that year, and the combined list from 0,77% to 0,88%.
Source: nlverkiezingen.com

House of Representatives[edit]

Since the 2012 elections the party has had three representatives in the House of Representatives:

Senate[edit]

Since the 2011 Senate elections, the party has had one representative in the Senate:

European Parliament[edit]

Since the 1984 European Parliament election the party has one elected representative in the European Parliament. From 1984 to 1997 Leen van der Waal was the representative, from 1999 until now Bas Belder is the party's representative. In the European elections, the SGP formed one parliamentary party with the ChristianUnion, called ChristenUnion-SGP. It was part of the Independence/Democracy (Ind/Dem) European parliamentary group. Following the results of the 2009 European Parliament elections, the Ind/Dem group was disbanded. The SGP is now part of the Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) European parliamentary group:

Municipal and provincial government[edit]

Provincial government[edit]

In provincial governments, the party participates in the Zeeland provincial executive.[21] There, the party is the strongest, with over 10% of the vote. It has 12 members of provincial legislature.

The table below shows the election results of the 2011 provincial election in each province. It shows the areas where the Reformed Political Party is strong, namely in the Dutch bible belt: a band from Zeeland, via parts of South Holland and Utrecht, Gelderland to Overijssel.

Province Votes (%) Result (seats)
Drenthe ? 0
Flevoland ? 1
Friesland* ? 0
Gelderland ? 2
Groningen ? 0
Limburg ? 0
North Brabant* ? 0
North Holland* ? 0
Overijssel ? 2
South Holland ? 2
Utrecht ? 1
Zeeland ? 4

* result of combined ChristianUnion/SGP lists. ** members of the SGP (estimate) in combined ChristianUnion/SGP parliamentary parties.

Municipal government[edit]

5 of the 414 mayors of the Netherlands are member of the SGP,[22] and the party participates in several local executives, usually in municipalities located within the Dutch Bible Belt. The party has 40 aldermen and 244 members of local legislature. In many municipalities where the SGP is weaker, it cooperates with the ChristenUnie, presenting common lists.

Electorate[edit]

Areas where the Political Reformed Party received a significant amount of votes in 2003, largely coextensive with the Dutch Bible Belt.

The SGP has a very stable electorate, varying between 2 and 3 seats. The party has been called “an almost perfect illustration of Duverger's category of “fossilized” minor party.”[23] Most of its electorate is formed by so-called "bevindelijk gereformeerden", Reformed Christians for whom personal religious experience is very important. This group is formed by several smaller churches such as the Christian Reformed Churches, Reformed Parishes, Old Reformed Church, as well as the conservative wing of the Dutch Reformed Church, the Reformed League.

The SGP's support is concentrated geographically in the Dutch bible belt, a band of reformed municipalities ranging from Zeeland in the South via Goeree-Overflakkee and the Alblasserwaard in South Holland and the Veluwe in Gelderland to the Western part of Overijssel, around Staphorst. The SGP is also very strong on the former island Urk. The party scored absolute majorities in the several villages in Uddel, even 65.2% of the vote.

Organization[edit]

Organizational structure[edit]

The highest organ of the SGP is the congress, which is formed by delegates from the municipal branches. It convenes once every year. It appoints the party board and decides the order of the Senate, House of Representatives, European Parliament candidates list and has the last say over the party program. The SGP chairman is always a minister. Since 2001 this position is ceremonial, as the general chair leads the party's organization.

The party has 245 municipal branches and has a provincial federation in each province, except for Limburg.

Linked organisations[edit]

The party publishes the Banner two-weekly since 1921. The scientific institute of the party is called the Guido de Brès-foundation (nl), which publishes the magazine Zicht (Sight). The youth organisation of the SGP is called the Reformed Political Party Youth (SGPJ), which with its approximately 12,000 members is the largest political youth organization in the Netherlands.[citation needed]

The SGP participates in the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, a democracy assistance organisation of seven Dutch political parties.

Pillarized organisations[edit]

The SGP still has close links with several other orthodox Protestant organizations, such as several reformed churches and the newspaper Reformatorisch Dagblad. Together they form a small but strong orthodox-reformed pillar.

Relationships to other parties[edit]

Until 1963 the SGP was relatively isolated in parliament. The strongly antipapal SGP refused to cooperate with Catholic People's Party or the secularists (the conservative-liberal VVD and the social-democratic PvdA). The larger Protestant ARP had some sympathy for the party, but cooperated tightly with the KVP and the Protestant CHU. In 1963 another orthodox Protestant party, the GPV entered parliament, in 1981 they were joined by the RPF. Together these three parties formed the "Small Christian parties". They shared the same orthodox Protestant political ideals and had the same political strategy, as testimonial parties. They cooperated in municipalities, both in municipal executives, where the parties were strong, as well as in common municipal parties, where the parties were weak. In the 1984 European election the parties presented a common list and they won one seat in parliament. After 1993 the cooperation between the GPV and the RPF intensified, but the SGP's position at the time on female suffrage prevented the SGP joining this closer cooperation. However, in 2000 the GPV and RPF fused to form the ChristianUnion (CU). Traditionally the SGP and the CU worked together closely as they were both based on Protestant Christian politics. Recently however, as the CU has moved more towards the centre-left,[citation needed] discernible differences of philosophy between the SGP and CU have caused the parties to join together in elections. The most notable example was the 2011 senate election where the SGP and CU did not combine their votes.[24]

Prime Minister Mark Rutte's first government depended on the SGP's support in the Senate to pass legislation where it fell one seat short of a majority in the 2011 election.[25] As a result, the party was able to achieve a number of its own political objectives: continuing child support for larger families,[26] restricting business hours on Sundays[27] and restricting gays rights education in public schools.[28]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe". EU: Parties & elections. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  2. ^ a b Wejnert, Barbara (26 July 2010). Democratic Paths and Trends. Emerald. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-0-85724-091-0. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Far-right MEPs form group in European Parliament". EurActiv. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  4. ^ Score 8.0/10 in 2003 Chapel Hill expert survey, see Hooghe et al. (2003) Chapel Hill Survey
  5. ^ Third Way. Hymns Ancient & Modern. 29 June 1978. pp. 13–. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Political Systems Of The World. Allied. pp. 119–. ISBN 978-81-7023-307-7. Retrieved 19 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Bader, Veit (15 February 2008). Secularism or Democracy?: Associational Governance of Religious Diversity. Amsterdam University Press. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-90-5356-999-3. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  8. ^ Norris, Pippa (9 October 1997). Passages to Power: Legislative Recruitment in Advanced Democracies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-0-521-59908-5. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  9. ^ van Outeren, Emilie (2010-04-13). "Forcing a party to accept women easier said than done". Archief. NL: NRC. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  10. ^ Almeida, Dimitri (23 April 2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. CRC Press. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-1-136-34039-0. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  11. ^ "SGP will get subsidy after all". Expatica. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2007. 
  12. ^ "SGP-vrouw komt in raad Vlissingen". NOS. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  13. ^ SGP 2003, p. 11.
  14. ^ SGP 2003, p. 16.
  15. ^ SGP 2003, p. 17.
  16. ^ Dölle 2005, p. 104.
  17. ^ SGP 2003.
  18. ^ SGP 2003, p. 37.
  19. ^ "Party penalised for woman snub". BBC. 7 September 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2007. 
  20. ^ Davies 2006.
  21. ^ College van Gedeputeerde Staten van Zeeland. "Nieuwe Verbindingen" (PDF) (in Dutch). Provincie Zeeland. Retrieved 14 October 2007. 
  22. ^ "Landelijk overzicht burgemeestersposten" (in Dutch). Dutch Ministry of Internal Affairs. Retrieved 14 October 2007. 
  23. ^ Bone, Robert C, "The Dynamics of Dutch Politics", The Journal of Politics 24 (1): 43 
  24. ^ "Christeunie en SGP latig door". Mededeling (announcement). Radio Netherlands Worldwide. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  25. ^ "Netherlands: Caught between Geert Wilders and holy joes". EU: Presseurop. 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  26. ^ "Dutch government U-turn on child benefit". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 2011-09-19. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  27. ^ "Press Review". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 2011-04-22. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  28. ^ "Compulsory gay education in Dutch schools?". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]