Regina, Saskatchewan

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Regina
City
City of Regina
Victoria Park, Regina
Victoria Park, Regina
Flag of Regina
Flag
Coat of arms of Regina
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): The Queen City
Motto: Floreat Regina
("Let Regina/the Queen Flourish")
Regina is located in Saskatchewan
Regina
Regina
Location of Regina in Saskatchewan
Regina is located in Canada
Regina
Regina
Location of Regina in Canada
Coordinates: 50°27′17″N 104°36′24″W / 50.45472°N 104.60667°W / 50.45472; -104.60667
Country Canada
Province Saskatchewan
District Municipality of Sherwood
Established 1882
Government
 • City Mayor Michael Fougere
 • Governing body Regina City Council
 • MPs
 • MLAs
Area
 • City 145.5 km2 (56.2 sq mi)
 • Metro 3,408.26 km2 (1,315.94 sq mi)
Elevation 577 m (1,893 ft)
Population (2011)
 • City 193,100 (Ranked 24th)
 • Density 1,327.6/km2 (3,438.4/sq mi)
 • Urban 192,756[1]
 • Metro 210,556 (Ranked 18th)
 • Metro density 61.8/km2 (160.1/sq mi)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC−6)
Area code(s) 306 639
NTS Map 072I07
GNBC Code HAIMP
Website http://www.regina.ca/

Regina (/rɨˈnə/) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council. Regina is the cathedral city of the Roman Catholic[2] and Romanian Orthodox[3] Dioceses of Regina and the Anglican Diocese of Qu'Appelle.[4] The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Sherwood No. 159. In 2013, Regina was named the 6th best Canadian mid-sized city (17th best overall) in which to live by MoneySense magazine.[5]

Regina was previously the seat of government of the North-West Territories, of which the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta originally formed part, and of the District of Assiniboia. The site having previously been Wascana ("Buffalo Bones" in Cree), it was renamed in 1882 after Queen Victoria, Victoria Regina, by her daughter Princess Louise, wife of the Marquess of Lorne, then the Governor General of Canada.[6]

Unlike other planned cities in the Canadian West, on its treeless flat plain Regina has few topographical features other than the small spring run-off, Wascana Creek. Early planners took advantage of such opportunity by damming the creek to create a decorative lake to the south of the central business district with a dam a block and a half west of the later elaborate 840-foot (260 m) long Albert Street Bridge[7] across the new lake. Regina's importance was further secured when the new province of Saskatchewan designated the city its capital in 1906.[8] Wascana Centre, created around the focal point of Wascana Lake, remains one of Regina's attractions and contains the Provincial Legislative Building, both campuses of the University of Regina, the provincial museum of natural history, the Regina Conservatory (in the original Regina College buildings), the Saskatchewan Science Centre,[9] the MacKenzie Art Gallery and the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts.

Residential neighbourhoods include precincts beyond the historic city centre are historically or socially noteworthy neighbourhoods – namely Lakeview and The Crescents both of which lie directly south of downtown. Immediately to the north of the central business district is the old warehouse district, increasingly the focus of shopping, nightclubs and residential development;[10] as in other western cities of North America, the periphery contains shopping malls and big box stores.

In 1912, the Regina Cyclone destroyed much of the town;[11] in the 1930s, the Regina Riot brought further attention and, in the midst of the 1930s drought and Great Depression, which hit the Canadian Prairies particularly hard with their economic focus on dry land grain farming.[12] The CCF (now the NDP, a major left-wing political party in Canada), formulated its foundation Regina Manifesto, 1933 in Regina.[13] In recent years, Saskatchewan's agricultural and mineral resources have come into new demand, and it has entered a new period of strong economic growth.[14]

The current estimate of the Regina CMA population, as of July 1, 2013, according to Statistics Canada is 232,090.[15]

History[edit]

Founding[edit]

The eponymous Pile of Bones. These are buffalo bones, originally collected by the Cree.[16]

Regina was established in 1882 when it became clear that Edgar Dewdney, the lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, eschewed the previously established and considered Battleford, Troy and Fort Qu'Appelle (the latter some 30 mi (48 km) to the east, one on rolling plains and the other in the Qu'Appelle Valley between two lakes), as the territorial seat of government: these were widely considered more amiable locations for what was anticipated would be a far more major metropole for the Canadian plains than actually eventuated, situated as they were in amply watered and treed rolling parklands whereas "Pile-of-Bones," as the site was then called,[17] was in the midst of arid and featureless grassland.

Lieutenant-Governor Dewdney had acquired land adjacent to the route of the future CPR line at Pile-of-Bones, which was distinguished only by collections of bison bones near a small spring run-off creek, some few kilometres downstream from its origin in the midst of what are now wheat fields. There was an "obvious conflict of interest" in Dewdney's choosing the site of Pile-of-Bones as the territorial seat of government[18] and it was a national scandal at the time.[19] But until 1897, when responsible government was accomplished in the Territories,[20] the lieutenant-governor and council governed by fiat and there was little legitimate means of challenging such decisions outside the federal capital of Ottawa. There, the Territories were remote and of little concern. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, wife of the then Governor General of Canada, named the new community Regina, after her mother, the Queen.[21]

Donald C. McDougall and his shack (1882), the first house in Regina, believed to have been located along what is now the downtown section of Cornwall Street[22]

Commercial considerations prevailed and the town's authentic development soon began as a collection of wooden shanties and tent shacks clustered around the site designated by the CPR for its future station, some two miles (3 km) to the east of where Dewdney had reserved substantial landholdings for himself and where he sited the Territorial (now the Saskatchewan) Government House.[23]

North-West ("Saskatchewan") Rebellion[edit]

Regina attained national prominence in 1885 during the North-West Rebellion when troops were mostly able to be transported by train on the CPR from eastern Canada as far as Qu'Appelle Station,[24] before marching to the battlefield in the further Northwest – Qu'Appelle having been the major debarkation and distribution centre until 1890 when the completion of the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake, and Saskatchewan Railway linked Regina with Saskatoon and Prince Albert.[25] Subsequently, the rebellion's leader, Louis Riel, was tried and hanged in Regina – giving the infant community increased and, at the time, not unwelcome national attention in connection with a figure who was generally at the time considered an unalloyed villain in anglophone Canada.[26] The episode, including Riel's imprisonment, trial and execution, brought the new Regina Leader, later the "Leader-Post," to national prominence.

Corner of South Railway Street (later renamed Saskatchewan Drive) and Scarth Street looking south, circa 1915. Note old Post Office (tower in left background), currently Prince Edward Building, at 11th Avenue.

Incorporation[edit]

Regina was incorporated as a city on 19 June 1903, and was proclaimed the capital of the 1905 province of Saskatchewan on 23 May 1906, by the first provincial government, led by Premier Walter Scott; the monumental Saskatchewan Legislative Building was built between 1908 and 1912.

"Regina Cyclone"[edit]

Inner city after Regina Cyclone, 30 June 1912

The "Regina Cyclone" was a tornado which devastated the city on 30 June 1912 and remains the deadliest tornado in Canadian history, with a total of 28 fatalities, the population of the city having been 30,213 in 1911. Green funnel clouds formed and touched down south of the city, tearing a swath through the residential area between Wascana Lake and Victoria Avenue, continuing through the downtown business district, rail yards, warehouse district, and northern residential area.

The 1930s[edit]

Rioters and police during the Regina Riot, 1935, an event of national significance shortly before the end of the government of Prime Minister R.B. Bennett, followed by his departure from Canada.

Regina grew rapidly until the beginning of the Great Depression, in 1929, though only to a small fraction of the originally anticipated population explosion as population centre of the new province. By this time, Saskatchewan was considered the third province of Canada[27] in both population and economic indicators. Thereafter, Saskatchewan never recovered its early promise and Regina's growth slowed and at times reversed. In 1935, Regina gained notoriety for the Regina Riot, an incident of the On-to-Ottawa Trek. (See The Depression, the CCF and the Regina Riot.) Beginning in the 1930s, Regina became known as a centre of considerable political activism and experiment as its people sought to adjust to new, reduced economic realities, including the co-operative movement and medicare.

Main article: Regina neighbourhoods

Post-World War II[edit]

Fourth Regina City Hall, opened December 14, 1976.

The disappearance of the Simpson's, Eaton's and Army & Navy retail department stores in or near the central business district[28] and Simpsons-Sears to the north on Broad Street, left only the Hudson's Bay Company as a large department store in Regina-centre. This with the proliferation of shopping malls beginning in the 1960s and "big box stores" on the '90s on the periphery, together with a corresponding drift of entertainment venues (and all but one downtown cinema) to the city outskirts, had depleted the city centre. The former Hudson's Bay Company department store (previously the site of the Regina Theatre though long vacant after that burned to the ground) has been converted into offices; Globe Theatre, located in the old Post Office building at 11th Avenue and Scarth Street, Casino Regina and its show lounge in the beautiful, old CPR train station, the Cornwall Centre and downtown restaurants now draw people downtown again.

The old "gingerbread" 1908 City Hall on 11th Avenue between Rose and Hamilton Streets; Medical Arts Building in the background: city planners have since the '60s largely allowed dense public and commercial building to depart the central business district.

Many buildings of significance and value were lost during the period from 1945 through approximately 1970: Knox United Church was demolished in 1951; the Romanesque Revival city hall in 1964 (the failed shopping mall which replaced it is now office space for the Government of Canada[29]) and the 1894 Supreme Court of the North-West Territories building at Hamilton Street and Victoria Avenue in 1965. Recently older buildings have been put to new uses, including the old Normal School on the Regina College campus of the University of Regina (now the Canada Saskatchewan Production Studios) and the old Post Office on the Scarth Street Mall. The Warehouse District, immediately adjacent to the central business district to the north of the CPR line, has become a desirable commercial and residential precinct as historic warehouses have been converted to retail, nightclubs and residential use.[30]

Government House, Regina

The long-imperilled Government House was saved in 1981 after decades of neglect and returned to viceregal use,[31] the former Anglican diocesan property at Broad Street and College Avenue is being redeveloped with strict covenants to maintain the integrity of the diocesan buildings and St Chad's School[32] and the former Sacred Heart Academy building[33] immediately adjacent to the Roman Catholic Cathedral has been converted to tony townhouses.

Events of national political importance which occurred in Regina include

  • the trial of Louis Riel (followed by Riel's execution) in July 1885;
  • the adoption in 1933 by the new CCF (now the NDP) of the Regina Manifesto, which set out the new party's goals;[34]
  • the Regina Riot on 1 July 1935;[35]
  • the 1944 election of the CCF under T.C. Douglas, the first social democratic government in North America[36] and a pioneer of numerous social programs – notably of course Medicare[37] – which were later adopted in other provinces and nationally; and
  • the Saskatchewan Doctors' Strike in 1962 when medical doctors withheld their services in response to the introduction of Medicare with the enactment of the Medical Care Insurance Act, 1961 (Sask.)[38]

In 1962 Wascana Centre was begun, in an effort to make Regina as enjoyable and fulfilling for residents as it had long been the "metropole" for farmers and residents of small neighbouring towns. Despite the setting, improbable though it always was compared with other more likely sites for the capitol, the efforts' results were favourable.

Regina seen from Wascana Hill at sunrise

Geography and climate[edit]

Downtown Regina during blizzard: Victoria Avenue looking east.

The city is situated on a broad, flat, treeless and largely waterless plain, except for a large underground aquifer – at the time of its founding, a matter of national scandal and notoriety as to corrupt dealings at the time, since it is immediately adjacent to amply watered and treed rolling parklands.[39]

Pond on Pilot Butte Creek in Spruce Meadows Park subdivision, east Regina south of Trans-Canada Highway.

There is an abundance of parks and greenspaces: all of its trees — some 300,000[16] — shrubs and other plants were hand-planted.[40] As in other prairie cities, American elms were planted in front yards in residential neighbourhoods and on boulevards along major traffic arteries and are the dominant species in the urban forest.

In recent years the pattern of primary and high school grounds being acreages of prairie sports grounds has been re-thought and such grounds have been landscaped with artificial hills and parks. Newer residential subdivisions in the northwest and southeast have, instead of spring runoff storm sewers, decorative landscaped lagoons.

The streetscape is now endangered by Dutch elm disease, which has spread through North America from the eastern seaboard and has now reached the Canadian prairies; for the time being it is controlled by pest management programs and species not susceptible to the disease are being planted; the disease has the potential to wipe out Regina's elm population.[41][42]

Main article: Regina neighbourhoods

Climate[edit]

Regina experiences a dry continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 2a[43]) with warm summers and cold, dry winters, prone to extremes at all times of the year. Average annual precipitation is 388 mm (15.28 in) and is heaviest from June through August, with June being the wettest month with an average of 75 mm (2.95 in) of precipitation. The average daily temperature for the year is 2.8 °C (37.0 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was −50.0 °C (−58.0 °F) on 1 January 1885, while the highest recorded temperature was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 5 July 1937.[44]

Wascana Lake, Regina, in one of the area's harsh winters.

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1901 2,249 —    
1911 30,213 +1243.4%
1921 34,432 +14.0%
1931 53,209 +54.5%
1941 57,389 +7.9%
1951 71,319 +24.3%
1961 112,141 +57.2%
1971 139,469 +24.4%
1981 162,613 +16.6%
1991 179,178 +10.2%
1996 180,404 +0.7%
2001 178,225 −1.2%
2006 179,246 +0.6%
2011 193,100 +7.7%

In absolute numbers of Aboriginal population, Regina ranks seventh among Census Metropolitan Areas in Canada with an "Aboriginal-identity population of 15,685 (8.3% of the total city population), of which 9,200 were First Nations, 5,990 Métis, and 495 other Aboriginal."[47]

2011[edit]

According to the 2011 Canadian Census, the population of Regina is 193,100,[48] a 7.7% increased from 2006. The population density is 1,327.6 people per square km. The median age is 37.1 years old (48.5 for women and 38.5 for men), which is lower than the median age of Canada at 40.6 years old.

Most residents in Regina speak English (98.1%), and a small number speak French (1.3%). 12.3% of the population's mother tongue was something other than English or French; German (1.4%), Tagalog (1.3%), Chinese (1.0%), Ukrainian (0.8%), Urdu (0.6%), Punjabi (0.5%), Spanish (0.5%) and Vietnamese (0.5%)

According to the 2011 National Household Survey, 94.0% of Regina residents are Canadian citizens, and about 5.5% of residents are recent immigrants (from 2001 to 2011). The racial make up of Regina is White (78.6%), Aboriginal (9.9%) (First Nations (5.8%) and Metis (3.9%)), Southeast Asian (3.5%), South Asian (2.6%), East Asian (2.2%), Black (1.6%), Latin American (0.7%) and Arab & West Asian (0.6%).

Religiously speaking, 27.1% of Regina's population does not affiliate with any religion. For those who do, the religious make up is Christian (67.9%), Muslim (1.9%), Hindu (0.8%), Sikh (0.5%), Aboriginal Spirituality (0.5%) and Jewish (0.2%).

As far as education goes, for those who are 25 to 64 years old, the highest levels of education are as followed; 61.6% of people have a post-secondary schooling degree, 27.6% have a high school degree (or equivalent to) and 10.8% have elementary. The unemployment rate is 5.0% in Regina which is lower than the national average at 7.8%. The median household income before taxes is $69,192, and after taxes at $59,727, which is a bit higher than the national average at $54,089.

There are 83,179 dwellings with an occupancy rate of 95.7%. The median value of a household in Regina is $299,748 which is about $20,000 higher than the national average at $280,552.

Religion[edit]

Holy Rosary Roman Catholic Cathedral

The 2006 Census reported

  • other Christian denominations (including Oriental Orthodox,[49] Jehovah's Witness, and Mormonism), and other religions (including Sikhism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) (the very large synagogue on Victoria Avenue at Osler Street is long closed and replaced by a smaller one in south Regina; however with a resident Rabbi and an influx of Russian-Israeli immigrants over the past 7 years, the numbers are recovering and continue to increase), 2.9%;
  • no specific religious affiliation professed, 19%.
Westminster Presbyterian, later United, Church on 13th Avenue, next door to Holy Rosary Cathedral

Considerable ecumenical engagement of assorted Christian denominations pertained in the latter part of the 20th century; as religious commitment has waned in the general population[50] apparent from the latter 1960s, some churches and clergy have withdrawn from such mutual engagement, while numerous United and Anglican churches have closed as elsewhere in Canada, through shifting of both ethnicity and economic vitality of various sub-communities, notwithstanding social interaction and intermarriage in Regina as in other Canadian cities. It is clear that the declaration of no specific religious affiliation, clearly growing by the late 1960s, is increasingly substantial, doubtless as elsewhere in Canada.

Neighbourhoods[edit]

Warehouse District, Regina 2008
Regina residential streetscape.

Some neighbourhoods of note include:

  1. the remaining residential portion of the original town between the CPR tracks and Wascana Lake
  2. the downtown business district, deemed "Market Square";
  3. the West End (latterly deemed the "Cathedral Area");
  4. the historic and affluent Crescents area, immediately to the north of Wascana Creek west of the Albert Street bridge and dam which creates Wascana Lake);
  5. Germantown, originally a poor and ill-serviced area of continental Europeans;
  6. Lakeview, adjacent to the provincial Legislative Building and office buildings, a neighbourhood of some imposing mansions dating from before the First World War through the post-War '20s boom; and
  7. the Warehouse District, formerly the reception zone for freight, being redeveloped as desirable residential accommodation, restaurants, nightclubs and shopping precincts.

Crime[edit]

Crime rates[edit]

Despite having fallen in recent years, Regina's crime rate remains among the highest in Canada. Regina's overall police-reported crime rate was second highest in the country in 2012. However, the relative severity of crimes in Regina is quite high and the city continues to top the national Crime Severity Index.[51]

Regina's crime rate declined 10% from 2011 to 2012.[51]

Regina also has one of the highest rates of intravenous drug use in Canada.[52]

Wascana Lake.

Police Services[edit]

The Regina Police Service is the primary police service for the city of Regina and holds both Municipal and Provincial Jurisdiction. The following services also hold jurisdiction in the city and are in partnership: Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canadian National Railway Police Service and the Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service.[56]

Economy[edit]

General Motors Factory, Regina, 1928

Oil and natural gas, potash,[57] kaolin, sodium sulphite and bentonite contribute a great part of Regina and area's economy. The completion of the train link between eastern Canada and the then-District of Assiniboia in 1885, the development of the high-yielding and early-maturing Marquis strain of wheat and the opening of new grain markets in the United Kingdom established the first impetus for economic development and substantial population settlement.[58] The farm and agricultural component is still a significant part of the economy – the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool (now Viterra Inc.,[59]), "the world's largest grain-handling co-operative" has its headquarters in Regina[60] — but it is no longer the major driver; provincially it has slipped to eighth overall, well behind the natural resources sectors.

Modern transport has obviated the development of a significant manufacturing sector and local petroleum refining facilities: the General Motors assembly plant north on Winnipeg Street, built in 1927 – when Saskatchewan's agricultural economy was booming and briefly made it the third province of Canada after Ontario and Quebec in both population (at just under one million people, roughly the same population as today[58]) and GDP – ceased production during the depression of the 1930s. It was resumed by the federal crown during World War II and housed Regina Wartime Industries Ltd., where 1,000 people were engaged in armaments manufacture.[61] It was not returned to private automotive manufacture after the war and became derelict. Imperial Oil long maintained a large refinery on the northern outskirts of Regina and IPSCO Inc., a leading world producer of steel plate and pipe and as of July 2007 a wholly owned subsidiary of the Swedish steel company SSAB, began in Regina in 1956 as Prairie Pipe Manufacturing Company Ltd; while the bulk of its assets and customers are now in USA and it has its operational headquarters in Chicago, Illinois, it retains its registered office and substantial manufacturing facilities in Regina.[62]

11th Avenue in the Central Business District, 2008

Imperial Oil (the Canadian subsidiary of Standard Oil, now ExxonMobil), for many years maintained a refinery in Regina; today with high world petroleum prices making the exploitation of Saskatchewan oil resources an unprecedentedly lively proposition, Federated Co-op maintains an 103,000 barrels per day (16,400 m3/d) refinery and, together with the Province, an upgrading operation for heavy oil.[63]

Crown Life, a significant Canadian and international insurance company, transferred its national head office from Toronto to Regina in 1996 but was acquired by Canada Life in 1998 and the corporate head office returned to Toronto, though with assurances that the company would retain a strong presence in Regina.[64]

On 19 May 2009 it was announced that Viterra (formerly Saskatchewan Wheat Pool, becoming Viterra after acquisition of Agricore United), the largest grain handler in Canada, would acquire ABB Grain of Adelaide, South Australia in September 2009. The Head Office would be relocated to Regina, with the worldwide malting headquarters remaining in Adelaide. The two companies together are responsible for 37 percent of the world's exports of wheat, canola and barley.[65][66][67]

The provincial government continues to be a major driver in the civic economy.[60] The Regina Research Park immediately adjacent to the University campus hosts several science and technology companies which conduct research activities in conjunction with University departments.

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture in Regina
Originally the Provincial Museum, renamed Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History and most recently in 1993, Royal Saskatchewan Museum

Regina has a substantial cultural life in music, theatre and dance, supported by the fine arts constituency at the University of Regina, which has faculties of music, theatre and arts. At various times this has attracted notable artistic talent: the Regina Five were artists at Regina College (the University's predecessor) who gained national fame in the 1950s. The long-established MacKenzie Art Gallery once occupied cramped quarters adjacent to Darke Hall on the University of Regina College Avenue Campus; since relocated to a large building at the southwest corner of the provincial government site, at Albert Street near 23rd Avenue. Donald M. Kendrick, Bob Boyer and Joe Fafard, now with significant international reputations, have been other artists from or once in Regina. The Regina Symphony Orchestra (Canada's oldest continuously performing orchestra[68]) performs in the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts (now the Conexus Arts Centre). Concerts and recitals are performed both by local and visiting musicians in the Centre of the Arts and assorted other auditoriums including the University of Regina. The Regina Conservatory of Music operates in the former girls' residence wing of the Regina College building. Annual festivals in and near Regina through the year include the Cathedral Village Arts Festival; the Craven Country Jamboree;[69] the Regina Folk Festival;[70] Queen City Pride; the Regina Dragon Boat Festival;[71] and Mosaic, mounted by the Regina Multicultural Council,[72] which earned Heritage Canada’s designation of 2004 "Cultural Capital of Canada" (in the over 125,000 population category).[73] The annual Kiwanis Music Festival affords rising musical talents the opportunity to achieve nation-wide recognition. The city's summer agricultural exhibition was originally established in 1884 as the Assiniboia Agricultural Association and since the mid-1960s has been styled "Buffalo Days".[74]

Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts as first appeared

"[t]he Regina Little Theatre began in 1926, and performed in Regina College before building its own theatre in 1981,"[75] Regina lacked a large concert and live theatre venue for many years after the loss to fire of the Regina Theatre in 1938 and the demolition of the 1906 City Hall in 1964 at a time when preservation of heritage architecture was not yet a fashionable issue. But until the demolition of downtown cinemas which doubled as live theatres the lack was not urgent, and Darke Hall on the Regina College campus of the university provided a small concert and stage venue. (See Regina's historic buildings and precincts.)

Old Post Office, the current venue for the Globe Theatre, and Scarth Street Mall, looking south from 11th Avenue, 2008

This was remedied in 1970 with the construction of the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts (now the Conexus Arts Centre) as a Canadian Centennial project, a theatre and concert hall complex overlooking Wascana Lake which is one of the most acoustically perfect concert venues in North America;[76] it is home to the Regina Symphony Orchestra (Canada's oldest continuously performing orchestra[77]), Opera Saskatchewan and New Dance Horizons, a contemporary dance company.[78] The Royal Saskatchewan Museum (the present 1955 structure a Saskatchewan Golden Jubilee project[79]) dates from 1906.[80] The old Post Office at Scarth Street and 11th Avenue, temporarily used as a city hall after the demolition of the 1906 City Hall, is now home to the Globe Theatre, founded in 1966 as "Saskatchewan's first professional theatre since 1927."[81] Holy Rosary Roman Catholic Cathedral[82] and Knox-Metropolitan United Church have particularly impressive Casavant Frères pipe organs, maintain substantial musical establishments and are frequently the venues for choral concerts and organ recitals.

The Regina Public Library is a city-wide library system with nine branches. Its facilities include the RPL Film theatre which plays non-mainstream cinema, the Dunlop Art Gallery, special literacy services and a prairie history collection.[83] The MacKenzie Art Gallery in Wascana Centre and the Dunlop Art Gallery have permanent collections and sponsor travelling exhibitions.[84] The Saskatchewan Archives and the Saskatchewan Genealogical Library also offer information for those interested in the people of Saskatchewan.

Parks and outdoor attractions[edit]

Regina at sunrise, viewed from Wascana hill.

Regina has a substantial proportion of its overall area dedicated as parks and greenspaces, with biking paths, cross-country ski-ing venues and other recreational facilities throughout the city; Wascana Lake, the venue for summer boating activities, is regularly cleared of snow in winter for skating and there are toboggan runs both in Wascana Centre and downstream on the banks of Wascana Creek. Victoria Park is in the central business district and numerous greenspaces throughout the residential subdivisions and newer subdivisions in the north and west of the city contain large ornamental ponds to add interest to residential precincts such as Rochdale, Lakewood, Lakeridge, Spruce Meadows and Windsor Park; older school playing fields throughout the city have also been converted into landscaped parks.[85]

Decorative storm reservoir in a newer residential subdivision in East Regina to the south of the Trans-Canada Highway.

The City operates five municipal golf courses, including two in King's Park northeast of the city. Kings Park Recreation facility is also home to ball diamonds, picnic grounds, and stock car racing. Within half an hour's drive are the summer cottage and camping country and winter ski resorts in the Qu'Appelle Valley with Last Mountain and Buffalo Pound Lakes and the four Fishing Lakes of Pasqua, Echo, Mission and Katepwa; slightly farther east are Round and Crooked Lakes, also in the Qu'Appelle Valley, and to the southeast the Kenosee Lake cottage country.

Wascana Creek in Les Sherman Park, West End, downstream from the Albert Street Bridge and Wascana Lake

Wascana Centre is a 9.3 km2 (3.6 sq mi) park built around Wascana Lake and designed in 1961 by Minoru Yamasaki — the Seattle-born architect best known as the designer of the original World Trade Center in New York – in tandem with his starkly modernist design for the new Regina Campus of the University of Saskatchewan.[86] Wascana Lake was created as a "stock watering hole" — for the CPR's rolling stock, that is – in 1883 when a dam and bridge were constructed 1½ blocks to the west of the present Albert Street Bridge. A new dam and bridge were built in 1908, and Wascana Lake was used as a domestic water source, to cool the city’s power plant and, in due course, for the new provincial legislative building.[87]

By the 1920s, with Boggy Creek as a source of domestic water and wells into the aquifer under Regina. Wascana Lake had ceased to have a utilitarian purpose and had become primarily a recreational facility, with bathing and boating its principal uses. It was drained in the 1930s as part of a government relief project; 2,100 men widened and dredged the lake bed and created two islands using only hand tools and horse-drawn wagons.[87]

During the fall and winter of 2003–2004, Wascana Lake was again drained and dredged to deepen it while adding a new island, a promenade area beside Albert Street Bridge, water fountains, and a waterfall to help aerate the lake.[88]

Downstream from Wascana Lake Wascana Creek continues to provide a lush parkland on its increasingly intensively developed perimeter; in the northwest quadrant of the city Wascana Creek has a second weir with a smaller reservoir in A.E. Wilson Park.

Bedroom communities[edit]

South shore of Mission Lake to the east of Fort Qu'Appelle, a summer resort of Reginans from the 1880s onwards, though here is a photo of one of the Native Canadian Residential Schools.

From its first founding, particularly once motorcars were common, Reginans have repaired to the nearby Qu'Appelle Valley on weekends, for summer and winter holidays and indeed as a place to live permanently and commute from. Since the 1940s, many of the towns near Regina have steadily lost population[89] as western Canada's agrarian economy re-organised itself from small family farm landholdings of a quarter-section (160 acres, the original standard land grant to homesteaders[90]) to the multi-section (a "section" being 640 acres (2.6 km2), one square mile) landholdings that are increasingly necessary for economic viability.[91]

B-Say-Tah Point on Echo Lake in the Qu'Appelle Valley, a popular holiday resort and commuter community for Reginans since the 1880s.

Some of these towns have enjoyed somewhat of a renaissance as a result of the excellent roads that for many decades seemed likely to doom them; they – and to some extent the nearby city of Moose Jaw — are now undergoing a mild resurgence as commuter satellites for Regina. Qu'Appelle, at one time intended to be the metropole for the original District of Assiniboia in the North-West Territories (as they then were), saw during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s Regina cottagers pass through en route to the Qu'Appelle Valley; Highway 10, which bypassed Qu'Appelle, running directly from Balgonie to Fort Qu'Appelle off Highway Number 1, quickly ended this. Qu'Appelle has recently seen more interest taken in it as a place to live.[92] Fort Qu'Appelle and its neighbouring resort villages on the Fishing Lakes remain a summer vacation venue of choice;[93] Indian Head is far enough from Regina to have an autonomous identity but close enough that its charm and vitality attract commuters – it "has a range of professional services and tradespeople, financial institutions, and a number of retail establishments."[94] It was the scene of outdoor filming sequences in the CBC television series "Little Mosque on the Prairie."[95] White City[96] and Emerald Park[96] are quasi-suburbs of Regina, as have become Balgonie,[97] Pense, Grand Coulee, Pilot Butte[98] and Lumsden in the Qu'Appelle Valley, some ten miles (16 km) to the north of Regina.[99] Regina Beach — situated on Last Mountain Lake (known locally as Long Lake) and a 30-minute drive from Regina – has been a summer favourite of Reginans from its first establishment and since the 1970s has also become a commuter satellite;[100] Rouleau (also known as the town of Dog River in the CTV television sitcom Corner Gas) is 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Regina and in the summer months use to "bustle with film crews."[101]

Sports[edit]

Mosaic Stadium during a Saskatchewan Roughriders game

The Saskatchewan Roughriders of the Canadian Football League, play their home games at Mosaic Stadium in Regina. Formed in 1910 as the Regina Rugby Club and renamed the Regina Roughriders in 1924 and the Saskatchewan Roughriders in 1950,[102] the "Riders" are a community-owned team with a loyal fan support base; every game in the 2008 season was sold out; out-of-town season ticket holders often travel 300-400 kilometres (200–250 mi) or more to attend home games.[103] The team has won the Grey Cup on four occasions, in 1966, 1989, 2007 and 2013.[104]

Other sports teams in Regina include the Regina Pats of the Western Hockey League, the Regina Thunder of the Canadian Junior Football League, the Prairie Fire of the Rugby Canada Super League, the Regina Red Sox of the Western Major Baseball League, and the University of Regina's Regina Cougars/Regina Rams of the CIS.

Regina's curling teams have distinguished the city for many decades. Richardson Crescent commemorates the Richardson curling team of the 1950s. In recent years Olympic Gold medal winner Sandra Schmirler and her rink occasioned vast civic pride; the Sandra Schmirler Leisure Centre in east Regina commemorates her.

North-east of the city lies Kings Park Speedway, a ⅓-mile paved oval used for stock car racing since the late 1960s. Regina hosted the Western Canada Summer Games in 1975, and again in 1987, as well as being the host city for the 2005 Canada Summer Games.

Visitor attractions[edit]

The Kramer Imax Theatre located at the Saskatchewan Science Centre in the renovated former Regina powerhouse on the north shore of east Wascana Lake

Regina is a travel destination for residents of southeastern Saskatchewan and the immediately adjacent regions of the neighbouring US States of North Dakota and Montana, and an intermediate stopping point for travellers on the Trans-Canada Highway. Attractions for visitors in Regina include:

The former large-scale Children's Day Parade and Travellers' Day Parade during Fair Week in the summer, which were substantially supported by the Masons and Shriners, has become the fair parade as such service clubs have lost vitality: the Regina Exhibition's travelling midway divides its time among other western Canadian and US cities. A Santa Claus parade is now mounted during the lead-up to Christmas.

Local media[edit]

The Leader building, downtown Regina, circa 1910

The daily newspaper for the city is The Leader-Post, first published in 1883 and currently owned by Postmedia Network.[109] The Regina Sun is published by The Leader-Post and distributed free of charge. Metro is a free, daily commuter newspaper that started distribution in Regina on April 2, 2012. Prairie Dog is a free alternative newspaper and blog produced by a Saskatchewan worker co-operative. L'eau vive is a weekly newspaper publishing in French and serving all of Saskatchewan's francophone community.

The thirteen radio stations broadcasting from the city include CJME News/Talk 980, FM 90.3 CJLR-FM-4 MBC Radio First Nations community radio Missinipi Broadcasting Corporation, FM 91.3 CJTR-FM 91.3 CJTR community radio, FM 97.7 CBKF-FM Première Chaîne news/talk (CBC, French), and FM 102.5 CBKR-FM CBC Radio One news/talk (CBC).

There are four private and public television channels broadcasting from Regina: CKCK-TV (CTV), CBKT (CBC), CFRE-TV (Global), and CBKFT (SRC). Educational channel City Saskatchewan (formerly the Saskatchewan Communications Network) and a community channel owned by Regina's cable provider Access Communications are also available on cable.

Education[edit]

University of Regina[edit]

Main article: University of Regina
New Wascana Campus of the University of Regina seen from the Saskatchewan Science Centre across Wascana Lake

In the years prior to the establishment of the University of Saskatchewan, there was continued debate as to which Saskatchewan city would be awarded the provincial university: ultimately Saskatoon won out over Regina and in immediate reaction the Methodist Church of Canada established Regina College in 1911. Regina College was initially a denominational high school and junior college affiliated with the University of Saskatchewan – the later-established Campion and Luther Colleges, operated by the Roman Catholic Jesuit Order and Lutheran Church respectively, operated on the same basis. The Church of England concurrently established St Chad's College, an Anglican theological training facility, and the Qu'Appelle Diocesan School on the Anglican diocesan property immediately to the east of Regina College on College Avenue. All were quasi-tertiary institutions.

John Archer Library, Wascana campus

Ultimately, the financially hard-pressed United Church of Canada (the successor to the Methodist Church), which in any case had ideological difficulties with the concept of fee-paying private schooling given its longstanding espousal of universal free education from the time of its early father Egerton Ryerson, could no longer maintain Regina College during the Great Depression of the 1930s, and Regina College was disaffiliated from the Church and surrendered to the University of Saskatchewan; it became the Regina Campus of the University of Saskatchewan in 1961. After a protracted contretemps over the siting of several faculties in Saskatoon which had been promised to the Regina campus, Regina Campus sought and obtained a separate charter as the University of Regina in 1974.

Campion College and Luther College now have federated college status in the University of Regina, as does the First Nations University of Canada;[110] The United Church's Regina College has entirely consolidated with the University of Saskatchewan and identified with St Andrew's College there: despite the considerable historical involvement by the Methodist, Presbyterian and Anglican churches in antecedent institutions of the University of Regina. The Regina Research Park is located immediately adjacent to the main campus and many of its initiatives in information technology, petroleum and environmental sciences are conducted in conjunction with university departments. A member in the research park is Canada's Petroleum Technology Research facility, a world leader in oil recovery and geological storage of CO2.

Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology[edit]

The Wascana campus[111] of this province-wide polytechnic institute is adjacent to the University of Regina. It occupies the former Plains Health Centre, previously a third hospital in Regina which in the course of rationalizing health services in Saskatchewan was in due course closed. It offers diplomas in some 175 trade and semi-professional fields ranging from accountancy and auto-mechanical technician through corrections worker, dental hygiene, driving instructor, nursing and school secretarial qualifications.[112]

Royal Canadian Mounted Police Academy, Depot Division[edit]

The RCMP Chapel

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Academy, "Depot" Division, is on the western perimeter of the city. As capital of the North-West Territories, Regina was the headquarters of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (the RCMP's predecessor) before "the Force" became a national body with its headquarters in Ottawa in 1920. The city takes great pride in this national institution which is a major visitor attraction and a continuing link with Regina's past as the headquarters of the Force, together with longstanding substantial enrollment by trainees from across Canada, obtaining entertainment and recreation city-wide. It offers sunset ceremonies and parade in the summertime. The national RCMP music and "Depot" Division chapel (the oldest building still standing in the city) are major visitor attractions in Regina. The first phase of a RCMP Heritage Centre successor to the longstanding museum opened in May 2007.

Public, separate and private schools[edit]

Campbell Collegiate, built in 1964 and once accommodating some 2200 students, now reduced by 1000 as suburban populations have fluctuated.

The Regina Public School Board currently operates 45 elementary schools and 9 high schools with approximately 21,000 students enrolled throughout the city. The publicly funded Roman Catholic Separate School Board operates 25 elementary schools and 4 high schools, and has a current enrollment of approximately 10,000 students. Public and separate schools are amply equipped with state-of-the-art science labs, gymnasia, drama and arts facilities: already by the 1960s, Regina high schools had television studios, swimming pools, ice rinks and drama facilities.

A small number of parents choose to opt out of the public and separate school systems for home-schooling under the guidance of the Regina Public School Board. Private schools in Regina include Luther College High School, operated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada; the Regina Huda School for Islamic education; Harvest City Christian Academy (occupying the former Sister McGuigan High School site); and the Regina Christian School (in the former Campion College premises). Historically there were eminent private schools long since closed: Regina College, now the University of Regina but originally a private high school of the Methodist Church of Canada (since 1925 the United Church); the Anglican St Chad's School; the Roman Catholic Campion College, Sacred Heart Academy and Marian High School. More recently.

Public transportation[edit]

Streetcar on Albert Street Bridge circa 1935; Provincial Legislative Building across lake.

Regina formerly had an extensive streetcar (tramway) network but now has no streetcars, trains or subways. The city's public transit agency, Regina Transit, operates a fleet of 110 buses, on 16 routes, 7 days a week with access to the city centre from most areas of the city. A massive fire at the streetcar barns, on 23 January 1949, destroyed much of the rolling stock of streetcars and trolley buses[113] and helped to propel Regina's diesel bus revolution in 1951, although until well into the 1970s the streetcar rails remained in the centre of many major streets, ready to be returned to use should city transit policy change. Because of the 1949 fire, original Regina streetcar rolling stock was rare, though through later years a few disused streetcars remained in evidence – a streetcar with takeaway food, for example, on the site of the Regina Theatre at 12th Avenue and Hamilton Street, until the Hudson's Bay Company acquired the site and built its 60s-through-90s department store there.

Passengers boarding a train at Union Station in Regina, circa 1915 when trains were the principal means of transportation to and from Regina

The CPR no longer operates regular passenger services, though in the past railway passenger trains constituted the principal mode of inter-urban transit among Western Canadian cities. Its former station in downtown Regina has become a casino. Nowadays Regina can be reached by several highways including the Trans-Canada Highway from the west and east sides and four provincial highways from other directions. The city is served by Ring Road, a high speed connection between Regina's east and northwest that loops around the city's east side (the west side of the loop is formed by Lewvan Drive) with plans calling for another perimeter highway to encircle the city farther out.[114]

Regina's Bus Depot, on the corner of Saskatchewan Dr and Broad St.
Regina's Bus Depot, on the corner of Saskatchewan Dr and Broad St.

The five decades-old bus depot on Hamilton Street immediately south of the Hotel Saskatchewan was replaced in 2008 by the current on at the corner of Saskatchewan Drive and Broad Street.[115]

Regina International Airport serves Regina and area. Non-stop scheduled destinations include Calgary, Chicago, Denver, Edmonton, Las Vegas, Minneapolis, Ottawa, Phoenix, Toronto, Vancouver, and Winnipeg. There are also seasonal and charter flights to destinations in Mexico and the Caribbean. The airport is situated on the west side of the city and is the oldest established commercial airport in Canada.[16] The current, continually expanded, 1960 terminal replaces the original 1940 Art Deco terminal; it has recently undergone further major upgrades and expansions to allow it to handle increases in traffic for the next several years. Private aircraft is facilitated at the Regina Flying Club and Western Air hangars near the Regina International Airport.

Infrastructure[edit]

Domestic water was originally obtained from Wascana Lake and later the Boggy Creek reservoir north of the city and supplemented by wells, however by the 1940s this was proving inadequate to meet the city's water supply needs. Today, drinking water is supplied from Buffalo Pound Lake in the Qu'Appelle Valley, an artificial reservoir on the Qu'Appelle River, since 1967 with water diverted into it from Lake Diefenbaker behind the Gardiner Dam on the South Saskatchewan River.[116] Electricity is provided by SaskPower, a provincial Crown corporation which maintains a province-wide grid with power generated from coal-fired base load, natural gas-fired, hydroelectric and wind power facilities.

Medical services are provided through two city hospitals, Regina General and Pasqua (formerly Grey Nuns) and by private medical practitioners, who, like hospitals, remit their bills to the public universal medical insurer, the Saskatchewan Medicare system.[117]

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and population centres, 2011 and 2006 censuses: Saskatchewan. Statistics Canada. Retrieved March 18, 2013
  2. ^ Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Regina website.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  3. ^ Directory of Saskatchewan Churches. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  4. ^ Anglican Diocese of Qu'Appelle website.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  5. ^ Mid-sized cities defined as having a population between 100 000 and 400 000. MoneySense: Canada's Best Places to Live 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  6. ^ Daria Coneghan, "Regina," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  7. ^ Herrington, Ross (31 March 2007). "Saskatchewan Road and Railway Bridges to 1950: Inventory". Ministry of Tourism, Parks, Culture and Sport. Retrieved 4 February 2009. 
  8. ^ Coneghan. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  9. ^ "Saskatchewan Science Centre website". Sasksciencecentre.com. Retrieved 2014-04-14. 
  10. ^ Regina's Old Warehouse District.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  11. ^ Dagmar Skamlová, "Regina Cyclone," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  12. ^ Steven J. Shirtliffe, "Agronomy," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  13. ^ "The Regina Manifesto (1933) Co-operative Commonwealth Federation Programme, Adopted by the founding convention in Regina, Saskatchewan, July 1933." Socialist History Project. South Branch Publishing. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  14. ^ "Saskatchewan Poised for Strong Economic Growth Says RBC Economics," Royal Bank of Canada Financial Group, 30 March 2007.[dead link]. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  15. ^ "Annual population estimates by census metropolitan area, Canada — Population at July 1". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c Coneghan.
  17. ^ Daria Coneghan, "Regina," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  18. ^ After his term as Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories, Dewdney was again elected to Parliament and served as the member for Assiniboia East (now southeastern Saskatchewan) from 1888 to 1891. During this period he also served as minister of the Interior and superintendent of Indian Affairs. In 1892 he was appointed to the now non-executive post of Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia. He served in this post until 1897. He retired from politics in 1900 after unsuccessfully running for Parliament in New Westminster, British Columbia
  19. ^ Pierre Berton, The Last Spike: The Great Railway 1881-1885 (Toronto: McLelland and Stewart, 1973), 120)
  20. ^ David J. Hall, "North-West Territories," The Canadian Encyclopedia.. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
  21. ^ Archer, John H. (1996). "Regina: A Royal City". Monarchy Canada Magazine (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Spring 1996. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  22. ^ City of Regina Archives 2004 Photo/Biography of the Month Gallery.. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  23. ^ >Pierre Berton, The Last Spike: The Great Railway 1881-1885 (Toronto: McLelland and Stewart, 1973), pp.121-23)
  24. ^ Berton, 379. Qu'Appelle Station had been founded as Troy in 1882, was renamed Qu'Appelle Station in 1884 when the CPR arrived, again renamed South Qu'Appelle in 1902 and as Qu'Appelle 1911. See Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan and David McLennon, "Qu'Appelle, The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  25. ^ McLennon, "Qu'Appelle, The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  26. ^ Maggie Siggins, Riel: A Life of Revolution (Toronto: HarperCollins, 1994), 447.
  27. ^ Kevin Avram, "A tale of two provinces," Farmers for economic freedom: Updates from the Prairie Centre/Centre for Prairie Agriculture in Regina, Saskatchewan. 21 May 2001.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  28. ^ latterly deemed "Market Square," and not to be confused with the historic Market Square, the site of the Regina Riot on what is now the location of the Regina City Police Station). Bill Waiser, "On-to-Ottawa Trek and the Regina Riot," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  29. ^ Public Works and Government Services Canada, "Revitalizing Downtown Regina" (Fall 2002).[dead link]
  30. ^ Regina's Old Warehouse District: History[dead link]. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  31. ^ Michael Jackson, "Government House," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  32. ^ Trevor Powell, "Anglican Church of Canada," in Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
  33. ^ Recalled though not explicitly named by Erika Ritter in her humorous memoir Ritter in Residence.
  34. ^ J.T. Morley, "Co-operative Commonwealth Federation," The Canadian Encyclopedia.. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
  35. ^ Victor Howard, "On to Ottawa Trek, The Canadian Encyclopedia.. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
  36. ^ "Saskatchewan," The Canadian Encyclopedia.. Retrieved 18 December 2007.
  37. ^ Dan de Vlieger, "Political History of Saskatchewan," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 18 December 2007.
  38. ^ Jean Larmour, "Saskatchewan Doctors' Strike," The Canadian Encyclopedia.. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
  39. ^ See above as to the Dewdney scandal of 1882.
  40. ^ "Regina," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  41. ^ CBC "Saskatchewan Story" article on Regina's trees[dead link]
  42. ^ Dutch Elm Disease Control Program.[dead link]
  43. ^ "Lawn and Garden: Regina, SK". The Weather Network. Retrieved 24 September 2012. 
  44. ^ Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals: Regina, Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  45. ^ "Regina INT'L A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved May 12, 2014. 
  46. ^ "Regina INT'L A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  47. ^ Alan Anderson, "Urban Aboriginal Population," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  48. ^ "National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011". 2.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2014-04-14. 
  49. ^ An Ethiopian restaurant on Broad Street attests to the Oriental Orthodox presence in Regina; Syrian and Armenian business people and Indian business people from Kerala, who are Syrian Orthodox, and medical doctors would account for other Oriental Orthodox Christians in Regina.
  50. ^ "Religions in Canada". Statscan. Retrieved 19 November 2009. "The largest decline occurred among Presbyterians, whose numbers fell 36% to about 409,800. Pentecostals recorded the second largest decline, their numbers falling 15% to almost 369,500. The number of United Church adherents declined 8% to over 2.8 million; the number of Anglicans fell 7% to about 2.0 million; and the number reporting Lutheran dropped 5% to 606,600."
  51. ^ a b Perreault, Samuel (2012). "Police-Reported Crime Statistics in Canada". Statistics Canada. 
  52. ^ Gatehouse, Jonathan (15 January 2007). "Canada's Worst Neighbourhood". Macleans.ca. 
  53. ^ Get to know your Neighbourhood Retrieved May 2014
  54. ^ [ http://www.reginapolice.ca/resources/crime/crime-statistics/community-crime-report-2013/ Community Crime Report 2013] Retrieved May 2014
  55. ^ Note: The police reports and the community profiles don't necessarily have the same neighborhoods, so, for some I had to try to determine (by looking at a map), which belonged together. For that reason, these stats may not be as accurate as they should be, however several neighborhoods were used on both websites.
  56. ^ [1][dead link]
  57. ^ Saskatchewan "has an estimated 75% of the world’s potash reserves": Peter Phillips, "Economy of Saskatchewan," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
  58. ^ a b Peter Phillips, "Economy of Saskatchewan," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
  59. ^ Bruce Johnstone, "Viterra announces $1.4B deal to acquire Australian company."[dead link] Regina Leader-Post, 19 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
  60. ^ a b "Regina: Economy and Labour Force," The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  61. ^ Lauren Black, "Regina Wartime Industries Ltd.," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
  62. ^ IPSCO: A Division of SSAB website.. Retrieved 25 November 2007. Archived 23 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ David Hanly, "Oil and Gas Industry," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  64. ^ Canada Life website, "Canada Life in Agreement with Crown Life; Strong Presence in Regina to Continue, Regina - 26 May 1998. Retrieved 25 November 2007.
  65. ^ Johnstone, Bruce (19 May 2009). "Viterra announces $1.4B deal to acquire Australian company". Regina Leader-Post. Retrieved 20 May 2009. [dead link]
  66. ^ Toevai, Sineva (20 May 2009). "Viterra to take over ABB Grain for $1.6bn". Lloyd's List DCN. Retrieved 20 May 2009. 
  67. ^ ABB Grain and Viterra Announce Agreement to Combine Operations PDF (54.1 KB) ABB Grain, 19 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
  68. ^ Kathleen Wall, "Regina Symphony Orchestra," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  69. ^ Craven Country Jamboree website.. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  70. ^ Regina Folk Festival website.. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  71. ^ Regina Dragon Boat Festival Homepage.. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  72. ^ Regina Multicultural Council homepage.. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  73. ^ Regina Multicultural Council: Mosaic.[dead link]. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  74. ^ Ipsco Place website, "History."[dead link]. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
  75. ^ "Canadian Theatre Encyclopedia". Canadiantheatre.com. 2014-01-15. Retrieved 2014-04-14. 
  76. ^ Conexus Arts Centre website. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  77. ^ Kathleen Wall, "Regina Symphony Orchestra," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  78. ^ Encyclopedia of Canada. "Regina: Cultural Life.". Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  79. ^ Iain Stewart, "Royal Saskatchewan Museum," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  80. ^ Stewart.
  81. ^ Mary Blackstone, "Globe Theatre," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  82. ^ Thomas Chase, "Casavant, Opus 1409, 1930/1993.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  83. ^ "Regina Public Library website". Reginalibrary.ca. Retrieved 2014-04-14. 
  84. ^ J. William Brennan, "Regina," The Canadian Encyclopedia.. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
  85. ^ See city map at Google Maps.. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  86. ^ Fletcher, Tom. "The Work of Minoru Yamasaki," New York Architecture Images and Notes.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  87. ^ a b Riddell, W. A. The Origin and Development of Wascana Centre. Regina, 1962.
  88. ^ Dagmar Skamlová, "Big Dig," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  89. ^ Mark Partridge, "The Ebb and Flow of Rural Growth: Spread, Backwash, or Stagnation." Presentation for the Department of Rural Development, Regina, Saskatchewan 9 June 2005.
  90. ^ "Dominion Lands Act/Homestead Act," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  91. ^ "Farming," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  92. ^ "Qu'Appelle," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  93. ^ "Fort Qu'Appelle," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  94. ^ "Indian Head," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  95. ^ "A Big Thanks to Indian Head," CBC program website.[dead link]. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
  96. ^ a b "White City," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  97. ^ "Balgonie," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  98. ^ "Pilot Butte," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  99. ^ "Lumsden," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  100. ^ "Regina Beach" The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  101. ^ "Rouleau," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  102. ^ Daria Coneghan, "Saskatchewan Roughriders, Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  103. ^ Riderville | The Official site of the 2007 Grey Cup Champions[dead link]
  104. ^ Canadian Football League: Grey Cup Results Retrieved 4 March 2009
  105. ^ Norman Mackenzie Art Gallery website. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  106. ^ Evraz Place. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  107. ^ Buffalo Days website. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  108. ^ Canadian Western Agribition website. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  109. ^ Leader-Post website. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
  110. ^ *First Nations University of Canada. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  111. ^ Its Regina presence a merger of the former Wascana Institute of Applied Arts and Sciences and Regina Plains Community College: Lorne Sparling, "Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST)," Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  112. ^ SIAST website. Retrieved 19 October 2007.
  113. ^ "Regina: The Early Years 1880–1950". Scaa.usask.ca. Retrieved 2014-04-14. 
  114. ^ "Feature: East Regina TCH". Saskatchewan Highways. Archived from the original on 25 November 2006. Retrieved 21 September 2006. 
  115. ^ "STC bus depot," wikimapia. http://www.wikimapia.org/1889246/STC-bus-depot 19 August 2012.
  116. ^ World Lakes Database: Buffalo Pound Lake.. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
  117. ^ See generally John A. Boan, "Medicare," The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 4 February 2009.

References[edit]

  • "Germantown" 11th Avenue East. Regina’s Heritage Tours, City of Regina, 1994.
  • Argan, William. Cornerstones 2: An Artist’s History of the City of Regina. Regina: Centax Books, 2000.
  • Argan, William. Cornerstones: An Artist’s History of the City of Regina. Regina: Centax Books, 1995.
  • Barnhart, Gordon. Building for the Future: A Photo Journal of Saskatchewan's Legislative Building. Canadian Plains Research Center, 2002. ISBN 0-88977-145-6
  • Brennan, J. William. Regina, an illustrated history. Toronto: James Lorimer & Co., 1989.
  • Brennan, William J., ed. Regina Before Yesterday: A Visual History 1882 to 1945. City of Regina, 1978.
  • Castles of the North: Canada’s Grand Hotels. Toronto: Lynx Images Inc., 2001.
  • Chapel Royal Canadian Mounted Police "Training Academy", Regina, Saskatchewan (brochure), 1990.
  • Drake, Earl G. Regina, the Queen City. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1955.
  • Hughes, Bob The Big Dig: the Miracle of Wascana Centre. Regina: Centax Books, 2004.
  • Neal, May Regina, Queen City of the Plains: 50 Years of Progress. Regina: Western * Printers. 1953.
  • Regina Court House Official Opening (brochure), 1961.
  • Regina Leader-Post
  • Riddell, W. A. The Origin and Development of Wascana Centre. Regina, 1962.
  • The Morning Leader

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°27′17″N 104°36′24″W / 50.45472°N 104.60667°W / 50.45472; -104.60667