Regensburg lecture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Regensburg lecture was delivered on 12 September 2006 by Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI at the University of Regensburg in Germany, where he had once served as a professor of theology. It was entitled "Faith, Reason and the University — Memories and Reflections" (German: Glaube, Vernunft und Universität — Erinnerungen und Reflexionen). The lecture is considered to be among the most important papal statements on world affairs since John Paul II's 1995 address to the United Nations, and sparked international reactions and controversy.

In his lecture, the Pope, speaking in German, quoted an unfavorable remark about Islam made at the end of the 14th century by Manuel II Palaiologos, the Byzantine emperor. As the English translation of the Pope's lecture was disseminated across the world, many Islamic politicians and religious leaders protested against what they saw as an insulting mischaracterization of Islam.[1][2]

Mass street protests were mounted in many Islamic countries, the Majlis-e-Shoora (Pakistani parliament) unanimously called on the Pope to retract "this objectionable statement".[3] The Pope maintained that the comment he had quoted did not reflect his own views, and he offered an apology to Muslims.

The controversial comment originally appeared in the 7th of the 26 Dialogues Held With A Certain Persian, the Worthy Mouterizes, in Anakara of Galatia,[4] written in 1391 as an expression of the views of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, one of the last Christian rulers before the Fall of Constantinople to the Muslim Ottoman Empire, on such issues as forced conversion, holy war, and the relationship between faith and reason. The passage, in the English translation published by the Vatican, was:

Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached.[5]

A better translation of what appeared as key words politically, "Schlechtes und Inhumanes", would have been "bad and inhumane".[6]

The pope had consulted a bilingual critical edition of this dialogue in the original Greek and with French translation.

Pope Benedict XVI's lecture[edit]

The lecture on faith and reason, with references ranging from ancient Jewish and Greek thinking to Protestant theology and modern secularity, focused mainly on Christianity and what Pope Benedict called the tendency to "exclude the question of God" from reason. Islam features in a part of the lecture: the Pope quoted a strong criticism of Islam, which he described as being of a "startling brusqueness, a brusqueness which leaves us astounded".

The author of this criticism was the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos (or Paleologus) in a 1391 dialogue with an "educated Persian" (who remained unnamed in all the dialogues), as well as observations on this argument made by Theodore Khoury, the scholar whose edition of the dialog in question the pontiff was referencing. Pope Benedict used Manuel II's argument in order to draw a distinction between a Christian view, as expressed by Manuel II, that "not acting reasonably is contrary to God's nature", and an allegedly Islamic view, as explained by Khoury, that God transcends concepts such as rationality, and his will, as Ibn Hazm stated, is not constrained by any principle, including rationality.

As a part of his explication of this distinction, Pope Benedict referred to a specific aspect of Islam that Manuel II considered irrational, namely the practice of forced conversion. Specifically, the Pope (making clear that they were the Emperor's words, not his own) quoted Manuel II Palaiologos as saying: "Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only bad and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached."

The pontiff was comparing apparently contradictory passages from the Qur'an, one being that "There is no compulsion in religion", the other being that it is acceptable to "spread the faith through violence". The pontiff argued the latter teaching to be unreasonable and advocated that religious conversion should take place through the use of reason. His larger point here was that, generally speaking, in Christianity, God is understood to act in accordance with reason, while in Islam, God's absolute transcendence means that "God is not bound even by his own word", and can act in ways contrary to reason, including self-contradiction. At the end of his lecture, the Pope said, "It is to the great logos, to this breadth of reason, that we invite our partners in the dialogue of cultures."

Key paragraphs[edit]

Quoted below are the three paragraphs (of sixteen total) which discuss Islam in Pope Benedict's lecture:

I was reminded of all this recently, when I read the edition by Professor Theodore Khoury (Münster) of part of the dialogue carried on — perhaps in 1391 in the winter barracks near Ankara — by the erudite Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaeologus and an educated Persian on the subject of Christianity and Islam, and the truth of both. It was presumably the emperor himself who set down this dialogue, during the siege of Constantinople between 1394 and 1402; and this would explain why his arguments are given in greater detail than those of his Persian interlocutor. The dialogue ranges widely over the structures of faith contained in the Bible and in the Qur'an, and deals especially with the image of God and of man, while necessarily returning repeatedly to the relationship between — as they were called — three "Laws" or "rules of life": the Old Testament, the New Testament and the Qur'an. It is not my intention to discuss this question in the present lecture; here I would like to discuss only one point — itself rather marginal to the dialogue as a whole — which, in the context of the issue of "faith and reason", I found interesting and which can serve as the starting-point for my reflections on this issue.

In the seventh conversation edited by Professor Khoury, the emperor touches on the theme of the holy war. The emperor must have known that sura 2, 256 reads: "There is no compulsion in religion". According to the experts, this is one of the suras of the early period, when Mohammed was still powerless and under threat. But naturally the emperor also knew the instructions, developed later and recorded in the Qur'an, concerning holy war. Without descending to details, such as the difference in treatment accorded to those who have the "Book" and the "infidels", he addresses his interlocutor with a startling brusqueness, a brusqueness that we find unacceptable, on the central question about the relationship between religion and violence in general, saying: "Show me just what Mohammed brought that was new, and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached". The emperor, after having expressed himself so forcefully, goes on to explain in detail the reasons why spreading the faith through violence is something unreasonable. Violence is incompatible with the nature of God and the nature of the soul. "God", he says, "is not pleased by blood — and not acting reasonably is contrary to God's nature. Faith is born of the soul, not the body. Whoever would lead someone to faith needs the ability to speak well and to reason properly, without violence and threats… To convince a reasonable soul, one does not need a strong arm, or weapons of any kind, or any other means of threatening a person with death…

The decisive statement in this argument against violent conversion is this: not to act in accordance with reason is contrary to God's nature. The editor, Theodore Khoury, observes: "For the emperor, as a Byzantine shaped by Greek philosophy, this statement is self-evident. But for Muslim teaching, God is absolutely transcendent. His will is not bound up with any of our categories, even that of rationality." Here Khoury quotes a work of the noted French Islamist R. Arnaldez, who points out that Ibn Hazn went so far as to state that God is not bound even by his own word, and that nothing would oblige him to reveal the truth to us. Were it God's will, we would even have to practice idolatry.[5]

Initial reactions[edit]

Political leaders[edit]

Africa[edit]

  •  EgyptForeign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit: " This was a very unfortunate statement and it is a statement that shows that there is a lack of understanding of real Islam. And because of this we are hopeful that such statements and such positions would not be stated in order to not allow tension and distrust and recriminations to brew between the Muslim as well as the west." The Vatican envoy was also summoned.[2]

Americas[edit]

Asia[edit]

  •  Iran – The Guardian Council said the Pope was part of "a series of Western conspiracy against Islam" and had "linked Islam to violence and challenged Jihad at a time when he apparently closed his eyes to the crimes being perpetrated against defenseless Muslims by the leaders of power and hypocrisy under flag of Christianity and Jewish religion".[9] President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad stated that "Regarding the issue of the Pope's comments, we respect the pope and all of those who are interested in peace and justice."[10]
  •  IraqGovernment spokesman Ali al-Dabbagh said that "The Pope's remarks reflect his misunderstanding of the principles of Islam and its teachings that call for forgiveness, compassion and mercy," but also called on Iraqis not to harm "our Christian brothers."[11]
  •  IndonesiaPresident Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated that the Pope's comments were "unwise and inappropriate,"[12] but also that "Indonesian Muslims should have wisdom, patience, and self-restraint to address this sensitive issue....We need them so that harmony among people is not at stake."[13]
  •  MalaysiaPrime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi said, "The Pope must not take lightly the spread of outrage that has been created. The Vatican must now take full responsibility over the matter and carry out the necessary steps to rectify the mistake."[2]
  •  PakistanPresident Pervez Musharraf, in a speech at the United Nations, called for legislation against "defamation of Islam."[15] Pakistan's parliament, issued a statement saying "The derogatory remarks of the Pope about the philosophy of jihad and Prophet Muhammad have injured sentiments across the Muslim world and pose the danger of spreading acrimony among the religions." Pakistan's Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Tasnim Aslam said, "Anyone who describes Islam as a religion as intolerant encourages violence."[16]
  •  TurkeyPrime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said: "I believe it is a must for (the Pope) to retract his erroneous, ugly and unfortunate remarks and apologise both to the Islamic world and Muslims. …I hope he rapidly amends the mistake he has made so as not to overshadow the dialogue between civilizations and religions.[18]

Australia[edit]

  •  Australia – Former Prime Minister John Howard backed the Pope's comments, saying that angry response from the Islamic world is "disproportionate, strange and disappointing". He also stated that Muslims should "move on", adding that, "I don't, at the moment, note terrorist groups killing people and invoking the authority of the Catholic Church".[20]

Europe[edit]

  •  GermanyChancellor Angela Merkel said: "Whoever criticises the Pope misunderstood the aim of his speech… It was an invitation to dialogue between religions and the Pope expressedly spoke in favour of this dialogue, which is something I also support and consider urgent and necessary."[22]
  •  ItalyPrime Minister Romano Prodi said: "There cannot be any controversy... Religious dialogue and respect for every faith are essential today and religion does not justify any type of violence."[23]
  •   Vatican City – The director of the Vatican press office stated: "Pope Benedict's remarks about jihad may have been taken out of context but they were not an aberration. On the contrary, they stem from his thinking about Islam and the West in the one and a half years since he became Pope. It was certainly not the intention of the Holy Father to undertake a comprehensive study of the jihad and of Muslim ideas on the subject, still less to offend the sensibilities of Muslim faithful. Quite the contrary, what emerges clearly from the Holy Father’s discourses is a warning, addressed to Western culture, to avoid 'the contempt for God and the cynicism that considers mockery of the sacred to be an exercise of freedom.'"[26][27]

International[edit]

  • Flag of OIC.svg The Organisation of the Islamic Conference said "The OIC hopes that this sudden campaign does not reflect a new trend for the Vatican policy toward the Islamic religion… and it expects the Vatican to express its real vision of Islam", called it "character assassination of the Prophet Mohammed" and a "smear campaign.",[28] and asked the United Nations Human Rights Council to address the Pope's remarks.[29]
  •  European Union – A European Commission spokesman objected to "picking quotes out of context", and said the commission would not "clarify or interpret" the speech, because they consider it "a theological contribution to a theological debate." He added that "reactions which are disproportionate and which are tantamount to rejecting freedom of speech are unacceptable."[30]

Religious leaders[edit]

Catholic[edit]

  • Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, then Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina and now Pope Francis reportedly expressed his "unhappiness" with Pope Benedict XVI's use of the quotation from Manuel II Palaeologos and is quoted as having publicly declared: "Pope Benedict's statement[s] don't reflect my own opinions.... These statements will serve to destroy in 20 seconds the careful construction of a relationship with Islam that Pope John Paul II built over the last twenty years." [31]
  • Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger said "We are faced with a media-driven phenomenon bordering on the absurd... If the game consists in unleashing the crowd’s vindictiveness on words that it has not understood, then the conditions for dialogue with Islam are no longer met."[32]
  • Abbot Primate Notker Wolf, head of the worldwide Roman Catholic Benedictine Confederation of the Order of Saint Benedict, said that the Pope used Manuel's dialogue with a Persian to make an indirect reference to Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. "I have heard he plans to write a letter to the Pope," Wolf added. "I think this would be a good opportunity to take up the gauntlet, so to speak, and really discuss things."[33]
  • Cardinal George Pell of Australia has backed the Pope's comments, saying he does not "rule out the link between Islam and violence" and that "The violent reaction in many parts of the Islamic world justified one of Pope Benedict's main fears".[34]
  • Cardinal Secretary of State Bertone said: "Addressing the world's other religious faiths is part of the Church's mission... We must all return to the original source of human life, which is love."[35]

Other Christian[edit]

  • Shenouda III, the Coptic Pope of Alexandria while admitting that he hadn't heard the exact words used by Pope Benedict XVI, said that "any remarks which offend Islam and Muslims are against the teachings of Christ."[36]
  • Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury and head Anglican Primate of All England of the Anglican Church, said: "There are elements in Islam that can be used to justify violence, just as there are in Christianity and Judaism."[37]
  • Former Archbishop of Canterbury George Carey dismissed Muslim charges that the Pope had "rubbished" Islam and stated that "Muslims, as well as Christians, must learn to enter into dialogue without crying 'foul'."[38]
  • R. Todd Wise, a Reformed Church in America minister and religious scholar, noted a heavy reliance on analogia entis rather than analogia fidei in Pope Benedict XVI's lecture, and suggested a priority for considering "faith as the common ground" in the approach to Islam.[39]

Muslim[edit]

  • On 13 October 2006, one month to the day after Pope Benedict XVI’s address, 38 Islamic authorities and scholars from around the world, representing all denominations and schools of thought, joined together to deliver an answer to the Pope in the spirit of open intellectual exchange and mutual understanding, speaking about the true teachings of Islam.[40]
  • Exactly one year later, on 13 October 2007, 138 Muslim scholars, clerics and intellectuals unanimously came together for the first time since the days of Muhammed to declare the common ground between Christianity and Islam in their letter titled 'In A Common Word Between Us and You'. The letter was addressed to the leaders of all the world’s churches, and to Christians everywhere.[41]
  • Ali Bardakoğlu, the head of the Religious Affairs Directorate of Turkey, commented that the Pope's statements "were extraordinarily worrying, very unfortunate, both in the name of Christianity, and in the name of shared humanity," and called on Pope Benedict to either retract or apologize for his conduct. He added "if there is a religious antagonism in the West, it's the responsibility of the logic-ignoring Christian Church [sic]", citing historical incidents of religious oppression in Europe and the Americas. He also implied that the Pope should consider cancelling his trip to Turkey that was originally planned for November 2006.[42] Bardakoğlu later admitted to not having read the Pope's lecture before making his statements.[43]
  • Mohammed Mahdi Akef from the Muslim Brotherhood said the remarks "threaten world peace" and "pour oil on the fire and ignite the wrath of the whole Islamic world to prove the claims of enmity of politicians and religious men in the West to whatever is Islamic."[44]
  • Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Egyptian Muslim cleric and head of Islamic Scholars' Association; " Our hands are outstretched and our religion calls for peace, not for war, for love not for hatred, for tolerance, not for fanaticism, for knowing each other and not for disavowing each other. We condemn this and we want to know the explanation of this and what is intended by this. We call on the pope, the pontiff, to apologise to the Islamic nation because he has insulted its religion and Prophet, its faith and Sharia without any justification."[46]
  • Ahmad Khatami, one of Iran's most influential clerics asked the Pope to "fall on his knees in front of a senior Muslim cleric and try to understand Islam."[47]
  • Aga Khan IV, leader of the Nizari Ismaili branch of Islam said: "I have two reactions to the pope's lecture: There is my concern about the degradation of relations and, at the same time, I see an opportunity. A chance to talk about a serious, important issue: the relationship between faith and logic"[48]
  • Tariq Ramadan, an influential visiting fellow in the University of Oxford, said "Most did not read the pope's speech; others had relied on a sketchy summary according to which the pope had linked Islam and violence.. certain groups or governments manipulate crises of this kind as a safety valve for both their restive populations and their own political agenda.. the mass protests... end up providing a living proof that Muslims cannot engage in reasonable debate and that verbal aggression and violence are more the rule than the exception."[49]

Jewish[edit]

  • In a letter to the Muslim scholar Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Sephardic Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar criticized Benedict's remarks, writing: "our way is to honour every religion and every nation according to their paths, as it is written in the book of prophets: 'because every nation will go in the name of its Lord.'"[50]

The Rabbi went on to denounce Islamic violence against Christians, stating that "Our Muslim brothers would add respect to their religion if they outdid themselves and overcame the feelings of humiliation." [51]

Non-religious commentary[edit]

  • In an article published in CounterPunch, author Tariq Ali said, "The Bavarian is a razor-sharp reactionary cleric. I think he knew what he was saying and why. In a neo-liberal world suffering from environmental degradation, poverty, hunger, repression, a 'planet of slums' (in the graphic phrase of Mike Davis), the Pope chooses to insult the founder of a rival faith. The reaction in the Muslim world was predictable, but depressingly insufficient."[52]
  • A different view was taken by Christopher Hitchens, who wrote in "Fighting Words" for Slate web magazine that Pope Benedict "has managed to do a moderate amount of harm—and absolutely no good—to the very tense and distraught discussion now in progress between Europe and Islam." Hitchens also presented what he feels is a problem with the focus of the Pope's speech with respect to Reason: "now its new reactionary leader has really 'offended' the Muslim world, while simultaneously asking us to distrust the only reliable weapon—reason—that we possess in these dark times. A fine day's work, and one that we could well have done without."[53]
  • Hans Köchler, head of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck and a leading advocate of civilizational dialogue, wrote in a commentary: "In his lecture preaching the compatibility of reason and faith, Benedict XVI, the scholar, deliberately overlooks the fact that the insights of Greek philosophy — its commitment to the λόγος — have been brought to medieval Christian Europe by the great Muslim thinkers of the Middle Ages. What he calls the 'encounter between the Biblical message and Greek thought' ... was, to a large extent, the result of the influence of Muslim philosophers — at a time when European Christians were totally ignorant of classical Greek philosophy."[54]

Subsequent Vatican statements[edit]

Official Vatican declaration[edit]

On 16 September 2006, Tarcisio Bertone, the Secretary of State of the Holy See, released a declaration explaining that the "position of the Pope concerning Islam is unequivocally that expressed by the conciliar document Nostra Aetate" and that "the Pope's option in favour of inter-religious and inter-cultural dialogue is equally unequivocal."[55]

As for the opinion of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus which he quoted during his Regensburg talk, the Holy Father did not mean, nor does he mean, to make that opinion his own in any way. He simply used it as a means to undertake — in an academic context, and as is evident from a complete and attentive reading of the text — certain reflections on the theme of the relationship between religion and violence in general, and to conclude with a clear and radical rejection of the religious motivation for violence, from whatever side it may come. [The Pope] sincerely regrets that certain passages of his address could have sounded offensive to the sensitivities of the Muslim faithful and should have been interpreted in a manner that in no way corresponds to his intentions.[56][57](emphasis in the original)

Response to official declaration[edit]

For many Muslim leaders, the declaration on 16 September was insufficient to rectify the situation. A representative for the Muslim Brotherhood rejected the Vatican statement, noting "Has he presented a personal apology for statements by which he clearly is convinced? No."[58] Grand Mufti Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh, Saudi Arabia's highest religious authority, called the pope's declaration "lies", adding that they "show that reconciliation between religions is impossible."[59] On the other hand, the Muslim Council of Britain had a more favourable view of the declaration, issuing their own statement on 16 September that the Pope's expression of "sincere regret" was "a good first step."[60]

Pope's Angelus[edit]

On 17 September, before his regular weekly Sunday Angelus prayer, Pope Benedict XVI stated the following:

At this time, I wish also to add that I am deeply sorry for the reactions in some countries to a few passages of my address at the University of Regensburg, which were considered offensive to the sensibility of Muslims. These in fact were a quotation from a medieval text, which do not in any way express my personal thought. Yesterday, the Cardinal Secretary of State published a statement in this regard in which he explained the true meaning of my words. I hope that this serves to appease hearts and to clarify the true meaning of my address, which in its totality was and is an invitation to frank and sincere dialogue, with great mutual respect.[61]

Reactions to Angelus[edit]

The Angelus speech initially received a mixed yet predominantly negative response.[62] Mohammed Sayed Tantawi, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Mosque, Cairo, a Sunni institution, stated "We have no objection if the Pope holds another speech and declares publicly that what the Byzantine emperor had said was wrong. At the same time, the Pope has to apologize frankly and justify what he said," Mohammed Habib, deputy leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt's main Islamic opposition group originally, not long after the Pope's Sunday statements, called them a sufficient apology. However, later in the day, he retracted that statement, saying, "The Pope's comments that downplayed his earlier remarks are not enough. We will not accept anything less than an apology,"[63] Mohammed Habib also said: "It does not rise to the level of a clear apology and, based on this, we're calling on the Pope of the Vatican to issue a clear apology that will decisively end any confusion.[64]

This sentiment was shared by the governments of Malaysia ("inadequate to calm the anger"),[65] and Jordan ("a step forward", but "not sufficient"),[66] by Turkish State Minister Mehmet Aydın ("you either have to say this 'I'm sorry' in a proper way or not say it at all. Are you sorry for saying such a thing or because of its consequences?") and scholar Yusuf al-Qaradawi, who called for a "peaceful international day of rage" on his popular TV show on Al Jazeera: "[The Pope's latest statements] were no apology. They were an accusation against Muslims that they didn't understand his words."[67]

Later comments were more favourable of the Pope. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said: "We respect the Pope and all those interested in peace and justice,"[68] and said he accepted the Vatican view that the pontiff’s words had been "misinterpreted" and "taken out of context".[69] Malaysia’s Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi said: "I suppose we could accept this. We hope that there would be no other statements that would anger Muslims."[70] Ali Bardakoğlu, the head of Turkey’s Religious Affairs Directorate said that Benedict’s "expression of sadness is a sign that he would work for world peace."[71] Australian Muslim leader Ameer Ali said Australian Muslims must "accept the Pope's apology" over remarks that offended Islam and "move on".[72] Filipino Muslims expressed support for Pope Benedict's apology and blamed certain media outlets for increasing the tensions between Muslims and Catholics.[73]

Diplomatic initiative[edit]

On 25 September 2006, Pope Benedict XVI held an audience with Muslim diplomats, ambassadors of Muslim countries and members of the Consulta Islamica, the Italian government appointed consultative body on Islamic affairs. The meeting was an effort to mend relations with the Muslim community. Pope Benedict's spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, said the meeting at Castel Gandolfo, the Pope's summer residence, was "certainly a sign that dialogue is returning to normal after moments of … misunderstanding."[74]

During the session, Pope Benedict XVI reiterated his conviction that the dialogue between Muslims and Christians is "a vital necessity" for the good of a world marked by relativism, one that "excludes the transcendence and universality of reason."[75] At this meeting, Pope Benedict expressed "all the esteem and the profound respect that (he has) for Muslim believers."[76] Among the ambassadors invited were those from Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Morocco, as well as many other nations and Islamic groups.[77]

English Translation Revision[edit]

Pope Benedict has taken another step to placate anger in the Islamic world over his remarks on holy war, providing a better translation of his original text that re-affirmed that the quotation from a 14th-century Byzantine emperor was not his personal opinion. The original translation said the emperor's remark was "with a startling brusqueness" (some sources incorrectly say "somewhat brusquely" and/or incorrectly state that the original German text did not contain "the mollifying language belatedly inserted into the English-language text").[78] The translation was corrected to better reflect the original German text, "in erstaunlich schroffer, uns überraschend schroffer Form ganz einfach." The corrected English translation added that the phrase "a brusqueness that we find unacceptable." Pope Benedict added in a footnote:

In the Muslim world, this quotation has unfortunately been taken as an expression of my personal position, thus arousing understandable indignation. I hope that the reader of my text can see immediately that this sentence does not express my personal view of the Quran, for which I have the respect due to the holy book of a great religion.[5]

He said he cited the text as part of an examination of the "relationship between faith and reason."[79][80]

Open letters from top Muslim clerics[edit]

On 12 October 2006, 100 of the most respected and influential Muslim scholars and clerics, including the Grand Muftis of Egypt, Russia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Turkey, Uzbekistan and Oman, as well as clerics and academics from the Middle East, Asia, North Africa, Europe and North America, published an Open Letter to the Pope.[81] All the eight schools of thought and jurisprudence in Islam are represented by the signatories. The 38 signatories to the letter declare that they accept the Pope's "personal expression of sorrow and assurance that the controversial quote did not reflect his personal opinion" and responded to some of the main substantive issues raised in the Pope's treatment of a debate between the medieval Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and an "educated Persian," including reason and faith; forced conversion; "jihad" vs. "holy war"; and the relationship between Christianity and Islam.[82]

The open letters also provided a surprising answer to Manuel II Palaiologos' question, "Show me just what Muhammad brought that was new and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached." It is:

What the emperor failed to realize — aside from the fact... that no such command has ever existed in Islam — is that the Prophet never claimed to be bringing anything fundamentally new.

On 11 October 2007, one year after the release of the open letter to the Pope, a larger group of 138 Muslim scholars, clerics and intellectuals sent another open letter, titled A Common Word Between Us and You,[83] to Pope Benedict and the leaders of other Christian denominations. This letter emphasized that Christians and Muslims worship the same God, and share many values, including living in peace with one's neighbours.[84]

Protests, attacks and threats[edit]

The Pope was actually citing a quotation from Manuel II's writings, not expressing his views. Despite this, demonstrations in the muslim world took place as if the comment, the 'offending' judgement on Islam, was from the Pope himself. No distinction seems to have been drawn in the criticism trumpeted in these demonstrations as Tariq Ramadan (see above) implies. Some protests reflected a level of hysteria quite out of proportion to the text of the Pope's lecture. Security was discreetly stepped up around and inside the Vatican City, because of concerns about the possibility of acts of violence.[85] Thousands of people took part in many protests.[86]

At least five churches were attacked by Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. In the West Bank city of Nablus, firebombings left black scorch marks on the walls and windows of the city's Anglican and Greek Orthodox churches. At least five firebombs hit the Anglican church and its door was later set ablaze. A group called the Lions of Monotheism claimed responsibility and said they the attacks were carried out to protest the pope's speech[87]

Later that day, four masked gunmen doused the main doors of Nablus' Roman and Greek Catholic churches with lighter fluid, then set them afire. They also opened fire on the buildings, striking both with bullets. In Gaza City, terrorists opened fire from a car at a Greek Orthodox church, striking the facade. Explosive devices were set off at the same Gaza church on Friday, causing minor damage. There were no claims of responsibility for the last three attacks.[88][89]

Several organizations, such as Al-Qaeda and the Mujahideen Shura Council threatened in a joint statement: "you and the West are doomed as you can see from the defeat in Iraq, Afghanistan, Chechnya, and elsewhere. ... We will break up the cross, spill the liquor and impose the jizya tax, then the only thing acceptable is a conversion (to Islam) or (being killed by) the sword. ... God enable us to slit their throats, and make their money and descendants the bounty of the Mujahideen."[21][90]

Employees of Ankara's Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (Presidency of Religious Affairs), the state body that organizes Muslim worship in Turkey, asked the authorities on 19 September to open legal proceedings against Pope Benedict XVI and to arrest him when he visits the country in November 2006. They said the Pontiff had violated Turkish laws upholding freedom of belief and thought by "insulting" Islam and the Prophet Muhammad.[91]

Outside Westminster Cathedral, on 18 September 2006, around a hundred protestors held banners which included calls for the Pope's execution, "Pope go to Hell" and "Jesus is the slave of Allah", "Islam will conquer Rome," and "May Allah curse the Pope." [92][93]

The Lashkar-e-Taiba in Pakistan has issued a fatwā asking the Muslim community to kill Pope Benedict for his "blasphemous statement" about Muhammad.[94]

Nun killed[edit]

On 17 September 2006, two Somali gunmen shot and killed a 65 year-old Italian nun, Sister Leonella Sgorbati, working at the Austrian-run children's hospital in the city of Mogadishu, with her Somali bodyguard.[95] A senior Somali Islamist, speaking on condition of anonymity, said: "There is a very high possibility the people who killed her were angered by the Catholic Pope's recent comments against Islam"; however, no specific evidence was provide for the motive.[96]

Sheikh Mukhtar Robow, member of the Islamic Courts Union, said there was a "concrete possibility" that the murder of the nun was "a reprisal for the Pope's remarks on Islam".[97] However, several humanitarian workers and Christian volunteers have been murdered by Islamic gunmen in Somalia, including Italian bishop Salvatore Colombo shot dead while celebrating mass in Mogadishu in 1989,[98] Graziella Fumagalli, an Italian medical doctor, killed in 1995 in the anti-TBC Center she was running;[99] Annalena Tonelli assassinated in 2003 in a unique relief center in Borama, after 33 years of service to the poorest,[100] and Dick and Enid Eyeington[101] in 2003.

Attacks on Christians in Iraq[edit]

In Iraq, the flags of Germany, Israel, and the United States, and Christian crosses and effigies of Pope Benedict were burned in Basra.[102]

Iraq has one of the largest Christian minorities in the Middle East, where Assyrians number about one million. Since the Pope's comments, several churches have been bombed; however, many were being bombed since before the Pope's comments starting with the US invasion in 2003 in the power vacuum created by the fall of Saddam Hussein. A previously unknown Baghdad-based group, Kataab Ashbal Al Islam Al Salafi (Islamic Salafist Boy Scout Battalions)[Note 1] threatened to kill all Christians in Iraq if the Pope does not apologize to Muhammad within three days.[103] Christian Leaders in Iraq asked their parishioners not to leave their homes, after two Christians were stabbed and killed in Baghdad.[104]

There were reports of writing in church doors stating "If the Pope does not apologise, we will bomb all churches, kill more Christians and steal their property and money." [105]

The Iraqi militia Jaish al-Mujahedin (Holy Warriors' Army) announced its intention to "destroy their cross in the heart of Rome… and to hit the Vatican."[106]

Despite the Pope's comments dying down in the media, attacks on Assyrian Christians continued and on 9 October, an Islamic extremist group kidnapped priest Ameer Iskander, in Mosul. His body was found three days later, decapitated. His relatives have said that his Muslim captors had demanded his church condemn the pope's comments about Islam (which it already had) and pay a $350,000 ransom.[107]

Controversial statements about Qur'an chapter 2[edit]

Another point of controversy, widely covered in Arab media,[108][109][110][111] but much less so in Western media,[112] was the Pope's assessment that sura (i.e. Chapter) 2 in the Qur'an, which includes the verse "There is no compulsion in religion", was "one of the suras of the early period, when Muhammad was still powerless and under threat", and that instructions "concerning holy war" had come later.

Many scholars of Islam have taken this as a classification of the sura as stemming from the earlier Meccan period and have shown the Pope to be mistaken by pointing out that Surah 2 was revealed in various stages and that this verse was revealed after Muhammad's hijra from Mecca, during his period of stay in Medina and hence is from the Medinan period which was the final stage of the revelation of the Qur'an when the Muslims were becoming numerous and increasingly powerful and safe from the immediate dangers that had overshadowed them for 13 years in Mecca. The scholars also point out that the Pope failed to mention that even if this verse was revealed when the Muslims were weak, they could have easily abrogated it with another verse which gave them permission to forcefully convert people once they finally conquered Mecca; this, however, did not happen.[113]

Assessment of the lecture's purpose[edit]

In contrast to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, the media focus was not on the issues of free speech or injured religious sensitivities. Underlying the widely talked about question of whether or not the Pope should apologize, and whether or not his subsequent statements even constituted an apology, several competing and separate interpretations of his intentions have been proffered. These are, broadly and in no particular order:

  • Responses to the speech ignore the fact that the Vatican advised against the US led invasion of Iraq, supports Turkey's entry into the EU,[114] supports allowing Muslims in France the freedom to wear headscarves,[115] and has been part of a long campaign to promote basic human rights for Christians in Muslim dominated countries where they are persecuted and killed (Sudan, Somalia, post-war Iraq) or marginalized (most of the rest of the Islamic world including secular Turkey[citation needed]).
  • The lecture was claimed by many Catholic apologists to not be directed at Islam at all and the incendiary passages were purely circumstantial to the lecture's real intention, which was to counter the demotion of theology in the university environment in particular and of faith in a society plagued by postmodern relativism and irrationality in general.[116][117][118]
  • Pope Benedict's lecture was a "calculated risk," a move designed to win the hearts of the Christians of the Eastern Orthodox Church who are surrounded by Muslims and whom Pope Benedict would be visiting in November 2006. Given what he sees as close theological affinities between these two churches and other personal characteristics specific to Pope Benedict (traditional liturgy; criticism of historical-critical approach to biblical studies), "some form of reunion is not only feasible; from Benedict's point of view, it is highly desirable."[119][120]
  • Pope Benedict's lecture portends a parting from the Vatican's previous policies on dialogue with Islam, away from promoting harmony at all costs towards more reciprocity; that is, he wants the Muslim world opened up for Christian missions in the same way that Europe is open to Muslims and conversion out of Islam to be a legal or social possibility. In this view, according to the Pope, the position of Christians in Muslim-majority countries must be improved. However, observers note that Europe is not run as a Christian state but from the principles of liberal secularism which can be traced to the Age of Enlightenment, which was inspired in part by the region's Christian principles though sometimes at odds with Church authorities. It was also the Papal Fleet at the Battle of Lepanto that protected Europe's growth by preventing a massive Ottoman invasion of Europe in 1571. European countries must allow all people regardless of religion the ability to build places of worship due to the secular nature of European constitutions. Some European countries disallow the wearing of Muslim scarves, something the Catholic church has condemned these governments for.[115] One must also be aware that most Muslim countries are ruled by secular dictatorships, though many also allow Islamic law Sharia to govern.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ashbāl has been mistranslated in the media as Boy Scout. The Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic defines shibl (plural ashbāl اشبال) as meaning "lion cub; a capable young man, brave youth, young athlete." Compare with Ashbal Saddam (Saddam's Lion Cubs).

References[edit]

  1. ^ BBC Article. In quotes: Muslim reaction to Pope last accessed 17 September 17, 2006
  2. ^ a b c BBC News Article:Pope sorry for offending Muslims, last accessed 17 September 17, 2006
  3. ^ Telegraph
  4. ^ "The Pope, Jihad and "Dialogue"", The American Thinker, 19 September 2005
  5. ^ a b c "Lecture of the Holy Father - Faith, Reason and the University Memories and Reflections", Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 12 September 2006
  6. ^ The re-translation of "evil and inhuman" into German is "Böses und Unmenschliches".
  7. ^ "Ambassador recalled over Pope row". Agence France-Presse, 17 September 2006.
  8. ^ "Muslims seek fuller apology". The Boston Globe, 20 September 2006.
  9. ^ "Guardian Council condemns Pope's anti-Islam statement". Islamic Republic News Agency, 17 September 2006
  10. ^ Iranian president expresses respect for pope, The Jerusalem Post, 19 September 2006
  11. ^ "Iraq calls for calm after Pope's remarks". Reuters, 16 September 2006
  12. ^ "Pope says he's sorry about strong reaction, says speech didn't reflect his personal opinion", The Jakarta Post, 17 September 2006
  13. ^ Amid criticism and violence the first balanced views about the Pope’s speech appear
  14. ^ On 15 September 2006, In quotes: Muslim reaction to Pope. BBC News. Retrieved 13 August 2007.
  15. ^ Pakistan calls for ban on 'defamation of Islam' in veiled attack on pope,AFP, 19 September 2006
  16. ^ "Pakistan's Parliament Condemns Pope",Fox News Channel, 17 September 2006
  17. ^ Fisher, Ian (16 September 2006). "Pope Apologizes for Uproar Over His Remarks". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  18. ^ "Turkish PM urges pope to apologise for Islam remarks", Turkishpress.com, 16 September 2006
  19. ^ McShane, Roger (17 September 2006). "Apopelogy". Retrieved 17 September 2006. 
  20. ^ Interview with John Howard
  21. ^ a b Coates, Sam; Haynes, Deborah (17 September 2006). "Al-Qaeda threatens jihad over Pope's remarks". London: The Times. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  22. ^ "Merkel defends Pope amid Muslim fury", Reuters, 16 September 2006
  23. ^ "Prodi, religions must be committed to Dialogue", Agenzia Giornalistica Italia, 16 September 2006
  24. ^ "Aznar se pregunta por qué los musulmanes no se disculpan 'por haber ocupado España ocho siglos'". El Mundo. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  25. ^ "Le ministre suisse de l'Intérieur défend Benoît XVI", Associated Press, 17 September 2006 (French)
  26. ^ "Homily on faith, logic and holy war was seen as a slur on Islam", The Times, 16 September 2006
  27. ^ "Islam not condemned in papal speech, Vatican spokesman says", Catholic World News, 13 September 2006
  28. ^ "Pope Offends Muslims Worldwide", ABC News, 15 September 2006
  29. ^ " Muslim countries ask U.N. Human Rights Council to address Pope's remarks", AP, 18 September 2006
  30. ^ " Brussels defends Pope's freedom of expression", EUObserver, 18 September 2006
  31. ^ Baverstock, Alasdair (15 March 2013). "Pope Francis' run-in with Benedict XVI over the Prophet Mohammed". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  32. ^ "Many Muslims Say Pope’s Apology Is Inadequate", The New York Times, 18 September 2006
  33. ^ "Pope invites Muslims to dialogue, slams 'holy wars'", ANTARA, 13 September 2006
  34. ^ Cardinal adds to islam-violence debate
  35. ^ "Church has a role to guide other faiths: Cardinal Bertone", Catholic World News, 13 September 2006
  36. ^ "Christian Leader Joins Muslims in Denouncing Pope's Remarks", Foxnews.com, 16 September 2006
  37. ^ Walker, Peter (18 September 2006). "Archbishop backs Vatican apology". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  38. ^ "European leaders back Benedict", The Jerusalem Post, 16 September 2006
  39. ^ Perspectives: A Journal of Reformed Thought, November 2006
  40. ^ Open Letter to his holiness Pope Benedict XVI (PDF)
  41. ^ A Common Word, Official Website
  42. ^ "Turkish cleric attacks pope's Islam remarks", Associated Press, 14 September 2006 (German)
  43. ^ "Türkischer Kritiker hatte Rede nicht gelesen" Der Spiegel, 16 September 2006 (German)
  44. ^ "Pope backpedals on 'jihad' remarks: Benedict XVI says he did not intend to offend Muslims". Associated Press. 15 September 2006. 
  45. ^ "Malaysia demands apology", The Sydney Morning Herald, 16 September 2006
  46. ^ "Muslim reaction to Pope", BBC News, 16 September 2006
  47. ^ "Pope tells Muslims he is 'deeply sorry' for crisis", Malaysia Star, 17 September 2006
  48. ^ SPIEGEL interview with Aga Khan - Der Spiegel. 12 October 2006
  49. ^ A struggle over Europe's religious identity - Tariq Ramadan for the International Herald Tribune. 20 September 2006
  50. ^ "Sephardic chief rabbi criticizes pope's remarks", Haaretz, 17 September 2006
  51. ^ [1]
  52. ^ Papal insults – A Bavarian Provocation by Tariq Ali for CounterPunch. 17 September 2006
  53. ^ Papal BullJoseph Ratzinger's latest offense. by Christopher Hitchens for Slate. 18 September 2006
  54. ^ Religion, Reason and Violence: Pope Benedict XVI and IslamHans Köchler, Statement for the International Progress Organization. 16 September 2006
  55. ^ "Traduzione In Lingua Inglesse", Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 16 September 2006
  56. ^ "Pope apologises to Muslims", Reuters, 16 September 2006
  57. ^ "Pope 'sincerely regrets' he offended Muslims", Associated Press, 16 September 2006
  58. ^ "Pope statement not enough — Muslim Brotherhood", Reuters, 16 September 2006
  59. ^ "«Hässliche, unglückliche Äußerungen»: Erdogan fordert Entschuldigung des Papstes", Netzeitung, 17 September 2006 (German)
  60. ^ "Pope praised for making apology", BBC, 16 September 2006
  61. ^ "Sunday Angelus", Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 17 September 2006
  62. ^ "Mixed response to new Pope apology". London: The Guardian. 18 September 2006. [dead link]
  63. ^ "Pope 'deeply sorry' for Muslim fury". CNN. 17 September 2006. [dead link]
  64. ^ "Pope apology 'not good enough'". Herald Sun. 17 September 2006. [dead link]
  65. ^ "Iranian Leader Urges More Papal Protests". AP. 18 September 2006. [dead link]
  66. ^ Hooper, John (19 September 2006). "Pope has joined US crusade, says Iran". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  67. ^ "Pope's Apology Rejected by Some, Accepted by Others". Der Spiegel. 18 September 2006. 
  68. ^ "Ahmadinejad 'respects' Pope". Gulf News. 19 September 2006. 
  69. ^ Owen, Richard (19 September 2006). "The Pope is in danger, warns failed assassin of John Paul II". London: The Times. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  70. ^ "Iran, Malaysia Satisfied with Pope's Expression of Regret". Zaman. 20 September 2006. 
  71. ^ "THE POPE'S ACT OF CONTRITION". Amherst Times. 20 September 2006. 
  72. ^ "Muslims 'must accept Pope apology'". Melbourne: The Age. 19 September 2006. 
  73. ^ "Benedict to meet Muslim ambassadors today"
  74. ^ Pope, Muslims Meet in Bid to Defuse Anger
  75. ^ ASIANEWS Pope: dialogue between Muslims and Christians "a vital necessity"
  76. ^ "Address to the Ambassadors of Countries with a Muslim majority and Muslim communities in Italy" by Pope Benedict XVI, 25 September 2006
  77. ^ Pope: 'Total and profound respect for Muslims', CNN, 25 September 2006
  78. ^ Timothy Noah, Sept 18 2006. "Correction: 'What the Pope said.'" Slate. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/hot_document/features/2006/what_the_pope_said/_2.html
  79. ^ Stuart Buck, 2006. "The translation of Benedict's speech." http://stuartbuck.blogspot.com/2006/09/translation-of-benedicts-speech.html
  80. ^ Horace Hodges, 2006. "What the Pope really, actually said in Regensburg." http://gypsyscholarship.blogspot.com/2006/09/what-pope-really-actually-said-in.html
  81. ^ H.E. Ambassador Dr. Akbar Ahmed et al. (2006). "Open Letter to his Holiness Pope Benedict XVI" (PDF). Egypt State Information Service. Center for Inter-Civilizational Dialogue Inc. Retrieved 23 July 2009. 
  82. ^ "Muslim clerics reach out to Pope". BBC. 14 October 2006. 
  83. ^ "A Common Word". Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  84. ^ "Muslim scholars reach out to Pope". BBC News. 11 October 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2007. 
  85. ^ "Vatican braces for Muslim anger" BBC, 15 September 2006
  86. ^ "Egyptian Muslims stage demonstration against Pope remarks" People's Daily Online 16 September 2006
  87. ^ but clearly showed complete ignorance of the Pope's position and role in Christianity in that he is neither Greek Orthodox nor Anglican. "Report: Rome tightens pope's security after fury over Islam remarks", Haaretz, 16 September 2006
  88. ^ "Five churches bombed and attacked" Associated Press 16 September 2006
  89. ^ Pope Protesters Firebomb 4 West Bank Churches, Open Fire at Fifth
  90. ^ "Iranian leader urges more papal protests". Yahoo! News. 18 September 2006. 
  91. ^ "Turk workers urge pope's arrest" CNN, 19 September 2006][dead link]
  92. ^ The Pope must die, says Muslim
  93. ^ Just outside Westminster Cathedral today...
  94. ^ Thomas K. Gugler. "Pakistan's Jihadiscapes and the Transformation of Lashkar-e Tayba".
  95. ^ "Gunmen Slay Italian Nun", AFP, 17 September 2006
  96. ^ "Nun's death may be linked to Pope: Somali Islamist", Reuters
  97. ^ "Nun shot dead as Pope fails to calm militant Muslims", Timesonline, 18 September 2006
  98. ^ http://www.atma-o-jibon.org/italiano4/rit_bellaspiga5.htm
  99. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-17894764.html
  100. ^ http://www.awdalnews.com/wmview.php?ArtID=3854
  101. ^ http://www.somalilandtimes.net/200/028.shtml
  102. ^ In pictures: Fresh anti-Pope protests, BBC News
  103. ^ "Christian Killed in Iraq in Response to Pope's Speech: Islamic Website", Assyrian International News Agency, 16 September 2006
  104. ^ "Second Assyrian Christian Killed in Retaliation for Pope's Remarks", Assyrian International News Agency, 17 September 2006
  105. ^ Violence against Christians grows in Iraq, Ekklesia, 29 September 2006
  106. ^ "Vatikan verschärft Sicherheitsvorkehrungen", Der Spiegel, 16 September 2006 (German)
  107. ^ Iraq priest "killed over pope speech", Aljazeera.net, 12 October 2006
  108. ^ The other side of the coin. What's after the Pope's lecture? By Saifuddin Tajuddin. Al Sharq Al Awsat, 28 September 2006 (in Arabic)
  109. ^ The Pope and his speech. From infallibility to naïve simplification…!, by Atallah Muhajirani, Al Sharq Al Awsat, 26 September 2006 (in Arabic)
  110. ^ The challenge of Vatican's leader, by Al Sadiq Al Mahdi, Al Sharq Al Awsat, 24 September 2006 (in Arabic)
  111. ^ The Pope, the Emperor and the Persian sage, by Amir Tahiri, Al Sharq Al Awsat, 22 September 2006 (in Arabic)
  112. ^ Serious errors of both fact and judgment, by Ruth Gledhill, The Times, 16 September 2006
  113. ^ Lapsus ratisbonæ, by Pablo Tornielli. (Spanish)
  114. ^ [2]
  115. ^ a b [3]
  116. ^ However, observers note that the Pope insisted on keeping such comments in his speech even after his handlers advised him against it. According to Israeli analyst Uri Avnery, this "quote serves exactly the requirements of .... George Bush II. He, too, wants to unite the Christian world against the mainly Muslim "Axis of Evil". Moreover, the Turks are again knocking on the doors of Europe, this time peacefully. It is well known that the Pope supports the forces that object to the entry of Turkey into the European Union." The Pope has actually called for allowing Turkey into the European Union and spoke against the US invasion of Iraq. Moreover, this non-Christian analyst cited above, Uri Avnery, fails to understand that Catholics and Evangelicals are philosophically fundamentally different and disagree on many issues. The blatantly false comment by Uri Avnery could also be seen as an attempt to ignore the deeply seated conflict in the Islamic world with Israel and blame everything on the Pope who has not commanded a military force in nearly 500 years. From Faith, Adding a Blunt Footnote on Jihad'], The New York Times, 13 September 2006]
  117. ^ 'Benedict XVI's background is theological, not diplomatic', The Jerusalem Post, 18 September 2006
  118. ^ 'The Pope Was Right', Los Angeles Times, 20 September 2006]
  119. ^ Sailing to Byzantium, International Herald Tribune, 29 September 2006
  120. ^ Calculated Risk, Deutsche Welle, 27 September 2006

External links[edit]

.-"The Word of Ratzinger". Pilar Rahola. El Periódico,17 September 2006. http://www.pilarrahola.com/3_0/ARTICULOS/default.cfm?ID=396&SUBFAM=8