George IV while Prince Regent by Sir Thomas Lawrence.
|Preceded by||Georgian era|
|Followed by||Victorian era|
|Periods in English history|
The Regency era in the United Kingdom is the period between 1811 and 1820, when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son, the Prince of Wales, ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent. In 1820 the Prince Regent became George IV on the death of his father.
The term, "Regency era", sometimes refers to a more extended time frame than the decade of the formal Regency. The period between 1795 and 1837 (the latter part of the reign of George III and the reigns of his sons George IV, as Prince Regent and King, and William IV) was characterized by distinctive trends in British architecture, literature, fashions, politics, and culture. If "Regency era" is being used to describe the transition between "Georgian" and "Victorian" eras, the focus is on the "pre-Victorian" period from 1811, when the formal Regency began, until 1837 when Queen Victoria succeeded William IV. If, however, "Regency era" is being contrasted with "the Eighteenth century", then the period includes the later French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
The era was a time of excess for the aristocracy: for example, it was during this time that the Prince Regent built the Brighton Pavilion. However, it was also an era of uncertainty caused by several factors including the Napoleonic wars, periodic riots, and the concern (threat to some, hope to others) that the British people might imitate the upheavals of the French Revolution.
Society during the Regency
The Regency is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture. This era encompassed a time of great social, political, and even economic change. War was waged with Napoleon and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally as well as politics. Despite the bloodshed and warfare the Regency was also a period of great refinement and cultural achievement, shaping and altering the societal structure of Britain as a whole.
One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent himself (the future George IV). Upper class society flourished in a sort of mini-Renaissance of culture and refinement. As one of the greatest patrons of the arts, the Prince Regent ordered the costly building and refurbishing of the beautiful and exotic Brighton Pavilion, the ornate Carlton House, as well as many other public works and architecture (See John Nash). Naturally, this required dipping into the treasury and the Regent, and later, King's exuberance often outstripped his pocket, at the people's expense. The famed poet of the time Percy Bysshe Shelley observed after a particularly ostentatious festivity held by the Regent that
"[T]his entertainment will cost 120,000 pounds. Nor will it be the last bauble which the nation must buy to amuse this overgrown bantling of Regency"—David, Saul
Society was also considerably stratified. In many ways there was a dark side to the beauty and fashion in England at this time: in the dingier, less affluent areas of London, thievery, womanizing, gambling, the existence of rookeries, and constant drinking ran rampant. The population boom --- the population increased from just under a million in 1801 to one and a quarter million by 1820 --- created a wild, roiling, volatile, and vibrant scene. According to Robert Southey, the difference between the strata of society was vast indeed:
"The inhabitants of this great city seem to be divided into two distinct casts, — the Solar and the Lunar races . . ."—
The squalor that existed beneath the glamour and gloss of Regency society provided sharp contrast to Prince Regent's social circle. Poverty was addressed only marginally. The formation of the Regency after the retirement of George III saw the end of a more pious and reserved society, and gave birth of a more frivolous, ostentatious one. This change was influenced by the Regent himself, who was kept entirely removed from the machinations of politics and military exploits. This did nothing to channel his energies in a more positive direction, thereby leaving him with the pursuit of pleasure as his only outlet, as well as his sole form of rebellion against what he saw as disapproval and censure in the form of his father.
It was not only money and rebellious pampered youth that fuelled these changes but also significant technological advancements. In 1814, The Times adopted steam printing thereby increasing production capabilities, along with demand tenfold (printing 1100 sheets per hour versus the previous 200 per hour). This development brought about the rise of the wildly popular fashionable novels in which publishers spread the stories, rumours, and flaunting of the rich and aristocratic, not so secretly hinting at the specific identity of these individuals. The gap in the hierarchy of society was so great that those of the upper classes could be viewed by those below as wondrous and fantastical fiction, something entirely out of reach yet tangibly there.
Timeline of the formal Regency
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2011)|
- George, Prince of Wales begins his nine-year tenure as regent and becomes known as The Prince Regent. This sub-period of the Georgian era begins the formal Regency. The Duke of Wellington holds off the French at Fuentes d'Onoro and Albuhera in the Peninsular War. The Prince Regent holds a fete at nine p.m. June 19, 1811 at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Luddite uprisings. Glasgow weavers riot.
- Spencer Perceval assassinated in the House of Commons. Final shipment of the Elgin Marbles arrives in England. Sarah Siddons retires from the stage. Shipping and territory disputes start the War of 1812 between England and the United States. The British are victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca. The waltz is introduced from Europe into England. Gas company (Gas Light and Coke Company) founded.
- Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen is published. William Hedley's Puffing Billy, an early steam locomotive, runs on smooth rails. Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry starts her ministry at Newgate Prison. Robert Southey becomes Poet Laureate.
- Invasion of France by allies leads to the Treaty of Paris, ending one of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba. The Duke of Wellington is honored at Burlington House in London. British soldiers burn the White House. Last River Thames Frost Fair is held, which was the last time the river froze. Gas lighting introduced in London streets.
- Napoleon I of France defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon is exiled to St. Helena. The English Corn Laws restrict corn imports. Sir Humphry Davy patents the miners' safety lamp. John Loudon Macadam's road construction method adopted.
- Income tax abolished. A "year without a summer" follows a volcanic eruption in Indonesia. Mary Shelley writes Frankenstein. William Cobbett publishes his newspaper as a pamphlet. The British return Indonesia to the Dutch. Regent's Canal, London, phase one of construction. Beau Brummell escapes his creditors by fleeing to France.
- Antonin Carême creates a spectacular feast for the Prince Regent at the Royal Pavilion in Brighton. The death of Princess Charlotte from complications of childbirth changes obstetrical practices. Elgin Marbles shown at the British Museum. Captain Bligh dies.
- Queen Charlotte dies at Kew. Manchester cotton spinners' strike. Riot in Stanhope between lead miners and the Bishop of Durham's men over Weardale gaming rights. Piccadilly Circus constructed in London.
- Peterloo Massacre. Princess Alexandrina Victoria (future Queen Victoria) is christened in Kensington Palace. Ivanhoe by Walter Scott is published. Sir Stamford Raffles, a British administrator, founds Singapore. First steam-propelled vessel (The SS Savannah) crosses the Atlantic and arrives in Liverpool from Savannah, Georgia.
- Death of George III. Accession of The Prince Regent as George IV. The House of Lords passes a bill to grant George IV a divorce from Queen Caroline, but due to public pressure the bill is dropped, John Constable begins work on The Hay Wain. Cato Street Conspiracy fails. Royal Astronomical Society founded. Venus de Milo discovered.
The following is a list of places associated with the Regency era:
Newspapers, pamphlets, and publications
- Ackermann's Repository
- The Gentleman's Magazine
- British Journalists 1750–1820
- Newspapers in the Regency era
- The Times
- The Observer
- Weekly Political Register, William Cobbett
- La Belle Assemblée
The British Regency in popular culture
- Regency Reenactment Groups
- Social Customs During the Regency Era
- Regency Recipes and Manners
- Regency novels
- Regency romance
- Jane Austen in popular culture
- Republic of Pemberley
- The third series of the BBC comedy series Blackadder is set in the Regency Period.
- The British Regency Period in film and costume dramas
- Regency architecture
- Regency fashions
- Regency dance
- Régence, the period of the early 18th-century regency in France.
- Society of Dilettanti
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (March 2010)|
- Parissien, Steven. George IV Inspiration of the Regency. New York: St. Martin's P, 2001. 117
- David, Saul. Prince of Pleasure The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency. New York: Atlantic Monthly P, 1998. 321
- Low, Donald A. The Regency Underworld. Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1999. x
- Ibid x
- ibid xvii
- Smith 14.
- Morgan, Marjorie. Manners, Morals, and Class in England, 1774–1859. New York: St. Martin's P, 1994. 34.
- The Adelphi Theatre, 1806–1900
- Gretna Green
- Kensington Gardens
- The Royal Circus
- Ashton, John, Social England Under the Regency, Kessinger Publishing, 2006
- Bowman, Peter James. The Fortune Hunter: A German Prince in Regency England. Oxford: Signal Books, 2010.
- David, Saul. Prince of Pleasure The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency. New York: Atlantic Monthly P, 1998.
- Knafla, David, Crime, punishment, and reform in Europe, Greenwood Publishing, 2003
- Lapp, Robert Keith. Contest for Cultural Authority - Hazelitt, Coleridge, and the Distresses of the Regecy. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1999.
- Low, Donald A. The Regency Underworld. Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1999.
- Morgan, Marjorie. Manners, Morals, and Class in England, 1774-1859. New York: St. Martin's P, 1994.
- Parissien, Steven. George IV Inspiration of the Regency. New York: St. Martin's P, 2001.
- Pilcher, Donald. The Regency Style: 1800-1830 (London: Batsford, 1947).
- Simond, Louis, Journal of a tour and residence in Great Britain, during the years 1810 and 1811
- Smith, E. A. George IV. New Haven and London: Yale UP, 1999.
- Wellesley, Lord Gerald. "Regency Furniture," The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 70, no. 410 (1973): 233-41.
- Greenwood's Map of London, 1827
- Horwood Map of London, 1792 - 1799
- Results of the 1801 and 1811 Census of London, The European Magazine and London Review, 1818, p. 50
- The Bluestocking Archive
- End of an Era: 1815-1830
- New York Public Library, England - The Regency Style
- Regency Style Furniture