|Color of berry skin||Noir|
Refosco is a very old Italian family of dark-skinned grape varieties native to the northern Italian and neighbouring areas of Friuli, Gavi, Trentino, Istria, and Karst Plateau. It is considered autochthonous in these regions.
The wines this grape yields can be quite powerful and tannic, with a deep violet color and a slight bitterness. On the palate, there are strong currant, wild berry and plum flavors. The wine can stand some aging (depending on variety), and after a period of four-to-ten years, it achieves a floral quality as well. Refosco should be served at 16 °C (60.8 °F), or if it is particularly rich in tannin, at 18 °C (64.4 °F). It goes best with charcuterie, game, and grilled poultry.
- Refosco dal peduncolo rosso - probably the most internationally recognizable refosco wine. Cluster has the red stalk (peduncle), referring to the red stem that holds the grapes to the vine. In the attempt of making the wine more approachable to an international palate, recent versions have taken well to new oak and cold fermentation. The most well known examples of Refosco come from the Colli Orientali region of Friuli.
- Refosco d'Istria (Refosko Istriano or Refosco dal pedunculo verde) - this variety is grown in Slovenian and Croatian parts of Istria, and around Trieste in Italy under the name of Refošk or Refosco d'Istria. This wine does not benefit from protracted aging.
- Teran or Terrano - this refosko variety (and wine) is typical for Carso DOC and Slovenian Karst region under the name Teranno Carso or Kraški teran respectively. It is also grown in Croatian Istria on a very similar red soil under the name Istarski Teran. Some claim that Teran is just other refosko varieties grown on Terra Rossa, while others consider it its own variety.
- Refosco di Faedis - a variety cultivated in Faedis region, Torreano di Cividale, Povoletto, Attimis, Nimis in northeast region of Province of Udine. It is very rare and produced in small quantities. It is said to be the parent of all other refosko grapes in the region as it has many characteristics of all other refosco varieties (including high levels of acids and iron typical for Teran) 
- Refosco di Rauscedo 
- Refosco nostrano 
- Refoscone  - some claim that this is just Refosco di Fadeis.
Origin and History 
The Refosco family have a very long history, but details of the early history are not clear. DNA analysis of Refosco dal Pedunculo Rosso has revealed Marzemino, another ancient variety of northern Italy, as one of its parents.
Some authorities have previously suggested that Mondeuse noire, which is primarily found in the Savoy region in eastern France, is identical to Refosco dal Pedunculo Rosso due to the similarity of the wines. DNA analysis has shown that this is not the case, and that the two varieties are unrelated.
Several oenologists believe that wines made from Refosco family grapes are the old Roman puccinum. The grapes were well known in antiquity and a variety of Refosco wine was praised by the Roman writer Pliny the Elder in the first century for its quality. In his work Naturalis Historia he mentioned that puccinum was made of grapes grown in the north Adriatic near the spring of Timavo - a typical Karst river:
- ... This is the Region of the Carni, joining that of Japides : the River Timavus, and the Castle Pucinum, famous for good Wine. ...
- Pliniy, Natural History, CHAPTER XVIII. Venetia, the tenth Region.) 
There is also a contrary theory that puccinum could be a sweet white prosecco. This theory was supported by Italian Prof. Gianni Dalmasso who claimed that Livia could not like the bitter taste of Refosco wine and that the only possible wine she could like was a sweet variety of prosecco grown in the Trieste region. There is also a comment on the medieval map Prosecho ol:Pucinum, hinc vina a Plinio | tantopere laudata (Prosecho, once called Pucinum. From here comes wine highly praised by Plinius), from Gregorio Amaseo, (1464–1541).
- ... His Refosco, which was even better than my devout hostess's had been, made me forget all my troubles. ...:
- Giacomo Casanova. History of my life. Volume 1, Chapter 8, Page 207. Translated by Willard R. Trask. JHU Press. 1966
It is believed that one of the reasons the Habsburgs build the Parenzana railway from Trieste to Poreč was because they liked the wines from the region (Refosco, Malvasia and Teran). That is also why the railway was often referred to as a wine railroad or vineyard railway.
- Jancis Robinson, ed. (2006). "Refosco". Oxford Companion to Wine (Third Edition ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 564. ISBN 0-19-860990-6.
- Matkurja - Refošk, accessed 06/29/2011
- http://www.chalmersnurseries.com/www/varieties/refoscodalpeduncolo/refoscodalpeduncolo.htm Chalmers Nurseries - Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso, accessed 2011-06-22
- Vina Steras - Refošk, Slovene, accessed 2011-06-22
- Friuli – Venezia Giulia Wines, accessed 2011-06-22
- Matkurja - Teran, accessed 06/29/2011
- The Association of Wine Educators - Visit to Slovenia, accessed 2011-06-22
- Nepce - Refošk, Croatian, accessed 06/29/2011
- Refosco di Faedis
- http://www.eu-vitis.de/datasheet/accDataResult.php?data=ITA368%23SANOSVALDO%2F254U55-79 The European Vitis Database - Refosco di Rauscedo
- The European Vitis Database - Refosco nostrano
- The European Vitis Database - Refoscone
- Friuli Tipico - La grande famiglia del vino Refosco friulano: dal Refoscone al Terrano, Italian, accessed 06/29/2011
- Jancis Robinson, ed. (2006). "Refosco dal Pedunculo Rosso". Oxford Companion to Wine (Third Edition ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 564–565. ISBN 0-19-860990-6.
- Jancis Robinson, ed. (2006). "Mondeuse". Oxford Companion to Wine (Third Edition ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 448. ISBN 0-19-860990-6.
- Archive.org - Full text of "Pliny's Natural history. In thirty-seven books"
- ItalianMade Vinotizie Volume 10, Number 3 pg 6 December 2004
- History of Refosco - Zgodovina refoška, in Slovene, accessed 06/29/2011
- Universita di Torino - Fondazione Giovanni Dalmasso
- Cartographica Neerlandica Background for Ortelius Map No. 129
- Google Books - History of My Life, Giacomo Casanova, Willard R. Trask
- History of Istria Wines