Regensburg

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For the similarly named Swiss municipality, see Regensberg.
Regensburg
Regensburg 08 2006 2.jpg
Coat of arms of Regensburg
Coat of arms
Regensburg   is located in Germany
Regensburg
Regensburg
Coordinates: 49°1′N 12°5′E / 49.017°N 12.083°E / 49.017; 12.083Coordinates: 49°1′N 12°5′E / 49.017°N 12.083°E / 49.017; 12.083
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Upper Palatinate
District Urban district
Subdivisions 18 districts
Government
 • Lord Mayor Joachim Wolbergs (SPD)
Area
 • Total 80.76 km2 (31.18 sq mi)
Elevation 326 - 471 m (−1,219 ft)
Population (2013-12-31)[1]
 • Total 140,276
 • Density 1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 93001–93059
Dialling codes 0941
Vehicle registration R
Website www.regensburg.com

Regensburg (German pronunciation: [ˈʁeɡənsbʊɐ̯k]) is a city in south-east Germany, situated at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River. With over 140,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest town in the State of Bavaria after Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg. The city is the political, economic and cultural centre of Eastern Bavaria and the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate.

The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a testimony of the city's status as cultural centre of southern Germany in the middle ages. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany.[2] Generally known in English as Ratisbon until well into the twentieth century, the city is known as Ratisbonne in French and as Ratisbona in Spanish and Italian.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The remains of the East Tower of Porta Praetoria from Ancient Roman times

The first settlements in Regensburg date to the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest name given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there.

In 179, the Roman fort Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen") was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.[3] It was an important camp on the most northern point of the Danube: it corresponds to what is today the core of Regensburg's Altstadt ("Old City") east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and West of the Schwanenplatz. It is believed that even in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, and St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739.

From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of the Agilolfing ruling family. From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly. The bishops in council condemned the heresy of Adoptionism taught by the Spanish bishops, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German in 843. Two years later, fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there. This was the starting point of Christianization of the Czech people, and the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of Czech lands, as they were consequently incorporated into the Roman Catholic and not into the Slavic-Orthodox world. The fact is well remembered, and a memorial plate at St John's Church (the alleged place of the baptism) was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.

On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia, descendant of Charlemagne, died at Regensburg (known as Ratisbon at the time), Bavaria, Germany.[4]

In 800 AD the city had 23,000 inhabitants and by 1000 AD this almost doubled to 40,000 people.[5]

In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of Crusaders that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted.[6]

Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube was built at Regensburg. This bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice, and this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics.

Middle Ages[edit]

Imperial City of Regensburg
Reichsstadt Regensburg
Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Bavaria
1245–1803 Archbishopric of Regensburg
Capital Regensburg
Government Republic
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  First settled Stone Age
 -  Gained Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit 1245
 -  City annexed by Bavaria 1486–96
 -  City adopted Reformation 1542
 -  Made permanent seat
    of the Imperial Diet

1663
 -  Mediatised to new
    Archbishopric2
1803
 -  Ceded to Bavaria on
    Imperial collapse

1810
Today part of Germany
1: The Bishopric of Regensburg acquired Imperial immediacy around the same time as the City. Of the three Imperial Abbeys in Regensburg, Niedermünster had already acquired Imperial immediacy in 1002, St. Emmeram's Abbey did in 1295 and Obermünster in 1315.
2: The Bishopric, the Imperial City and all three Imperial Abbeys were mediatised simultaneously.

In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century in 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later. The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained entirely Lutheran. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers.

Ceremonial arrival at the Imperial Diet, 1711

A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic, and Roman Catholics were denied civil rights ("Bürgerrecht"). But the town of Regensburg must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of the latter, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states" (in terms of the Holy Roman Empire): the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, and the three monasteries (mentioned previously). In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria (not the state), acted as functional co-capital of the Empire (second to the Emperor's court at Vienna) due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, and it was residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one very brief exception was a prince himself (longstandingly the Prince Thurn and Taxis, still resident in the town).

Modern history[edit]

In 1803 the city lost its status as a free city, following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg. It was handed over to the Archbishop of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for Mainz, which had become French under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, and the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg (Fürstentum Regensburg). Dalberg strictly modernized public life. Most importantly, he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by the award of Fulda and Hanau to him under the title of "Grand Duke of Frankfurt".

Between April 19 and April 23, 1809, Regensburg was the scene of the Battle of Ratisbon between forces commanded by Baron de Coutaud (the 65th Ligne) and retreating Austrian forces. The city was eventually overrun, after supplies and ammunition ran out. The city suffered severe damage during the fight, with about 150 houses being burnt and others being looted.

Nazism and World War II[edit]

Regensburg was home to both a Messerschmitt Bf 109 aircraft factory and an oil refinery, which were bombed by the Allies on August 17, 1943, by the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission, and on February 5, 1945, during the Oil Campaign of World War II. Although both targets were badly damaged, Regensburg itself suffered little damage from the Allied strategic bombing campaign, and the nearly intact medieval city centre is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city's most important cultural loss was that of the Romanesque church of Obermünster, which was destroyed in a March 1945 air raid and was never rebuilt (the belfry survived). Also, Regensburg's slow economic recovery after the war ensured that historic buildings were not torn down, to be replaced by newer ones. When the upswing in restoration reached Regensburg in the late 1960s, the prevailing mindset had turned in favour of preserving the city's heritage.

History after 1945[edit]

cancel by the Ukrainian Camp Post at Regensburg DP Camp
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Old Town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Regensburg
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv
Reference 1155
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 2006 (30th Session)

Between 1945 and 1949, Regensburg was the site of the largest Displaced persons (DP) camp in Germany. At its peak in 1946–1947, the workers' district of Ganghofersiedlung housed almost 5,000 Ukrainian and 1,000 non-Ukrainian refugees and displaced persons. With the approval of U.S. Military Government in the American Allied Occupation Zone, Regensburg and other DP camps organised their own camp postal service. In Regensburg, the camp postal service began operation on December 11, 1946.[7]

At the beginning of the 1960s, Regensburg invested a lot in technical and social infrastructure to attract industry. Siemens was the first multinational company to come to Regensburg, a milestone in the city's development after WWII. In 1965, Regensburg University was founded, Regensburg University of Applied Sciences was established in 1971. The second multinational company, BMW, came in 1986 to build up a large production plant. Since the 1990s, several well-known hightech companies are located in Regensburg, such as Infineon and OSRAM, contributing to the city's current wealth.

In 1997, Regensburg was awarded the Europe Prize for its outstanding achievements in european integration.[8]

The World Heritage Committee listed Regensburg's Old Town a UNESCO World Heritage Site in July 2006. It is the largest medieval old town north of the Alps and very well preserved, dubbing it "Italy's most northern city". Close to the Stone Bridge, the city of Regensburg established a World Heritage Centre in the historic Salzstadl in 2007, where detailed information on Regensburg's 2000 year old history is given.

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

Regensburg is situated on the northernmost part of the Danube river at the geological crossroads of four distinct landscapes:

  • to the north and northeast lies the Bavarian Forest (Bayerischer Wald) with granite and gneiss mountains, wide forests and its national park.
  • to the east and south-east is the fertile Danube plain (Gäuboden) which are highly cultivated loess plains
  • the south is dominated by the tertiary hill country (Tertiär-Hügelland), a continuation of alpine foothills
  • to the West is Franconian Jura (Fränkische Jura)

Climate[edit]

The climate in Regensburg is categorized in the Köppen climate classification as Dfb (humid continental). The average temperature of 8.5 °C is slightly above the German average (7.8 °C), the average precipitation of 636 mm per year below the German average (approximately 700 mm). With a total of 1670 sunshine hours per year, Regensburg is roughly 120 hours above German average.[9]

The warmest month of the year, on average, is July. The coolest month of the year, on average, is January.

Climate data for Regensburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.1
(39.4)
10.5
(50.9)
17.3
(63.1)
20.6
(69.1)
24.2
(75.6)
26.3
(79.3)
24.5
(76.1)
20.6
(69.1)
14.4
(57.9)
7.2
(45)
2.9
(37.2)
14.6
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F) −2.6
(27.3)
−2.8
(27)
0.1
(32.2)
4.4
(39.9)
8.1
(46.6)
11.8
(53.2)
13.6
(56.5)
12.5
(54.5)
9.3
(48.7)
5.1
(41.2)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
5.0
(41)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51
(2.01)
34
(1.34)
37
(1.46)
41
(1.61)
76
(2.99)
77
(3.03)
81
(3.19)
79
(3.11)
43
(1.69)
38
(1.5)
45
(1.77)
56
(2.2)
658
(25.91)
Average relative humidity (%) 88 84 78 72 71 71 70 74 79 84 88 89 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 73 140 194 211 226 240 194 158 105 45 37 1,667
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation[10]
Source #2: German Weather Service[11]

Main sights[edit]

The city[edit]

St. Peter's Church - the Regensburg Cathedral
Kohlenmarkt with Town Hall, site of the Perpetual Diet from 1663 to 1806.
St. Emmeram's Abbey, now Schloss Thurn und Taxis, a huge palace

Regensburg owns the largest medieval old town north of the Alps with nearly 1,500 listed buildings and a picturesque cityscape. Its most famous sights are located mainly in the Old Town, such as:

  • The Dom (Cathedral) is an example of pure German Gothic and counts as the main work of Gothic architecture in Bavaria. It was founded in 1275 and completed in 1634, with the exception of the towers, which were finished in 1869. The interior contains numerous interesting monuments, including one of Peter Vischer's masterpieces. Adjoining the cloisters are two chapels of earlier date than the cathedral itself, one of which, known as the old cathedral, goes back perhaps to the 8th century. The official choir for the liturgical music at St Peter's Cathedral are the famous Regensburger Domspatzen.
  • The stone bridge, built 1135–1146, is a highlight of medieval bridge building. The knights of the 2nd and 3rd crusade used it to cross the Danube on their way to the Holy Land.
  • Remains of the Roman fortress' walls including the Porta Praetoria.
  • The Church of St. James, also called Schottenkirche, a Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish Benedictines (Scoti) to which it was attached; the principal doorway is covered with very singular grotesque carvings. It stands next to the Jakobstor, a medieval city gate named after it.
  • The old parish church of St. Ulrich[disambiguation needed] is a good example of the Transition style of the 13th century, and contains a valuable antiquarian collection. It houses the diocesan museum for religious art.
  • Examples of the Romanesque basilica style are the church of Obermünster, dating from 1010, and the abbey church of St. Emmeram, built in the 13th century, remarkable as one of the few German churches with a detached bell tower. The beautiful cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in a fair state of preservation. In 1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • The Adler-Apotheke, located nearby the Regensburg Cathedral, was founded in 1610 and is one of the oldest Pharmacies in Regensburg. Even today you can take a look at the ancient interior and historical vessels.
  • Wealthy patrician families competed against each other to see who would be able to build the highest tower of the city. In 1260, the Goldener Turm (golden tower) was built on Wahlenstraße.
  • The Old Town Hall, dating in part from the 14th century, contains the rooms occupied by the Imperial diet from 1663 to 1806.
  • A historical interest is also attached to the Gasthof zum Goldenen Kreuz (Golden Cross Inn), where Charles V made the acquaintance of Barbara Blomberg, the mother of Don John of Austria (born 1547).
  • Perhaps the most pleasant modern building in the city is the Gothic villa of the king of Bavaria on the bank of the Danube.
  • Among the public institutions of the city are the public library, picture gallery, botanical garden, and the institute for the making of stained glass. The city's colleges (apart from the University of Regensburg) include an episcopal clerical seminary, and a school of church music.
  • St. Emmeram's Abbey, now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, is a huge castle owned by the powerful Thurn and Taxis family.
  • The City Park, the oldest and largest park in Regensburg with a lot of artwork
  • The Botanischer Garten der Universität Regensburg is a modern botanical garden located on the University of Regensburg campus.
  • Herzogspark also contains several small botanical gardens.
The Stone Bridge, St. Peter's Church and the Old Town of Regensburg

The surrounding[edit]

Klenze's Walhalla, built in 1842
Bavarian Forest National Park stamp

Near Regensburg there are two very imposing Classical buildings, erected by Ludwig I of Bavaria as national monuments to German patriotism and greatness:

  • The more imposing of the two is the Walhalla, a costly reproduction of the Parthenon, erected as a Teutonic temple of fame on a hill rising from the Danube at Donaustauf, 10 km to the east. The interior, which is as rich as coloured marble, gilding, and sculptures can make it, contains the busts of more than a hundred Germanic worthies
  • The second of King Ludwig's buildings is the Befreiungshalle at Kelheim, 25 km above Regensburg, a large circular building which has for its aim the glorification of the heroes of the 1813 War of Liberation

Besides, there is the famous Weltenburg Abbey (Kloster Weltenburg), a Benedictine monastery in Weltenburg near Kelheim on the Danube. The abbey is situated on a peninsula in the Danube, on the so-called "Weltenburg Narrows" or the "Danube Gorge". The monastery, founded by Irish or Scottish monks in about 620, is held to be the oldest monastery in Bavaria.

To the east of Regensburg lies the Bavarian Forest with its National Park, one of the most visited protected areas in Germany.

Culture[edit]

Museums and Exhibitions[edit]

Altogether Regensburg is home to 20 museums. Among the most prominent museums are for instance the Regensburg Museum of History which shows history, culture and arts of Regensburg and Eastern Bavaria from stone age to present. Then there is the Imperial diet museum (Reichstagsmuseum) in the Old Town Hall describing the life during the Holy Roman Empire. Its main attractions are an original torture chamber and the Reichssaal, the rooms occupied by the Imperial diet from 1663 to 1806. The Kepler Memorial House (Keplergedächtnishaus) illustrates the life of the famous astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler. The Municipal Art Gallery Leerer Beutel offers art collections, film events and cultural festivals. Over the last years, the city added several outdoor museums to its cultural landscape, the so-called document sites. These give an overview on specific topics such as Roman, Jewish and Bavarian history.

Besides, there are the diocese museums (Bistumsmuseen) of Regensburg and a branch of the Bavarian National Museum located in the St. Emmeram's Abbey, which contains the Princely Treasure Chamber of the family Thurn and Taxis. The Domschatzmuseum where church treasures, monstrances and tapestries are displayed is in St. Peter's Cathedral. Other museums are the Kunstforum Ostdeutsche Galerie, the Naturkundemuseum Ostbayern, the reptile zoo, the Regensburg Museum of Danube Shipping (Donau-Schiffahrts-Museum), the Public Observatory Regensburg as well as the watch museum (Uhrenmuseum), the golf museum, the post museum and the Dinoraeum. To celebrate its centenary, the State of Bavaria will open the museum of Bavarian history in Regensburg in mai 2018. Besides, there are guided tours in most of the historical monuments of Regensburg, as well as organized tourist tours through the city available in several languages.

Theaters[edit]

Inside Regensburg Theater

The Regensburg Theater at the Bismarckplatz is 200 years old and is the most important theater of the city. Operas, operettas, musicals and ballets are shown. In summer, open-air performances are carried out as well. With the theater at the Bismarckplatz as the oldest and largest one, the Regensburg theater has four other stages with programmes that complement each other:[12] in the Neuhaussaal of the theater at the Bismarckplatz, concerts by the Philharmonic Orchestra Regensburg take place. The Velodrom Theater presents musicals and plays. In the Haidplatz Theater mainly literary and modern plays are performed, whereas the Turmtheater at the Goliathplatz shows modern plays as well, but also cabarets, musicals and plays for children.

Music[edit]

Regensburg is home to the famous Regensburger Domspatzen. Since 2003 there are the Regensburger Schlossfestspiele in the inner courtyard of the St. Emmeram's Abbey every July, sponsored by the Princely Family of Thurn und Taxis. Meanwhile, those were attracting musicians like Elton John, David Garrett, Tom Jones or Plácido Domingo. Modern music styles, especially Jazz, are presented every summer during the Bavarian Jazz weekend. All over the Old Town, over hundred bands, combos and soloists are performing. In 2015, the House of Music was opened, giving home to skilled musicians and their education.

Film and Cinema[edit]

The international short film season is hosted annually in Regensburg. It is a non-profit event and takes place every march, being meanwhile one of the most important of its type in Germany. Aside, there a several cinemas such as CinemaxX, the largest one showing blockbusters and arthouse films, and smaller independent cinemas such as Garbo, Ostentor Kino and Regina Filmtheater. Regensburg has two open air cinemas as well.

Buildings[edit]

The Old Town of Regensburg with nearly 1,500 listed buildings offers a huge cultural diversity from Roman to modern times.

Recreation[edit]

The Old Town of Regensburg is surrounded completely by a green belt. Numerous inner-city parks like the City Park (Stadtpark), the Herzogspark, the Dörnbergpark, the Villapark or the university's botanical garden are a source for recreation and leisure.

Memorial Sites[edit]

The city of Regensburg erected several memorials to combat racism, intolerance towards minorities and all other forms of contempt for human dignity:

A specific in Regensburg are the so-called Stolpersteine (stumbling blocks) in honor of deported Jews during Nazism.

Events[edit]

Twice a year takes place the Regensburg Dult, the city's Volksfest, which is Bavaria's fourth largest. The Bürgerfest (citizen celebration) in the Old Town is every two years, attracting over 100,000 visitors. Every second weekend in July, knights and other medieval people come together at the Regensburg Spectaculum, a medieval market, on the Stone Bridge. Every December, there are several Christmas markets all over the city.

Nightlife[edit]

With over 500 bars, restaurants, clubs and other locations merely in the inner city, Regensburg provides a rich and diverse nightlife due to its young population.

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

In 2013, Regensburg had 140, 276 inhabitants, making it the fourth largest city in Bavaria. Over the last hundred years, the city has experienced a strong increase in population, surpassing 100,000 inhabitants in 1945 due to German refugees from eastern parts of the Third Reich, especially from the Sudetenland. Today, Regensburg is one of fastest growing cities in Germany and is supposed to reach 150,000 inhabitants in the near future.
Regensburg's population since 1830

International communities[edit]

Nearly 12% of the total population are foreign residents. Most of them come from Turkey and Central and Eastern Europe:[13]

Nationality Population (2011)
 Turkey 1,735
 Romania 884
 Serbia (incl. Montenegro) 710
 Poland 696
 Bulgaria 672

Religion[edit]

Regensburg's population is mostly roman catholic. In 2013, about 56,5 % of the city's inhabitants identified with the Roman Catholic Church, 14,0 % were registered Protestants and about 29,5 % identified with other religions or did not have any registered religious affiliation.[14]

Politics[edit]

Government[edit]

The Lord Mayor and the City Council are elected for a period of six years. Both elections take place at the same time. The City Council is composed of 51 members and includes the Lord Mayor, two deputy mayors, five counsellors and the other council members.

The municipal elections in Bavaria of 2014 delivered the following results:

Party votes change seats change coalition
Social Democratic Party 33,7 % +12,2 17 +6 X
Christian Social Union 32,8 % –7,1 16 –4
The Greens 10,5 % -0,1 5 - X
Free Voters 6,9 % -0,2 3 -1 X
Ecological Democratic Party 6,4 % -0,5 3 -
The Left 3,1 % -1,5 2 -
Free Democratic Party 3,0 % -2,4 2 -1 X
Pirate Party 2,3 % +2,3 1 +1 X
Christian Social Federation 1,5 % -2,3 1 -1

After 18 years of a City Council with conservative majority, the social-democratic candidate, Joachim Wolbergs, became Lord Mayor in Mai 2014.

Boroughs[edit]

Regensburg is subdivided into 18 boroughs (Stadtbezirke). Each borough contains a number of localities (Ortsteile), which can have historic roots in older municipalities that became urbanized and incorporated into the city.

Sister cities[edit]

Regensburg is twinned with:

Economy[edit]

Regensburg's economy counts among the most dynamic and fastest growing in Germany.[17] Focus is on manufacturing industries, such as automotive, industrial and electrical engineering.

Companies[edit]

There are several multinational corporations located in Regensburg, such as BMW, Continental, E.ON, General Electric, Infineon, Osram, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Telekom and Toshiba as well as hidden champions (Krones, MR).

BMW operates an automobile production plant in Regensburg; the Regensburg BMW plant produces 3-series, 1-series and Z4 vehicles. Continental AG, with the headquarters of its car component business, Osram Opto-Semiconductors and Siemens as well as Infineon, the former Siemens semiconductor branch, provide a high level of innovation and technical development in Regensburg. Other well known international companies, such as AREVA, Schneider Electric and Toshiba, have built plants in or near Regensburg. GE Aviation founded a greenfield site to innovate, develop and produce turbinemachinery components with a new manufacturing casting technology. Amazon.com located its first German customer service centre in Regensburg. The hidden champions Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen (MR) and Krones both are headquartered in Regensburg and are among the major employeurs.

Aside from the industrial sector, tourism contributes a lot to Regensburg's economical growth, especially since 2006, when the city gained status as UNESCO World Heritage site. The University of Regensburg, the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences and mercantile trade also play major roles in Regensburg's economy. Increasingly, biotech companies were founded in Regensburg over the last two decades and have their headquarters and laboratories in the city's "BioPark". Another focus is on information technology, with the city running a start-up centre for IT firms. One of these former start-ups, CipSoft GmbH, now is a known video game company still based in Regensburg.

OTTI, the Eastern Bavaria Technology Transfer-Institut e.V., is headquartered in Regensburg.[18]

Tourism[edit]

The city recorded 912.238 overnight hotel stays and 531.943 hotel guests in 2012.[19] Tourism figures have nearly doubled within the last 15 years and Regensburg has become one of the most-visited German cities from 100,000 to 500,000 residents. In 2014, Regensburg was ranked as a Top-30 travel attraction in Germany by international tourists.[20]

Infrastructure[edit]

Transport[edit]

Regensburg Hauptbahnhof (central station) is connected to lines to Munich, Nuremberg, Passau, Hof and Ingolstadt and Ulm. It can easily be reached from Munich by train, which takes about 1 hour 30 mins. The city lies also on two motorways, the A3 from Cologne and Frankfurt to Vienna, and the A93 from Munich to Dresden. The city is also connected by "Bundesstraßen", namely the B8, B15, and B16.

The local transport is provided by an intensive bus network run by the RVV (Regensburger Verkehrsverbund).

Energy[edit]

Regensburg's energy is mainly supplied by the German company E.ON, one of the world's largest electric utility service providers. Its subsidiary Bayernwerk runs the local hydropower station in the Danube River. In 2012, about 9,1 % of the total electricity consumption was generated by renewable energy sources, about 5,1 % of the total heat consumption were generated by renewables.[21] Both figures show, that Regensburg is behind other Bavarian cities in this context. Therefore the municipal government presented an energy plan in 2014, which should enhance the transformation towards renewable energy sources over the next decade.

Health[edit]

Regensburg hosts one of the most modern university hospitals in Europe, the Universitätsklinikum Regensburg. Aside, there are several other renowned hospitals such as the Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder and the St. Josef-Krankenhaus. In the Bezirksklinikum, mental diseases are treated. With 19,4 hospital beds per 1000 residents, Regensburg owns the fourth highest density of beds per residents in Germany.[22] Concerning medical doctors per residents, Regensburg obtains the third place in Germany (339 per 100,000 residents).[23]

The city's BioPark, representing Bavaria's second largest biotech cluster, hosts numerous research institutions and biotech companies.

Education[edit]

University of Regensburg, Vielberth building, faculty of business
Regensburg University of Applied Sciences, campus

Universities and academia[edit]

Regensburg is known for its institutions of higher education. The biggest of those is the University of Regensburg. Founded in 1962, it is one of Germany's youngest institutions and ranked among the Top 400 universities worldwide. Among the prominent thinkers associated with the institution are Pope Benedict XVI, Udo Steiner and Wolfgang Wiegard. The campus is situated in one area together with the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences.

Since 1874 there has been a College of Catholic Music, the Hochschule für Katholische Kirchenmusik und Musikpädagogik Regensburg.

Research[edit]

In addtition to the research centres and institutes of the universities, there are several research institutions situated in the city of Regensburg. Among them are the Institute for East and Southeast European Studies (IOS), the Regensburg Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM) and the BioPark, the Bavarian biotech cluster.

Schools[edit]

Regensburg is home to 18 elementary schools. There are several institutions of secondary education, both public and private, representing all levels of the German school system. There are eight Gymnasiums in Regensburg, five Realschule, six Hauptschule and four vocational schools (the so-called Berufsschule). In addition, there are several folk high schools with different specialisations. Aside, there is the Regensburg International School (RIS) for offering families an international educational infrastructure.[24]

Sports[edit]

Football[edit]

SSV Jahn Regensburg is the local football club and attracts a fairly large local following. The team was part of a larger sports club founded in 1889 as Turnerbund Jahn Regensburg which took its name from Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, whose ideas of gymnastics greatly influenced German sport in the 19th century. The football department was created in 1907. The footballers and swimmers left their parent club in 1924 to form Sportbund Jahn Regensburg.

Ice Hockey[edit]

EV Regensburg is the local ice hockey club, currently playing in the Oberliga Süd, Germany's third highest professional league.

Baseball[edit]

Regensburg Legionäre is the baseball and softball club from Regensburg. The team is also known as Buchbinder Legionäre, following a sponsorship of the Buchbinder company. The club is playing in the German Bundesliga and is one of the most famous and most successful baseball clubs in Germany. Several players now playing in the MLB formerly played at the club. Its arena, Armin-Wolf-Arena, was built in 1996 and has a capacity of 10,000 spectators, making it to Germany's largest baseball stadium.

Athletics[edit]

The local athletics club, LG TELIS FINANZ Regensburg, offers a wide range of different competitions and is counted among the most successful clubs in Germany.

Notable residents[edit]

honorary photo for Pope Benedict XVI. in the Regensburg Cathedral

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). 31 December 2013. 
  2. ^ http://www.germany.travel/en/towns-cities-culture/top-100/germany-travel-attractions.html?page=3
  3. ^ "Iron Age Braumeisters of the Teutonic Forests". BeerAdvocate. Retrieved 2006-06-02. 
  4. ^ The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. III, Part II (page 623), printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street, London, 1844
  5. ^ Tellier, L.N. (2009). Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical Perspective. Presses de l'Universite du Quebec. p. 266. ISBN 9782760522091. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  6. ^ Herald of Destiny by Berel Wein. New York: Shaar Press, 1993, page 144.
  7. ^ Karen Lemiski, Focus on Philately: The stamps of Regensburg, Camp Ganghofersiedlung in The Ukrainian Weekly, February 4, 2001, No. 5, Vol. LXIX
  8. ^ http://www.europeprize.net/
  9. ^ http://www.physik.uni-regensburg.de/forschung/wegscheider/gebhardt_files/skripten/EuropaeischeWetterlagen.Hagner.pdf
  10. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Regensburg". June 2011. 
  11. ^ . March 2015 http://www.wetterdienst.de/Deutschlandwetter/Regensburg/Klima/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ http://www.regensburgtravel.com/theater.html
  13. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Regensburg". Stadt Regensburg - Amt für Stadtentwicklung. Retrieved 2014-07-24. 
  14. ^ http://www.statistik.regensburg.de/menue/informationen_u_zahlen.php
  15. ^ "Who is Aberdeen twinned with?". Aberdeen City Council. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 
  16. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  17. ^ http://www.prognos.com/fileadmin/images/publikationen/zukunftsatlas2013/Gesamtranking_Zukunftsatlas_2013_Regionen.pdf
  18. ^ "OTTI - Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V.". otti.de. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  19. ^ http://www.statistik.regensburg.de/informationen_u_zahlen/beherbergungen/
  20. ^ http://www.germany.travel/en/towns-cities-culture/top-100/germany-travel-attractions.html?page=3
  21. ^ http://www.regensburg.com/sixcms/media.php/121/113005-energienutzungsplan-teilbericht-c-ist-zustand-erzeugung.pdf
  22. ^ https://www-genesis.destatis.de/gis/genView?GenMLURL=https://www-genesis.destatis.de/regatlas/AI014-1.xml&CONTEXT=REGATLAS01
  23. ^ Wirtschaftswoche, Nr. 49, 2014, Städteranking, p. 28
  24. ^ http://www.ihk-regensburg.de/ihk-r/autoupload/officefiles/RIS_Unternehmen_engl.pdf
  25. ^ "Book of Nature". World Digital Library. 1481-08-20. Retrieved 2013-08-27.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

References[edit]

  • David L. Sheffler, Schools and Schooling in Late Medieval Germany: Regensburg, 1250–1500 (Leiden, Brill, 2008) (Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 33).
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Regensburg". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]